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  • 1
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Concentration of 25 trace metals in mosses (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Hypnum cupressiforme) are compared with bulk deposition freights (Bergerhoff method) at 3 sites in Switzerland, one on the plateau, a second in the northern prealps and a third in the southern alps. The three moss species are interchangeable and the atmospheric background deposition can be estimated with sufficient accuracy for Ag, Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, La, Li, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Y, Zn. For Hg this study does not give definite results. No seasonal differences in moss concentrations from spring to autumn can be shown.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Within the framework of a European-scaled moss survey, various moss species were sampled throughout The Netherlands [NL], Germany [D], and Switserland [CH], and used in moss interspecies comparisons of elemental concentrations. Moss species considered were Pleurozium schreberi [NL,D,CH], Brachythecium rutabulum [NL], Hypnum cupressiforme [D,CH], Hylocomium splendens [D,CH], and Scleropodium purum [D]. Element analysis was carried out directly (The Netherlands, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: As, Br, Ce, Cr, Cs, Fe, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V and Zn), or after sample digestion (The Netherlands, ICP-MS: Pb, Germany, AAS/ICP-AES: Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn; Switzerland, ICP-AES/ICP-MS: Co, V, and Zn). Local variations (=within sampling sites) in element concentrations were estimated, based upon in-site multiple sampling and analysis of Pleurozium schreberi species in The Netherlands. Element concentrations in moss species were compared in linear correlations, both in unweighted and weighted fits, with weighing factors based on the local variation data. Weighted fits were shown to generally improve the calibration characteristics, as tracked by X 2 calculations. The calibration data suggest the presence of previously unnoticed outliers in element concentrations. The absence of further information, however, may prescribe the use of all data in comparison procedures. These results indicate that interlaboratory analysis of replicate samples and the use of dedicated certified reference materials may help solving problems in the analysis of the sample series. For several of the considered interspecies comparisons, weighted calibrations could be based on significant correlations (P=0.05). Actual use, however, will remain arbitrarily decided upon, and may be based on decisions as to what to accept with respect to the levels of uncertainty in the calibration parameters. Furthermore, the use of calibrations in extrapolation modes is greatly restricted by the necessary reservations in geographically larger-scaled applications.
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