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  • 1
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Description: The energy potential of agricultural residues in Tanzania has so far not been evaluated and quantified sufficiently. Moreover, the scientific basis for estimations of the sustainable potential of wastes and residues is still very limited. This paper presents an attempt to evaluate the theoretical and technical potential of residues from the sisal sector in Tanzania with regards to energy recovery through anaerobic digestion. The characteristics and availability of sisal residues are defined and a set of sustainability indicators with particular focus on environmental and socio-economic criteria is applied. Our analysis shows that electricity generation with sisal residues can be sustainable and have positive effects on the sustainability of sisal production itself. All sisal residues combined have an annual maximum electricity potential of 102 GW h in 2009, corresponding to up to 18.6 MW of potential electric capacity installations. This estimated maximum potential is equivalent to about 3 % of the country's current power production. Utilizing these residues could contribute to meeting the growing electricity demand and offers an opportunity for decentralized electricity production in Tanzania.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Description: The CO2 utilisation is discussed as one of the future low-carbon technologies in order to accomplish a full decarbonisation in the energy intensive industry. CO2 is separated from the flue gas stream of power plants or industrial plants and is prepared for further processing as raw material. CO2 containing gas streams from industrial processes exhibit a higher concentration of CO2 than flue gases from power plants; consequentially, industrial CO2 sources are used as raw material for the chemical industry and for the synthesis of fuel on the output side. Additionally, fossil resources can be replaced by substitutes of reused CO2 on the input side. If set up in a right way, this step into a CO2-based circular flow economy could make a contribution to the decarbonisation of the industrial sector and according to the adjusted potential, even rudimentarily to the energy sector. In this study, the authors analyse potential CO2 sources, the potential demand and the range of applications of CO2. In the last chapter of the final report, they give recommendations for research, development, politics and economics for an appropriate future designing of CO2 utilisation options based upon their previous analysis.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Description: Sustainable energy technologies are widely sought-after as essential elements in facing global challenges such as energy security, global warming and poverty reduction. However, in spite of their promising advantages, sustainable energy technologies make only a marginal contribution to meeting energy related needs in both industrialised and developing countries, in comparison to the widespread use of unsustainable technologies. One of the most significant constraints to their adoption and broad diffusion is the socio-economic context in which sustainable energy technologies are supposed to operate. The same holds true for community-based energy projects in developing countries supported by the WISIONS initiative. Practical strategies dealing with these socio-economic challenges are crucial elements for project design and, particularly, for the implementation of project activities. In this paper experiences from implementing community-based projects are reviewed in order to identify the practical elements that are relevant to overcome socio-economic challenges. In order to systematise the findings, an analytical framework is proposed, which combines analytical tools from the socio-technical transition framework and insights from participative approaches to development.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Description: This paper attempts to assess whether renewable energy self-sufficiency can be achieved in the crop production and processing sector in Tanzania and if this could be accomplished in an environmentally sustainable manner. In order to answer these questions the theoretical energy potential of process residues from commercially produced agricultural crops in Tanzania is evaluated. Furthermore, a set of sustainability indicators with focus on environmental criteria is applied to identify risks and opportunities of using these residues for energy generation. In particular, the positive and negative effects on the land-use-system (soil fertility, water use and quality, biodiversity, etc.) are evaluated. The results show that energy generation with certain agricultural process residues could not only improve and secure the energy supply but could also improve the sustainability of current land-use practices.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceobject , doc-type:conferenceobject
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Description: Im Rahmen der Diskussion über die Verknappung fossiler Energieträger, Klimawandel und der notwendigen Transformation unser Energiesysteme in Richtung nachhaltige Energieversorgung, hat moderne Bioenergie in den vergangene Jahren weltweit vermehrt Aufmerksamkeit erfahren. Gleichzeitig ist das Wissen über Potentiale, nachhaltige Nutzungs- und Produktionsformen und den damit verbundene Risiken jedoch begrenzt. Insbesondere der Energiepflanzenanbau birgt beträchtliche Gefahren für Ernährungssicherheit, Klima und Umwelt. Aus Nachhaltigkeitsgesichtspunkten sollten daher Nutzungspfade die biogene Reststoffe- und Abfälle zur Strom- und Wärmeerzeugung einsetzen in den Ländern des südlichen Afrikas Priorität haben. Bisher fehlt es jedoch (a) an länderspezifischen Untersuchungen zum nachhaltig verfügbaren Potential und (b) an fundierten Grundlagen, um politische Endscheidungen über die Einbindung in langfristige Bioenergiestrategien treffen zu können. In diesem Werk werden diese Wissensdefizite für das Untersuchungsbeispiel Tansania adressiert, indem zunächst eine detaillierte Potentialanalyse zu theoretischen und verfügbaren Reststoff- und Energiepotentialen durchführt wird und im Anschluss mögliche Strategien zur Nutzung dieses Potentials entwickelt und im Hinblick auf ihre Nachhaltigkeit verglichen werden. Die Bewertung der Nachhaltigkeit möglicher Nutzungsstrategien erfolgt mit Hilfe von Multikriterienanalysen (MCA). In der MCA werden die Präferenzen verschiedener Endscheidungsträger mit Hilfe von unterschiedlichen Gewichtungen modelliert. Die Bewertung der Nutzungsstrategien erfolgt im Anschluss mit den Bewertungsregeln, SAW, TOPSIS sowie PROMETHEE I und II. Die Ergebnisse der MCA zeigen, dass die Strategie mit der umfangreichsten Reststoffnutzung unabhängig von der Gewichtung mit Abstand am empfehlenswerten ist, damit bestätigt sich, dass Agrarreststoffe als Baustein in eine nachhaltige Transformationsstrategie für den Energiesektor in Tansania integriert werden sollten.
    Keywords: ddc:710
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: doctoralthesis , doc-type:doctoralThesis
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Description: One of the main objectives of impact assessments is to identify potentially significant impacts. However, determining this significance has received very limited attention as a procedural step in social impact assessments. Consequently, only limited research and documentation exists on approaches, survey tools and evaluation methods, especially with regard to participatory approaches and combined participatory-technical approaches. This study aims to address this research gap by developing and applying a joined participatory and technical impact significance evaluation. The approach is applied in a case study which analysed the livelihood impacts of the large-scale concentrated solar power plant NOORO I in Ouarzazate, Morocco. The analysis shows that although different approaches and significance criteria must be applied when involving both local stakeholders and experts, the linked analysis offers more robust results and an improved basis for decision-making. Furthermore, it was observed in the case study that impacts affecting the social, cultural and political spheres were more often considered significant than impacts affecting the physical and material livelihood dimensions. Regarding sustainability assessments of large-scale renewable energy plants, these findings underline the importance (as for other large-scale infrastructure developments) of placing greater emphasis on the inclusion of social aspects in impact assessments.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Description: Nach den G7-Beschlüssen von Elmau und dem Klimaabkommen von Paris im Jahr 2015 ist das Thema der langfristigen Dekarbonisierung der Energiesysteme der Industrieländer in den Vordergrund der politischen und wissenschaftlichen Diskussion gerückt. Japan und Deutschland stehen als führende Industrienationen vor ähnlichen Herausforderungen, gleichzeitig können sich aber auch für beide Länder wirtschaftliche Entwicklungschancen aus der Dekarbonisierung ergeben. Aus diesem Grund bietet sich eine verstärkte Kooperation und die Initiierung gegenseitiger Lernprozesse besonders an. Die vorliegende Metaanalyse ambitionierter Klimaschutzszenarien für Japan und Deutschland stellt mit der Diskussion von langfristigen Dekarbonisierungsstrategien in beiden Ländern einen ersten Schritt in diese Richtung dar. Die quantitative Analyse hat gezeigt, dass die Untersuchungsschwerpunkte der Szenarien - sowohl für Deutschland als auch für Japan - vielfach auf den THG-Emissionen des Energiesystems liegen. Die THG-Emissionen anderer Sektoren werden seltener und wenn, dann oft in geringerer Detailtiefe berücksichtigt. Der Vergleich von ambitionierten Dekarbonisierungsszenarien mit THG-Minderungszielen von 80 bis 100 Prozent zeigt in vielen Bereichen für Japan und Deutschland tendenziell recht ähnliche Entwicklungen und Strategien auf. Es wird deutlich, dass in beiden Ländern erhebliche Änderungen insbesondere im Energiesystem notwendig sind, um die anvisierten mittel- und langfristigen THG-Minderungsziele zu erreichen. Es werden ähnliche Annahmen zu Bevölkerungsentwicklung und Wirtschaftsentwicklung getroffen und es werden vergleichbare Entwicklungstrends bei vielen Ausprägungen des Energiesystems deutlich. Unterschiede zwischen den deutschen und japanischen Szenarien sowie zwischen den Szenarien der einzelnen Länder bestehen hingegen vor allem in Bezug auf Geschwindigkeit, Umfang und die Zusammensetzung der Strategieelemente.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Description: Access to clean and affordable modern energy services has been widely recognised as a significant factor for enabling social and economic development. Stand-alone systems and mini-grids are presumed to play an important role in the provision of sustainable energy to those people who currently lack access. Accordingly, an increasing number of small-scale energy projects are being implemented in developing countries and emerging economies. However, despite the large number of energy development projects, only limited evidence exists about the actual contribution they make to sustainable development. This paper addresses this research gap by providing a systematic assessment of three selected impact pathways based on the evaluation of over 30 small-scale sustainable energy projects. Applying a theory-based evaluation approach in the form of a contribution analysis, the aim of this research is to better understand if and how these types of technical interventions can create development outcomes and impacts. The results show that technological issues are often not the most decisive factor in achieving development effects, but that embedding the technology in a set of actions that address social, cultural, economic and environmental aspects is essential.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Description: The water-energy-food (WEF) nexus is increasingly recognised as a conceptual framework able to support the efficient implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Despite growing attention paid to the WEF nexus, the role that renewable energies can play in addressing trade-offs and realising synergies has received limited attention. Until now, the focus of WEF nexus discussions and applications has mainly been on national or global levels, macro-level drivers, material flows and large infrastructure developments. This overlooks the fact that major nexus challenges are faced at local level. Aiming to address these knowledge gaps, the authors conduct a systematic analysis of the linkages between small-scale energy projects in developing countries and the food and water aspects of development. The analysis is based on empirical data from continuous process and impact evaluations complemented by secondary data and relevant literature. The study provides initial insights into how to identify interconnections and the potential benefits of integrating the nexus pillars into local level projects in the global south. The study identifies the complex links which exist between sustainable energy projects and the food and water sectors and highlights that these needs are currently not systematically integrated into project design or project evaluation. A more systematic approach, integrating the water and food pillars into energy planning at local level in the global south, is recommended to avoid trade-offs and enhance the development outcomes and impacts of energy projects.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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