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  • 1
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Karstensen, Johannes; Schütte, Florian; Pietri, Alice; Krahmann, Gerd; Fiedler, Björn; Grundle, Damian; Hauss, Helena; Körtzinger, Arne; Löscher, Carolin R; Testor, Pierre; Vieira, Nuno; Visbeck, Martin (in review): Upwelling and isolation in oxygen-depleted anticyclonic modewater eddies and implications for nitrate cycling. Biogeosciences Discussions, 1-25, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2016-34
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The physical (temperature, salinity, velocity) and biogeochemical (oxygen, nitrate) structure of an oxygen depleted coherent, baroclinic, anticyclonic mode-water eddy (ACME) is investigated using high-resolution autonomous glider and ship data. A distinct core with a diameter of about 70 km is found in the eddy, extending from about 60 to 200 m depth and. The core is occupied by fresh and cold water with low oxygen and high nitrate concentrations, and bordered by local maxima in buoyancy frequency. Velocity and property gradient sections show vertical layering at the flanks and underneath the eddy characteristic for vertical propagation (to several hundred-meters depth) of near inertial internal waves (NIW) and confirmed by direct current measurements. A narrow region exists at the outer edge of the eddy where NIW can propagate downward. NIW phase speed and mean flow are of similar magnitude and critical layer formation is expected to occur. An asymmetry in the NIW pattern is seen that possible relates to the large-scale Ekman transport interacting with ACME dynamics. NIW/mean flow induced mixing occurs close to the euphotic zone/mixed layer and upward nutrient flux is expected and supported by the observations. Combing high resolution nitrate (NO3-) data with the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) reveals AOU:NO3- ratios of 16 which are much higher than in the surrounding waters (8.1). A maximum NO3- deficit of 4 to 6 µmol kg-1 is estimated for the low oxygen core. Denitrification would be a possible explanation. This study provides evidence that the recycling of NO3-, extracted from the eddy core and replenished into the core via the particle export, may quantitatively be more important. In this case, the particulate phase is of keys importance in decoupling the nitrogen from the oxygen cycling.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-12-13
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Testor, P., de Young, B., Rudnick, D. L., Glenn, S., Hayes, D., Lee, C. M., Pattiaratchi, C., Hill, K., Heslop, E., Turpin, V., Alenius, P., Barrera, C., Barth, J. A., Beaird, N., Becu, G., Bosse, A., Bourrin, F., Brearley, J. A., Chao, Y., Chen, S., Chiggiato, J., Coppola, L., Crout, R., Cummings, J., Curry, B., Curry, R., Davis, R., Desai, K., DiMarco, S., Edwards, C., Fielding, S., Fer, I., Frajka-Williams, E., Gildor, H., Goni, G., Gutierrez, D., Haugan, P., Hebert, D., Heiderich, J., Henson, S., Heywood, K., Hogan, P., Houpert, L., Huh, S., Inall, M. E., Ishii, M., Ito, S., Itoh, S., Jan, S., Kaiser, J., Karstensen, J., Kirkpatrick, B., Klymak, J., Kohut, J., Krahmann, G., Krug, M., McClatchie, S., Marin, F., Mauri, E., Mehra, A., Meredith, M. P., Meunier, T., Miles, T., Morell, J. M., Mortier, L., Nicholson, S., O'Callaghan, J., O'Conchubhair, D., Oke, P., Pallas-Sanz, E., Palmer, M., Park, J., Perivoliotis, L., Poulain, P., Perry, R., Queste, B., Rainville, L., Rehm, E., Roughan, M., Rome, N., Ross, T., Ruiz, S., Saba, G., Schaeffer, A., Schonau, M., Schroeder, K., Shimizu, Y., Sloyan, B. M., Smeed, D., Snowden, D., Song, Y., Swart, S., Tenreiro, M., Thompson, A., Tintore, J., Todd, R. E., Toro, C., Venables, H., Wagawa, T., Waterman, S., Watlington, R. A., & Wilson, D. OceanGliders: A component of the integrated GOOS. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, (2019): 422, doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00422.
    Description: The OceanGliders program started in 2016 to support active coordination and enhancement of global glider activity. OceanGliders contributes to the international efforts of the Global Ocean Observation System (GOOS) for Climate, Ocean Health, and Operational Services. It brings together marine scientists and engineers operating gliders around the world: (1) to observe the long-term physical, biogeochemical, and biological ocean processes and phenomena that are relevant for societal applications; and, (2) to contribute to the GOOS through real-time and delayed mode data dissemination. The OceanGliders program is distributed across national and regional observing systems and significantly contributes to integrated, multi-scale and multi-platform sampling strategies. OceanGliders shares best practices, requirements, and scientific knowledge needed for glider operations, data collection and analysis. It also monitors global glider activity and supports the dissemination of glider data through regional and global databases, in real-time and delayed modes, facilitating data access to the wider community. OceanGliders currently supports national, regional and global initiatives to maintain and expand the capabilities and application of gliders to meet key global challenges such as improved measurement of ocean boundary currents, water transformation and storm forecast.
    Description: The editorial team would like to recognize the support of the global glider community to this paper. Our requests for data and information were met with enthusiasm and welcome contributions from around the globe, clearly demonstrating to us a point made in this paper that there are many active and dedicated teams of glider operators and users. We should also acknowledge the support that OceanGliders has received from the WMO/IOC JCOMM-OCG and JCOMMOPS that have allowed this program to develop, encouraging us to articulate a vision for the role of gliders in the GOOS. We acknowledge support from the EU Horizon 2020 AtlantOS project funded under grant agreement No. 633211 and gratefully acknowledge the many agencies and programs that have supported underwater gliders: AlterEco, ANR, CFI, CIGOM, CLASS Ellet Array, CNES, CNRS/INSU, CONACyT, CSIRO, DEFRA, DFG/SFB-754, DFO, DGA, DSTL, ERC, FCO, FP7, and H2020 Europen Commission, HIMIOFoTS, Ifremer, IMOS, IMS, IOOS, IPEV, IRD, Israel MOST, JSPS, MEOPAR, NASA, NAVOCEANO (Navy), NERC, NFR, NJDEP, NOAA, NRC, NRL, NSF, NSERC, ONR, OSNAP, Taiwan MOST, SANAP-NRF, SENER, SIMS, Shell Exploration and Production Company, Sorbonne Université, SSB, UKRI, UNSW, Vettleson, Wallenberg Academy Fellowship, and WWF.
    Keywords: in situ ocean observing systems ; gliders ; boundary currents ; storms ; water transformation ; ocean data management ; autonomous oceanic platforms ; GOOS
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-09
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Pearlman, J., Bushnell, M., Coppola, L., Karstensen, J., Buttigieg, P. L., Pearlman, F., Simpsons, P., Barbier, M., Muller-Karger, F. E., Munoz-Mas, C., Pissierssens, P., Chandler, C., Hermes, J., Heslop, E., Jenkyns, R., Achterberg, E. P., Bensi, M., Bittig, H. C., Blandin, J., Bosch, J., Bourles, B., Bozzano, R., Buck, J. J. H., Burger, E. F., Cano, D., Cardin, V., Llorens, M. C., Cianca, A., Chen, H., Cusack, C., Delory, E., Garello, R., Giovanetti, G., Harscoat, V., Hartman, S., Heitsenrether, R., Jirka, S., Lara-Lopez, A., Lanteri, N., Leadbetter, A., Manzella, G., Maso, J., McCurdy, A., Moussat, E., Ntoumas, M., Pensieri, S., Petihakis, G., Pinardi, N., Pouliquen, S., Przeslawski, R., Roden, N. P., Silke, J., Tamburri, M. N., Tang, H., Tanhua, T., Telszewski, M., Testor, P., Thomas, J., Waldmann, C., & Whoriskey, F. Evolving and sustaining ocean best practices and standards for the next decade. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, (2019):277, doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00277.
    Description: The oceans play a key role in global issues such as climate change, food security, and human health. Given their vast dimensions and internal complexity, efficient monitoring and predicting of the planet’s ocean must be a collaborative effort of both regional and global scale. A first and foremost requirement for such collaborative ocean observing is the need to follow well-defined and reproducible methods across activities: from strategies for structuring observing systems, sensor deployment and usage, and the generation of data and information products, to ethical and governance aspects when executing ocean observing. To meet the urgent, planet-wide challenges we face, methods across all aspects of ocean observing should be broadly adopted by the ocean community and, where appropriate, should evolve into “Ocean Best Practices.” While many groups have created best practices, they are scattered across the Web or buried in local repositories and many have yet to be digitized. To reduce this fragmentation, we introduce a new open access, permanent, digital repository of best practices documentation (oceanbestpractices.org) that is part of the Ocean Best Practices System (OBPS). The new OBPS provides an opportunity space for the centralized and coordinated improvement of ocean observing methods. The OBPS repository employs user-friendly software to significantly improve discovery and access to methods. The software includes advanced semantic technologies for search capabilities to enhance repository operations. In addition to the repository, the OBPS also includes a peer reviewed journal research topic, a forum for community discussion and a training activity for use of best practices. Together, these components serve to realize a core objective of the OBPS, which is to enable the ocean community to create superior methods for every activity in ocean observing from research to operations to applications that are agreed upon and broadly adopted across communities. Using selected ocean observing examples, we show how the OBPS supports this objective. This paper lays out a future vision of ocean best practices and how OBPS will contribute to improving ocean observing in the decade to come.
    Description: The Ocean Best Practices project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program under grant agreement no: 633211 (AtlantOS), no. 730960 (SeaDataCloud) and no: 654310 (ODIP). Funding was also received from the NSF OceanObs Research Coordination Network under NSF grant 1143683. The Best Practices Handbook for fixed observatories has been funded by the FixO3 project financed by the European Commission through the Seventh Framework Programme for Research, grant agreement no. 312463. The Harmful Algal Blooms Forecast Report was funded by the Interreg Atlantic Area Operational Programme Project PRIMROSE (Grant Agreement No. EAPA_182/2016), and the AtlantOS project (see above). PB acknowledges funding from the Helmholtz Programme Frontiers in Arctic Marine Monitoring (FRAM) conducted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut. JM acknowledges fundng from the WeObserve project under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program (grant agreement no. 776740). MTe acknowledges support from the US National Science Foundation grant OCE-1840868 to the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR, US) FM-K acknowledges support by NSF Grant 1728913 ‘OceanObS Research Coordination Network’. Funding was also provided by NASA grant NNX14AP62A ‘National Marine Sanctuaries as Sentinel Sites for a Demonstration Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON)’ funded under the National Ocean Partnership Program (NOPP RFP NOAA-NOS-IOOS-2014-2003803 in partnership between NOAA, BOEM, and NASA), and the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Program Office.
    Keywords: best practices ; sustainability ; interoperability ; digital repository ; peer review ; ocean observing ; ontologies ; methodologies
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
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    Elsevier
    In:  Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 53 . pp. 869-893.
    Publication Date: 2016-11-01
    Description: This is a study about the spreading of newly formed deep waters following open ocean deep convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. The main results are from the SOFARGOS large scale float experiment initiated in 1994–1995. During the SOFARGOS project, CTD stations and Lagrangian observations of ocean currents were carried out in the Gulf of Lion from December 1994 to July 1995. Hydrological observations confirmed that deep water formation occurred very early during winter 1994–1995 (late December, early January) in conjunction with atmospheric cooling, deep convection penetrating down to 2000 m in the so-called Medoc area. Numerous eddies (both anticyclonic and cyclonic) drifted away from the convection area and advected newly formed deep waters far away from the source region. In particular, compact anticyclones appeared to be the most coherent (long-lived) eddies and capable of transporting newly formed Western Mediterranean Deep Waters several hundreds of kilometers away from the convection area. Characterized by an inner core of about 5 km in radius, these eddies are submesoscale features in the outer domain and appear as key elements of the open ocean convection processes. During their long journeys, these eddies interacted with larger scale features such as the Northern Boundary Current, the North Balearic Front, topographic Rossby waves, and Sardinian eddies. These interactions influenced the long-term behavior of the eddies (mean drift, composition) and represented an important part of (1) the spreading phase following deep convection and (2) the large scale thermohaline circulation
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-28
    Description: A new 0.5° resolution Mediterranean climatology of the mixed layer depth based on individual profiles of temperature and salinity has been constructed. The criterion selected is a threshold value of temperature from a near‐surface value at 10 m depth, mainly derived by a method applied on the global (de Boyer Montégut et al., 2004 dBM04). With respect to dBM04, the main differences reside in the absence of spatial interpolation of the final fields and in the improved spatial resolution. These changes to the method are necessary to reproduce the Mediterranean mixed layer's behavior. In the derived climatological maps, the most relevant features of the basin surface circulation are reproduced, as well as the areas prone of the deep water formation are clearly identified. Finally, the role of density in the definition of the mixed layer's differing behaviors between the oriental and the occidental regions of the basin is presented.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    AGU (American Geological Union)
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 110 (C11). C11017.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-19
    Description: This is a study about the general circulation of the southwestern Mediterranean Sea based on observations of currents carried out in the southwestern Mediterranean Sea in the framework of the Mass Transfer and Ecosystem Response (MATER) program (EEC/MAST3 program). From July 1997 to August 2002, profiling floats (MEDPROF experiment), isobaric floats (LIWEX experiment), and moored current meters (ELISA experiment) give evidence of two large-scale barotropic cyclonic circulations, the here-called Western and Eastern Algerian Gyres, centered around [3730′N, 230′E] and [3830′N, 600′E], respectively. These gyres have typical horizontal scales of 100–300 km and are characterized by orbital velocities of about 5 cm/s corresponding to rotational periods of about 4 months. They are strongly related to the bottom topography of the basin and to the planetary vorticity gradient: closed f/H isocontours (f is the planetary vorticity, H the water depth) correspond to the locations of the gyres and favor such circulations as free geostrophic modes. A linear and barotropic model is used to investigate the possibility of wind driving, but the results suggest that the wind stress is not responsible for establishing such circulations. The boundary currents flowing along the continental slope of Africa, Sardinia, and the Balearic Islands are proposed to be the main drivers of these gyres.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    Elsevier
    In:  Progress in Oceanography, 66 (2-4). pp. 211-230.
    Publication Date: 2016-10-05
    Description: During the ELISA/MATER experiment floats released at about 600 m depth in the Levantine Intermediate Water layer south of Sardinia in July 1997 have revealed the existence of a coherent eddy, approximately 50 km in diameter and lasting for several months. This anticyclonic eddy was first observed south-west of Sardinia in November 1997 and drifted inside the Algerian Basin during the following months until April 1998. This eddy contained Levantine Intermediate Water at intermediate level and seemed to be related to 2 main large scale features: (a) a cyclonic gyre (250 km in diameter and 3–4 months period) located in the Algerian Basin and (b) a boundary current located along the continental slope south and west of Sardinia and originating from the Sardinia–Tunisia channel. We will first describe the “Sardinian” eddy, from a kinematical point of view, and the Algerian Gyre and second, give some insights about the eddy origin and its importance for LIW large scale spreading in the Western Mediterranean Sea.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
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    In:  [Poster] In: Ocean Sciences Meeting 2010 "Oxygen Minimum Zones and Climate Change: Observations and Prediction IV", 22.02.-26.02.2010, Portland, Oregon, USA .
    Publication Date: 2012-10-24
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: The temporal evolution of the physical and biogeochemical structure of an oxygen-depleted anticyclonic modewater eddy is investigated over a 2-month period using high-resolution glider and ship data. A weakly stratified eddy core (squared buoyancy frequency N2  ∼  0.1  ×  10−4 s−2) at shallow depth is identified with a horizontal extent of about 70 km and bounded by maxima in N2. The upper N2 maximum (3–5  ×  10−4 s−2) coincides with the mixed layer base and the lower N2 maximum (0.4  ×  10−4 s−2) is found at about 200 m depth in the eddy centre. The eddy core shows a constant slope in temperature/salinity (T∕S) characteristic over the 2 months, but an erosion of the core progressively narrows down the T∕S range. The eddy minimal oxygen concentrations decreased by about 5 µmol kg−1 in 2 months, confirming earlier estimates of oxygen consumption rates in these eddies. Separating the mesoscale and perturbation flow components reveals oscillating velocity finestructure ( ∼  0.1 m s−1) underneath the eddy and at its flanks. The velocity finestructure is organized in layers that align with layers in properties (salinity, temperature) but mostly cross through surfaces of constant density. The largest magnitude in velocity finestructure is seen between the surface and 140 m just outside the maximum mesoscale flow but also in a layer underneath the eddy centre, between 250 and 450 m. For both regions a cyclonic rotation of the velocity finestructure with depth suggests the vertical propagation of near-inertial wave (NIW) energy. Modification of the planetary vorticity by anticyclonic (eddy core) and cyclonic (eddy periphery) relative vorticity is most likely impacting the NIW energy propagation. Below the low oxygen core salt-finger type double diffusive layers are found that align with the velocity finestructure. Apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) versus dissolved inorganic nitrate (NO3−) ratios are about twice as high (16) in the eddy core compared to surrounding waters (8.1). A large NO3− deficit of 4 to 6 µmol kg−1 is determined, rendering denitrification an unlikely explanation. Here it is hypothesized that the differences in local recycling of nitrogen and oxygen, as a result of the eddy dynamics, cause the shift in the AOU : NO3− ratio. High NO3− and low oxygen waters are eroded by mixing from the eddy core and entrain into the mixed layer. The nitrogen is reintroduced into the core by gravitational settling of particulate matter out of the euphotic zone. The low oxygen water equilibrates in the mixed layer by air–sea gas exchange and does not participate in the gravitational sinking. Finally we propose a mesoscale–submesoscale interaction concept where wind energy, mediated via NIWs, drives nutrient supply to the euphotic zone and drives extraordinary blooms in anticyclonic mode-water eddies.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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