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  • 1
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Washington, DC : Smithsonian Institution Press
    Associated volumes
    Call number: SR 90.1028(25)
    In: Smithsonian contributions to the earth sciences
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: III, 30 S.
    Series Statement: Smithsonian contributions to the earth sciences 25
    Language: English
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Recent pantelleritic lavas comprise the whole of the isolated and outlying volcano of Mayor Island. Mineralogically, they are characterised by phenocrystic anorthoclase-sodic27 sanidine, quartz, sodic ferrohedenbergite, and cossyrite. Nine new chemical analyses of the lavas are presented (including one residual glass), confirming their strongly sodic and peralkaline nature. One analysis is also given of trachybasalt, which occurs as common inclusions in the mantling pumice deposits. These inclusions are characterised by abundant feldspar phenocrysts. Detailed trace element data is presented for five of the lava samples, representing the mam volcanic phases and the trachybasalt inclusions. The following conclusions are presented: a) The lavas exhibit a marked enrichment (relative to “average” granitic compositions) of the alkalis; rare earths; highly charged cations (e.g. Nb, Zr, Hf, Mo, U, Th); Ga, Be, and Cl. In contrast, they show a spectacular depletion of Sr, Ba, and Mg, and a less intense depletion of Ca, Sc, V, and Cr. b) The pantelleritic rare earth patterns show a similar degree of fractionation to the sedimentary pattern, and are dominated by a very strong Eu depletion. This suggests feldspar subtraction. The trachybasalt pattern shows a similar degree of fractionation, but exhibits enrichment of Eu. c) The trachybasalt inclusions are characterised by a trace element assemblage comparable to alkali basalts, except for higher Ba and exceedingly high K/Rb and K/Cs ratios. The chemical and mineralogical data suggest that they represent partial feldspar accumulate rocks. d) There is a progressive enrichment of nearly all trace and minor elements in the youngest lavas. This includes those elements that show an overall depletion in the lavas. The younger lavas are also enriched in Na and Fe, but further depleted in Al. The data is interpreted to indicate that the pantellerites were derived by crystal differentiation from a postulated mildly alkali olivine basalt parent — feldspar fractionation is considered to have been extremely important in this process. It is shown that the element enrichment occurring in the younger lavas may not be wholely explained by crystallisation differentiation alone — it is possible that some additional process is required. It is also shown that the observed enrichment of sodium in the youngest lavas can only occur during crystal fractionation if quartz, as well as anorthoclase, separate from the magma. This is due to the higher alkali abundances of the anorthoclase phenocrysts, relative to the pantellerite compositions. There is limited evidence that post-eruptive devitrification of some of the lavas has resulted in some modification of the lava chemistry, notably sodium loss.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Trace element data on an Al-spinel ultramafic-mafic inclusion suite in an analcimite support earlier proposals that the various inclusions are comagmatic and represent fragments of a layered tholeiitic ‘pluton’ which differentiated at pressures close to 8 kb. Ultramafic inclusions are dominantly pyroxenites, often websteritic, whereas the mafic inclusions are largely two pyroxene-plagioclase assemblages. Appropriate experimental data and abundances of Sc, Cr and V indicate that subcalcic clinopyroxene or relatively Ca-rich clinopyroxene was the major ferromagnesian phase fractionated, often accompanied by spinel in the early and middle stages of differentiation and, in the later stages, by titanomagnetite. Comparatively moderate decreases in Ni and Co suggest that olivine was a relatively unimportant fractionating phase. Clinopyroxene fractionation at moderate pressures should be assigned only a comparatively insignificant role in the production of evolved basaltic compositions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Data are presented for K, Ba, Sr, Rb, Li, Ga, Mg, Mn, and Fe for twelve rhyolitic plagioclases (An28-An46), one dacitic (An53), and three andesitic plagioclases (An68-An81). Additional data are presented for Ga, Gr, V, Ni, Co, Sc, Y, La, Sr, and Ba for two augites, nine hypersthenes, and five hornblendes separated from the same rocks. Distribution factors have been calculated, using these data, and previously published results for coexisting groundmass compositions (=“liquids”). The plagioclases show a positive correlation between, and a progressive increase in K and Ba (range 0.09–0.58% and 61–610 p.p.m. respectively) with increasing Ab-content. Sr (range 465–880 p.p.m.) shows a well defined maximum between An40-An55. The plagioclases have extremely high K/Rb ratios (mostly 〉 1,000). This volcanic series is characterised by relatively Mg-rich pyroxenes and hornblendes. The augites contain higher Sc, Cr, Y, Sr, and Y relative to their coexisting hypersthenes, while the hornblendes exhibit higher Sc, V, Ba, Sr, Y, and La relative to coexisting hypersthenes. Very marked differences in concentrations of these elements exist between the rhyolitic and andesitic ferromagnesian phenocrysts. There is also evidence of a systematic distribution of Sc, V, Cr, Y, Co, and Ni between coexisting hypersthenes and hornblendes, and between these minerals and their coexisting whole rock and groundmass compositions. The data are discussed from a petrological viewpoint, as they are interpreted to indicate that the phenocrysts crystallised in the magmas in which they are found, and are not xenocrystic. No evidence of hybridisation or contamination, subsequent to the onset of crystallisation, is found.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Analytical data for Sr, Rb, Cs, Ba, Pb, rare earth elements, Y, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Sn, Nb, Mo, Ni, Co, V, Cr, Sc, Cu and major elements are reported for eocene volcanic rocks cropping out in the Kastamonu area, Pontic chain of Northern Turkey. SiO2% versus K2O% relationship shows that the analyzed samples belong to two major groups: the basaltic andesitic and the andesitic ones. High-K basaltic andesites and low-K andesites occur too. Although emplaced on continental type basement (the North Anatolian Crystalline Swell), the Pontic eocene volcanics show elemental abundances closely comparable with typical island arc calc-alkaline suites, e.g. low SiO2% range, low to moderate K2O% and large cations (Cs, Rb, Sr, Ba, Pb) contents and REE patterns with fractionated light and almost flat heavy REE patterns. ΣREE and highly charged cations (Th, U, Hf, Sn, Zr) are slightly higher than typical calc-alkaline values. Ferromagnesian elements show variable values. Within the basaltic andesite group the increase of K%, large cations, ΣREE, La/Yb ratio and high valency cations and the decrease of ferromagnesian element abundances with increasing SiO2% content indicate that the rock types making up this group developed by crystalliquid fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene from a basic parent magma. Trace element concentration suggest that the andesite group was not derived by crystal-liquid fractionation processes from the basaltic andesites, but could represent a distinct group of rocks derived from a different parent magma.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Minor trachyte and dacite temporally associated with, but spatially separated from, arc-trench type volcanoes in Papua New Guinea have distinctive REE abundances similar to experimentally produced and theoretically predicted partial melts of eclogite. However, modelling based on small amounts of equilibrium partial melting indicates that only fractionation involving a garnet-dominated residuum can account for the observed REE patterns if the source rock was subducted oceanic basalt. If the source was geochemically evolved, other mineral phases (e.g., amphibole) are possible in the residuum, and there is no necessity to postulate that the downgoing slab was the source for these magmas. The REE fractionated trachytes and dacites appear to be a part of the nearby late Cenozoic volcanic provinces, and possibly represent minor partial melts which only in unusual tectonic situations arrive unmodified at the Earth's surface.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract A variety of alkaline lavas from the Dunedin Volcano have been analyzed for the rare earth elements (REE) La-Yb. The compositions analyzed were: basalt-hawaiite-mugearite-benmoreite; basanite, nepheline hawaiite, nepheline trachyandesite and nepheline benmoreite; trachyte; phonolite. The series from basalt to mugearite shows continuous enrichment in the REE, consistent with a crystal fractionation model involving removal of olivine and clinopyroxene. From mugearite to benmoreite there is a depletion in the REE which is explained by the appearance of apatite as a liquidus phase. The chondrite normalized REE patterns for the phonolites are characterized by strong enrichment and fractionation coupled with a sharp depletion in Eu. Removal of plagioclase from benmoreite magma is suggested for the derivation of the phonolites. The series basanite-nepheline hawaiite, and basanite-nepheline hawaiite-nepheline benmoreite appear to be high pH2O analogues of the series basalt-ben-moreite, with enrichment of the REE being achieved by removal of clinopyroxene, kaersutite and olivine. Compared with other lavas the trachyte has low REE abundances and is characterized by a striking positive Eu anomaly.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Since Mesozoic time, Java and Bali have formed part of an evolving system of island arcs comprising the Sunda arc of Indonesia. The present tectonic setting is relatively simple with subduction occurring at the Java Trench to the south. A north-dipping Benioff seismic zone delineates an underthrust lithospheric slab to depths of approximately 600 km beneath the Java Sea. Quaternary lavas of the ‘normal island arc association’ range from tholeiites to high-K calc-alkaline lavas over Benioff zone depths from 120–250 km, respectively. More abundant calc-alkaline lavas lie between these extremes. High-K alkaline lavas are found over Benioff zone depths in excess of 300 km. Both within and between these groups of rocks there are consistent spatial variations in the observed geochemistry. For approximately 200 rocks, incompatible elements such as K, Rb, Cs, Sr, Ba, light REE, U and Th show an increase in abundance of almost an order of magnitude with increasing depth to the seismic zone. Abundances of compatible elements show little consistent variation and trace elements such as Ni, Co, Cr, and Sc are characteristically depleted except in some of the alkaline lavas. Major element abundances in rocks of the normal island arc association show little variation, except for K and P, which both increase in abundance across the arc and Al, which shows a relative decrease. The major and trace element data are inconsistent with the derivation of the analyzed rocks by partial melting of the crustal component of the subducted lithosphere. On the other hand, low Ni abundances (∼20 ppm) in the basalts suggest that most of the lavas are fractionated and few if any represent primary mantle-derived melts. The spatial variations in the geochemistry of erupted lavas across Java and Bali are best explained by a combination of two processes: melting of a geochemically zoned mantle source and smaller degrees of partial melting of that material at progressively greater depths. Primary tholeiitic magmas could be formed by 20–25% melting at depths of 30–40 km, primary high-K calc-alkaline magmas by 5–15% melting at 40–60 km depth, and primary alkaline magmas by 5% melting at depths of 80–90 km. The geochemical zoning in the mantle, which is also manifested by increasing 87Sr/86Sr ratios in lavas across the arc, is interpreted to result from the addition of a small melt fraction derived from the crustal component of the subducted lithosphere.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic analyses are reported for granulite facies orthogneisses from Fiordland southwest New Zealand. Whole-rock samples define a Rb-Sr isochron age of 120±15 Ma and an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70391±4. ɛ Nd values (at 120 Ma) show a relatively wide range of from −0.4 to 2.7 indicating decoupling of Sr-Nd isotope systems. Associated ultramafic rocks have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of from 0.70380 to 0.70430 and ɛ Nd values of from 0.1 to 3.0. The different initial ratios suggest that the various intrusions, although contemporaneous, were not derived through fractionation of a single parent magma. A metasedimentary enclave incorporated during emplacement of the granulitic rocks preserves a Proterozoic isotopic signature with a measured ɛ Nd(0) value of −10.2, 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.73679 and a T Nd provenance age of 1490 Ma. The Rb-Sr whole rock age of the granulites is the same as obtained from recent U-Pb zircon dating (Mattinson et al. 1986) and is interpreted as the time of magmatic emplacement and essentially contemporaneous granulite facies metamorphism. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd analyses of mineral systems indicate that the terrain had cooled below ∼300° C by ∼100 Ma providing further evidence that high grade metamorphism was of exceptionally short duration. Unmetamorphosed leucogabbros from the Early Cretaceous Darran Complex of eastern Fiordland have significantly higher ɛ Nd values (3.9 to 4.6) and slightly lower 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.70373 to 0.70386) than the western Fiordland granulites. This indicates that the western and eastern Fiordland complexes are not correlative although both have geochemical similarities to Phanerozoic calc-alkaline island-arc suites. The Fiordland granulites are LREE enriched (LaN/ YbN=12 to 40) and have trace element characteristics (e.g. high K/Rb and low Rb/Sr ratios) typical of many Rb-depleted Precambrian granulite terrains. The Fiordland trace element trends, however are attributed to magmatic, not metamorphic processes, reflecting the character of the Early Cretaceous magma sources. The range of ɛ Nd values, but uniform initial 87Sr/86Sr of the western Fiordland granulites is consistent with derivation of the parent Early Cretaceous magmas at least in part from a LREE enriched, low Rb/Sr protoliths of mid-to late-Paleozoic age. Partial melting of this protolith occurred during or immediately preceding a period of great crustal thickening culminating in rapid thickening of existing crust by ∼20 km following emplacement of the granulitic rocks. The rapid crustal thickening was probably a consequence of a collisional event in which an Early Cretaceous magmatic arc was over-ridden by one or more thrust sheets.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 30 (1983), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Widespread evaporitic sulphate horizons occur in the frequently dolomitic Mercia Mudstones (Upper Triassic) of the English Midlands. The mudstones were deposited on an extensive peneplain which had areas of upstanding minor relief (Charnwood Massif, Derbyshire—Pennines, London Platform). Horst and graben structures formed during the early and middle Triassic, controlled late Triassic sedimentation rates and peneplain slope directions. A stable isotope study (S,C,O) of the sulphates and dolomites of the Trent Formation indicates that during the deposition of the lower Fauld Member grabens such as the Need wood Basin in Staffordshire and areas marginal to a graben such as Newark in Nottinghamshire had a marine brine regime with minor continental input. Using constraints applied by sulphate concentrations of modern waters in arid environments, the ratio of volume of marine input to volume of continental input lay between 3:1 and 4:1. The horst area (East Leake, Nottinghamshire) was strongly influenced by continental brines which derived sulphate from the exposed Carboniferous Hathern Anhydrite Series. A predominantly continental brine regime existed across the whole area during deposition of the overlying Hawton Member. Periodic marine influxes gave rise to thin sulphate horizons whilst continental run-off was occasionally sufficient to form temporary lakes. The Blue Anchor Formation (Rhaetian) was deposited in a lacustrine environment with waters of mixed marine and continental origin. Salinities were lower than those of the preceding Trent Formation brines.
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