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  • 1
    Keywords: deep subsurface ; marine sediment ; deep biosphere ; ocean crust ; subseafloor sediment ; Methane ; Peru margin ; Hydrogen ; acetogenesis ; sulfate reduction ; microbiology
    Description / Table of Contents: Deep subsurface microbiology is a highly active and rapidly advancing research field at the interface of microbiology and the geosciences; it focuses on the detection, identification, quantification, cultivation and activity measurements of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes that permeate the subsurface biosphere of deep marine sediments and the basaltic ocean and continental crust. The deep subsurface biosphere abounds with uncultured, only recently discovered and – at best - incompletely understood microbial populations. In spatial extent and volume, Earth’s subsurface biosphere is only rivaled by the deep sea water column. So far, no deep subsurface sediment has been found that is entirely devoid of microbial life; microbial cells and DNA remain detectable at sediment depths of more than 1 km; microbial life permeates deeply buried hydrocarbon reservoirs, and is also found several kilometers down in continental crust aquifers. Severe energy limitation, either as electron acceptor or donor shortage, and scarcity of microbially degradable organic carbon sources are among the evolutionary pressures that have shaped the genomic and physiological repertoire of the deep subsurface biosphere. Its biogeochemical role as long-term organic carbon repository, inorganic electron and energy source, and subduction recycling engine continues to be explored by current research at the interface of microbiology, geochemistry and biosphere/geosphere evolution. This Research Topic addresses some of the central research questions about deep subsurface microbiology and biogeochemistry: phylogenetic and physiological microbial diversity in the deep subsurface; microbial activity and survival strategies in severely energy-limited subsurface habitats; microbial activity as reflected in process rates and gene expression patterns; biogeographic isolation and connectivity in deep subsurface microbial communities; the ecological standing of subsurface biospheres in comparison to the surface biosphere – an independently flourishing biosphere, or mere survivors that tolerate burial (along with organic carbon compounds), or a combination of both? Advancing these questions on Earth’s deep subsurface biosphere redefines the habitat range, environmental tolerance, activity and diversity of microbial life.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (303 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9782889195367
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Unknown
    Lausanne : Frontiers
    Keywords: hydrothermal vents ; extremophiles ; marine sediments ; Guaymas basin ; microbial biogeography ; microbiology
    Description / Table of Contents: Hydrothermally influenced microbial habitats and communities represent a much wider spectrum of geological setting, chemical in-situ regimes, and biotic community than the classical examples from basalt-hosted black smoker chimneys at active mid-ocean spreading centers. Hydrothermal vent ecosystems now include hydrothermally heated and chemically altered sediments, microbiota fueled by serpentinization reactions, and low-temperature vents with unusual menus of electron donors. Novel marine provinces and hydrothermal areas are being charted and explored, such as new hydrothermal vent systems in the Arctic, around Antarctica, in the Western Pacific and in the Indian Ocean. Novel environmental gradients and niches provide habitats for unusual or unprecedented microorganisms and microbial ecosystems. The discovery of novel extremophiles such as Aciduliprofundum and the Nanoarchaeota underscores that hydrothermal vent microbial communities can no longer be characterized as assemblages of only “typical” sulfur oxidizers, methanogens and heterotrophs. Different stages of hydrothermal activity, from early onset to peak activity, gradual decline, and persistence of cold and fossil vent sites, correspond to different colonization waves by microorganisms as well as megafauna. This research topic will continue to stretch the limits of hydrothermal vent microbiology, and also provide a forum for the chemical and microbial linkages of hydrothermal vents to the ocean water column and the ocean crust or sedimentary subsurface.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (286 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9782889196821
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Telecommunications Policy 15 (1991), S. 429-436 
    ISSN: 0308-5961
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0925-4005
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0925-4005
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key wordsThiomicrospira ; Hydrothermal vent ; microbial communities ; Ribosomal RNA ; Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis ; Polymerase chain reaction ; Microbial diversity ; Colorless sulfur bacteria ; 16S rDNA ; Phylogenetic relationships
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments was used to explore the genetic diversity of hydrothermal vent microbial communities, specifically to determine the importance of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria therein. DGGE analysis of two different hydrothermal vent samples revealed one PCR band for one sample and three PCR bands for the other sample, which probably correspond to the dominant bacterial populations in these communities. Three of the four 16S rDNA fragments were sequenced. By comparison with 16S rRNA sequences of the Ribosomal Database Project, two of the DGGE-separated fragments were assigned to the genus Thiomicrospira. To identify these ’phylotypes' in more detail, a phylogenetic framework was created by determining the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence (approx. 1500 nucleotides) from three described Thiomicrospira species, viz., Tms. crunogena, Tms. pelophila, Tms. denitrificans, and from a new isolate, Thiomicrospira sp. strain MA2-6. All Thiomicrospira species except Tms. denitrificans formed a monophyletic group within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Tms. denitrificans was assigned as a member of the epsilon subdivision and was distantly affiliated with Thiovulum, another sulfur-oxidizing bacterium. Sequences of two dominant 16S rDNA fragments obtained by DGGE analysis fell into the gamma subdivision Thiomicrospira. The sequence of one fragment was in all comparable positions identical to the 16S rRNA sequence of Tms. crunogena. Identifying a dominant molecular isolate as Tms. crunogena indicates that this species is a dominant community member of hydrothermal vent sites. Another ’phylotype' represented a new Thiomicrospira species, phylogenetically in an intermediate position between Tms. crunogena and Tms. pelophila. The third ’phylotype' was identified as a Desulfovibrio, indicating that sulfate-reducing bacteria, as sources of sulfide, may complement sulfur- and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria ecologically in these sulfide-producing hydrothermal vents.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key words Anaerobic sulfate reduction ; Incomplete ; propionate oxidation ; Marine environment ; Low ; temperature ; Psychrophilic bacteria ; Growth yields ; Desulforhopalus vacuolatus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A new type of gas-vacuolated, sulfate-reducing bacterium was isolated at 10° C from reduced mud (E0 〈 0) obtained from a temperate estuary with thiosulfate and lactate as substrates. The strain was moderately psychrophilic with optimum growth at 18–19° C and a maximum growth temperature of 24° C. Propionate, lactate, and alcohols served as electron donors and carbon sources. The organism grew heterotrophically only with hydrogen as electron donor. Propionate and lactate were incompletely oxidized to acetate; traces of lactate were fermented to propionate, CO2, and possibly acetate in the presence of sulfate. Pyruvate was utilized both with and without an electron acceptor present. The strain did not contain desulfoviridin. The G+C content was 48.4 mol%. The differences in the 16S rRNA sequence of the isolate compared with that of its closest phylogenetic neighbors, bacteria of the genus Desulfobulbus, support the assignment of the isolate to a new genus. The isolate is described as the type strain of the new species and genus, Desulforhopalus vacuolatus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract As-grown films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si : H, highly phosphorous-doped) were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Hills up to 10 nm in height and 10 to 20 nm in diameter have been observed by AFM. By using STM in a new high-sensitivity mode, (1) atomically smooth areas (roughness about 0.3 Å rms) which occur at the top of the hills, (2) subnanometer structures several Å in height which cover large parts of the surface have been identified. Simultaneous measurements of the local apparent barrier heights (LABH) show a clear correlation to the topography. Areas showing subnanometer structures have always low LABHs while the highest values of the LABH occur on the smooth areas.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key words Sulfate-reducing bacteria ; Gliding bacteria ; Desulfonema ; Isolation ; Oligonucleotide probing ; Sediments ; Microbial mats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Microscopy of organic-rich, sulfidic sediment samples of marine and freshwater origin revealed filamentous, multicellular microorganisms with gliding motility. Many of these neither contained sulfur droplets such as the Beggiatoa species nor exhibited the autofluorescence of the chlorophyll-containing cyanobacteria. A frequently observed morphological type of filamentous microorganism was enriched under anoxic conditions in the dark with isobutyrate plus sulfate. Two strains of filamentous, gliding sulfate-reducing bacteria, Tokyo 01 and Jade 02, were isolated in pure cultures. Both isolates oxidized acetate and other aliphatic acids. Enzyme assays indicated that the terminal oxidation occurs via the anaerobic C1 pathway (carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway). The 16S rRNA genes of the new isolates and of the two formerly described filamentous species of sulfate-reducing bacteria, Desulfonema limicola and Desulfonema magnum, were analyzed. All four strains were closely related to each other and affiliated with the δ-subclass of Proteobacteria. Another close relative was the unicellular Desulfococcus multivorans. Based on phylogenetic relationships and physiological properties, Strains Tokyo 01 and Jade 02 are assigned to a new species, Desulfonema ishimotoi. A new, fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probe targeted against 16S rRNA was designed so that that it hybridized specifically with whole cells of Desulfonema species. Filamentous bacteria that hybridized with the same probe were detected in sediment samples and in association with the filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thioploca in its natural habitat. We conclude that Desulfonema species constitute an ecologically significant fraction of the sulfate-reducing bacteria in organic-rich sediments and microbial mats.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Young growing lambs and pigs were fed a ration containing 200 ppm of Aroclor 1254 for 35 days and then switched to “clean” feed. Blood and fat samples were collected periodically throughout the experiment and analyzed for components of Aroclor 1254 and total PCB. Several components are apparently accumulated and eliminated at different rates within each species, as seen by comparing gas chromatograph tracings, accumulation ratios and apparent rate constants of elimination. Differences in accumulation and elimination of Aroclor components, some of which were apparently caused by differences in growth rates, were also seen between pigs and lambs. Variable growth rates of different species of food producing animals are an important factor to consider when dealing with tissue distribution and residues of polychlorinated biphenyls for determination of carcass disposition, as well as accumulation of toxic concentrations in the animal body.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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