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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We report measurements of bromine monoxide (BrO) and use an observationally constrained chemical box model to infer total gas-phase inorganic bromine (Br(sub y)) over the tropical western Pacific Ocean (tWPO) during the CONTRAST field campaign (January-February 2014). The observed BrO and inferred Bry profiles peak in the marine boundary layer (MBL), suggesting the need for a bromine source from sea-salt aerosol (SSA), in addition to organic bromine (CBry ). Both profiles are found to be C-shaped with local maxima in the upper free troposphere (FT). The median tropospheric BrO vertical column density (VCD) was measured as 1.6 x 10(exp 13) molec cm(exp -2), compared to model predictions of 0.9 x 10(exp 13) molec cm(exp -2) in GEOS-Chem (CBr(sub y) but no SSA source), 0.4 x 10(exp 13) molec cm(exp -2) in CAM-Chem (CBr(sub y) and SSA), and 2.1 x 10(exp 13) molec cm(exp -2) in GEOS-Chem (CBry and SSA). Neither global model fully captures the Cshape of the Br(sun y) profile. A local Br(sub y) maximum of 3.6 ppt (2.9-4.4 ppt; 95% confidence interval, CI) is inferred between 9.5 and 13.5 km in air masses influenced by recent convective outflow. Unlike BrO, which increases from the convective tropical tropopause layer (TTL) to the aged TTL, gas-phase Br(sub y) decreases from the convective TTL to the aged TTL. Analysis of gas-phase Br(sub y) against multiple tracers (CFC-11, H2O/O3 ratio, and potential temperature) reveals a Br(sub y) minimum of 2.7 ppt (2.3-3.1 ppt; 95% CI) in the aged TTL, which agrees closely with a stratospheric injection of 2.6 +/- 0.6 ppt of inorganic Br(sub y) (estimated from CFC-11 correlations), and is remarkably insensitive to assumptions about heterogeneous chemistry. Bry increases to 6.3 ppt (5.6-7.0 ppt; 95% CI) in the stratospheric "middleworld" and 6.9 ppt (6.5-7.3 ppt; 95% CI) in the stratospheric "overworld". The local Br(sub y) minimum in the aged TTL is qualitatively (but not quantitatively) captured by CAM-Chem, and suggests a more complex partitioning of gas-phase and aerosol Br(sub y) species than previously recognized. Our data provide corroborating evidence that inorganic bromine sources (e.g., SSA-derived gas-phase Br(sub y) ) are needed to explain the gas-phase Br(sub y) budget in the upper free troposphere and TTL. They are also consistent with observations of significant bromide in Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere aerosols. The total Br(sub y) budget in the TTL is currently not closed, because of the lack of concurrent quantitative measurements of gas-phase Br(sub y) species (i.e., BrO, HOBr, HBr, etc.) and aerosol bromide. Such simultaneous measurements are needed to (1) quantify SSA-derived Br(sub y) in the upper FT, (2) test Br(sub y) partitioning, and possibly explain the gas-phase Br(sub y) minimum in the aged TTL, (3) constrain heterogeneous reaction rates of bromine, and (4) account for all of the sources of Br(sub y) to the lower stratosphere.
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN55227 , Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ISSN 1680-7316) (e-ISSN 1680-7324); 17; 24; 15245-15270
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Wildfires emit significant amounts of pollutants that degrade air quality. Plumes from three wildfires in the western U.S. were measured from aircraft during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) and the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP), both in summer 2013. This study reports an extensive set of emission factors (EFs) for over 80 gases and 5 components of submicron particulate matter (PM1) from these temperate wildfires. These include rarely, or never before, measured oxygenated volatile organic compounds and multifunctional organic nitrates. The observed EFs are compared with previous measurements of temperate wildfires, boreal forest fires, and temperate prescribed fires. The wildfires emitted high amounts of PM1 (with organic aerosol (OA) dominating the mass) with an average EF that is more than 2 times the EFs for prescribed fires. The measured EFs were used to estimate the annual wildfire emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total non methane organic compounds, and PM1 from 11 western U.S. states. The estimated gas emissions are generally comparable with the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). However, our PM1 emission estimate (1530 +/- 570 Gg/yr) is over 3 times that of the NEI PM2.5 estimate and is also higher than the PM2.5 emitted from all other sources in these states in the NEI. This study indicates that the source of OA from biomass burning in the western states is significantly underestimated. In addition, our results indicate that prescribed burning may be an effective method to reduce fine particle emissions.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN44715 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 2169-897X); 122; 11; 6108-6129
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A chemical ionization mass spectrometer was used to measure BrO and HOBr + Br2 over the Tropical West Pacific Ocean within the altitude range of 1 to 15 km, during the CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) campaign in 2014. Isolated episodes of elevated BrO (up to 6.6 pptv) and/or HOBr + Br2 (up to 7.3 pptv) were observed in the tropical free troposphere (TFT) and were associated with biomass burning. However, most of the time we did not observe significant BrO or HOBr + Br2 in the TFT and the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) above our limits of detection (LOD). The 1 min average LOD for BrO ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 pptv and for HOBr + Br2 ranged from 1.3 to 3.5 pptv. During one flight, BrO observations from the TTL to the extratropical lowermost stratosphere were used to infer a profile of inorganic bromine (Br(sub y)). Based on this profile, we estimated the product gas injection of bromine species into the stratosphere to be 2 pptv. Analysis of Br(sub y) partitioning further indicates that BrO levels are likely very low in the TFT environment and that future studies should target the measurement of HBr or atomic Br.
    Keywords: Chemistry and Materials (General); Geophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN41637 , Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (ISSN 2169-897X) (e-ISSN 2169-8996); 121; 20; 12560-12578
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: The sources and atmospheric chemistry of gas-phase organic acids are currently poorly understood, due in part to the limited range of measurement techniques available. In this work, we evaluated the use of SF6- as a sensitive and selective chemical ionization reagent ion for real-time measurements of gas-phase organic acids. Field measurements are made using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) at a rural site in Yorkville, Georgia, from September to October 2016 to investigate the capability of this measurement technique. Our measurements demonstrate that SF6- can be used to measure a range of organic acids in the atmosphere. One-hour averaged ambient concentrations of organic acids ranged from a few parts per trillion by volume (ppt) to several parts per billion by volume (ppb). All the organic acids displayed similar strong diurnal behaviors, reaching maximum concentrations between 17:00 and 19:00EDT. The organic acid concentrations are dependent on ambient temperature, with higher organic acid concentrations being measured during warmer periods.
    Print ISSN: 1867-1381
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8548
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-04-26
    Description: The implementation of stringent emission regulations has resulted in the decline of anthropogenic pollutants including sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO). In contrast, ammonia (NH3) emissions are largely unregulated, with emissions projected to increase in the future. We present real-time aerosol and gas measurements from a field study conducted in an agricultural-intensive region in the southeastern U.S. during the fall of 2016 to investigate how NH3 affects particle acidity and SOA formation via the gas-particle partitioning of semi-volatile organic acids. Particle water and pH were determined using the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic model and validated by comparing predicted inorganic HNO3-NO3− and NH3-NH4+ gas-particle partitioning ratios with measured values. Our results showed that despite the high NH3 concentrations (study average 8.1 ± 5.2ppb), PM1 were highly acidic with pH values ranging from 0.9 to 3.8, and a study-averaged pH of 2.2 ± 0.6. PM1 pH varied by approximately 1.4 units diurnally. Formic and acetic acids were the most abundant gas-phase organic acids, and oxalate was the most abundant particle-phase water-soluble organic acid anion. Measured particle-phase water-soluble organic acids were on average 6% of the total non-refractory PM1 organic aerosol mass. The measured molar fraction of oxalic acid in the particle phase (i.e., particle-phase oxalic acid molar concentration divided by the total oxalic acid molar concentration) ranged between 47 and 90% for PM1 pH 1.2 to 3.4. The measured oxalic acid gas-particle partitioning ratios were in good agreement with their corresponding thermodynamic predictions, calculated based on oxalic acid’s physicochemical properties, ambient temperature, particle water and pH. In contrast, gas-particle partitioning of formic and acetic acids were not well predicted for reasons currently unknown. For this study, higher NH3 concentrations relative to what has been measured in the region in previous studies had minor effects on PM1 organic acids and their influence on the overall organic aerosol and PM1 mass concentrations.
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7375
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-08-15
    Description: The implementation of stringent emission regulations has resulted in the decline of anthropogenic pollutants including sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO). In contrast, ammonia (NH3) emissions are largely unregulated, with emissions projected to increase in the future. We present real-time aerosol and gas measurements from a field study conducted in an agriculturally intensive region in the southeastern US during the fall of 2016 to investigate how NH3 affects particle acidity and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation via the gas–particle partitioning of semi-volatile organic acids. Particle water and pH were determined using the ISORROPIA II thermodynamic model and validated by comparing predicted inorganic HNO3-NO3- and NH3-NH4+ gas–particle partitioning ratios with measured values. Our results showed that despite the high NH3 concentrations (average 8.1±5.2ppb), PM1 was highly acidic with pH values ranging from 0.9 to 3.8, and an average pH of 2.2±0.6. PM1 pH varied by approximately 1.4 units diurnally. Formic and acetic acids were the most abundant gas-phase organic acids, and oxalate was the most abundant particle-phase water-soluble organic acid anion. Measured particle-phase water-soluble organic acids were on average 6% of the total non-refractory PM1 organic aerosol mass. The measured molar fraction of oxalic acid in the particle phase (i.e., particle-phase oxalic acid molar concentration divided by the total oxalic acid molar concentration) ranged between 47% and 90% for a PM1 pH of 1.2 to 3.4. The measured oxalic acid gas–particle partitioning ratios were in good agreement with their corresponding thermodynamic predictions, calculated based on oxalic acid's physicochemical properties, ambient temperature, particle water, and pH. In contrast, gas–particle partitioning ratios of formic and acetic acids were not well predicted for reasons currently unknown. For this study, higher NH3 concentrations relative to what has been measured in the region in previous studies had minor effects on PM1 organic acids and their influence on the overall organic aerosol and PM1 mass concentrations.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-12-22
    Description: We report measurements of bromine monoxide (BrO) and use an observationally constrained chemical box model to infer total gas-phase inorganic bromine (Bry) over the tropical western Pacific Ocean (tWPO) during the CONTRAST field campaign (January–February 2014). The observed BrO and inferred Bry profiles peak in the marine boundary layer (MBL), suggesting the need for a bromine source from sea-salt aerosol (SSA), in addition to organic bromine (CBry). Both profiles are found to be C-shaped with local maxima in the upper free troposphere (FT). The median tropospheric BrO vertical column density (VCD) was measured as 1.6×1013moleccm−2, compared to model predictions of 0.9×1013moleccm−2 in GEOS-Chem (CBry but no SSA source), 0.4×1013moleccm−2 in CAM-Chem (CBry and SSA), and 2.1×1013moleccm−2 in GEOS-Chem (CBry and SSA). Neither global model fully captures the C-shape of the Bry profile. A local Bry maximum of 3.6ppt (2.9–4.4ppt; 95% confidence interval, CI) is inferred between 9.5 and 13.5km in air masses influenced by recent convective outflow. Unlike BrO, which increases from the convective tropical tropopause layer (TTL) to the aged TTL, gas-phase Bry decreases from the convective TTL to the aged TTL. Analysis of gas-phase Bry against multiple tracers (CFC-11, H2O∕O3 ratio, and potential temperature) reveals a Bry minimum of 2.7ppt (2.3–3.1ppt; 95% CI) in the aged TTL, which agrees closely with a stratospheric injection of 2.6±0.6ppt of inorganic Bry (estimated from CFC-11 correlations), and is remarkably insensitive to assumptions about heterogeneous chemistry. Bry increases to 6.3ppt (5.6–7.0ppt; 95% CI) in the stratospheric "middleworld" and 6.9ppt (6.5–7.3ppt; 95% CI) in the stratospheric "overworld". The local Bry minimum in the aged TTL is qualitatively (but not quantitatively) captured by CAM-Chem, and suggests a more complex partitioning of gas-phase and aerosol Bry species than previously recognized. Our data provide corroborating evidence that inorganic bromine sources (e.g., SSA-derived gas-phase Bry) are needed to explain the gas-phase Bry budget in the upper free troposphere and TTL. They are also consistent with observations of significant bromide in Upper Troposphere–Lower Stratosphere aerosols. The total Bry budget in the TTL is currently not closed, because of the lack of concurrent quantitative measurements of gas-phase Bry species (i.e., BrO, HOBr, HBr, etc.) and aerosol bromide. Such simultaneous measurements are needed to (1) quantify SSA-derived Bry in the upper FT, (2) test Bry partitioning, and possibly explain the gas-phase Bry minimum in the aged TTL, (3) constrain heterogeneous reaction rates of bromine, and (4) account for all of the sources of Bry to the lower stratosphere.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-08-19
    Description: Hydroperoxy radicals (HO2) play an important part in tropospheric photochemistry, yet photochemical models do not capture ambient HO2 mixing ratios consistently. This is likely due to a combination of uncharacterized chemical pathways and measurement limitations. The indirect nature of current HO2 measurements introduces challenges in accurately measuring HO2; therefore a direct technique would help constrain HOx chemistry in the atmosphere. In this work we evaluate the feasibility of using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) and propose a direct HO2 detection scheme using bromide as a reagent ion. Ambient observations were made with a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) in Atlanta over the month of June 2015 to demonstrate the capability of this direct measurement technique. Observations displayed expected diurnal profiles, reaching daytime median values of ∼ 5ppt between 2 and 3p.m. local time. The HO2 diurnal profile was found to be influenced by morning-time vehicular NOx emissions and shows a slow decrease into the evening, likely from non-photolytic production, among other factors. Measurement sensitivities of approximately 5.1±1.0cpsppt−1 for a bromide ion (79Br−) count rate of 106cps were observed. The relatively low instrument background allowed for a 3σ lower detection limit of 0.7ppt for a 1min integration time. Mass spectra of ambient measurements showed the 79BrHO2− peak was the major component of the signal at nominal mass-to-charge 112, suggesting high selectivity for HO2 at this mass-to-charge. More importantly, this demonstrates that these measurements can be achieved using instruments with only unit mass resolution capability.
    Print ISSN: 1867-1381
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8548
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-07-07
    Description: We report measurements of bromine monoxide (BrO) and use an observationally constrained chemical box-model to infer total gas phase inorganic bromine (Bry) over the tropical Western Pacific Ocean (tWPO) during the CONTRAST field campaign (January–February 2014). The median tropospheric BrO Vertical Column Density (VCD) over the tWPO was measured as 1.6 × 1013 molec cm−2, compared to model predictions of 0.4 × 1013 in CAM-Chem, 0.9 × 1013 in GEOS-Chem, and 2.1 × 1013 in GEOS-Chem with a sea-salt aerosol (SSA) bromine source. The observed BrO and inferred Bry profiles is found to be C-shaped in the troposphere, with local maxima in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and in the upper free troposphere. Neither global model fully captures this profile shape. Between 6 and 13.5 km, the inferred Bry is highly sensitive to assumptions about the rate of heterogeneous bromine recycling (depends on the surface area of ice/aerosols), and the inclusion of a SSA bromine source. A local Bry maximum of 3.6 ppt (2.3–11.1 ppt, 95 % CI) is observed between 9.5 and 13.5 km in air masses influenced by recent convective outflow. Unlike BrO, which increases from the convective TTL to the aged TTL, gas phase Bry decreases from the convective TTL to the aged TTL. Analysis of gas phase Bry against multiple tracers (CFC-11, H2O / O3 ratio, and θ) reveals a Bry minimum of 2.7 ppt (2.4–3.0 ppt, 95 % CI) in the aged TTL, which is remarkably insensitive to assumptions about heterogeneous chemistry. Bry increases to 6.3 ppt (5.9–6.7 ppt, 95 % CI) in the stratospheric middleworld, and 6.9 ppt (6.7–7.1 ppt, 95 % CI) in the stratospheric overworld. The local Bry minimum in the aged TTL is qualitatively (but not quantitatively) captured by CAM-chem, and suggests a more complex partitioning of gas phase and aerosol Bry species than previously recognized. Our data provide corroborating evidence that inorganic bromine sources (e.g., SSA derived gas phase Bry) are needed to explain the gas phase Bry budget in the TTL. They are also consistent with observations of significant bromide in UTLS aerosols. The total Bry budget in the TTL is currently not closed, because of the lack of concurrent quantitative measurements of gas phase Bry species (i.e., BrO, HOBr, HBr, etc.) and aerosol bromide. These simultaneous measurements are needed 1) to quantify SSA derived Bry aloft, 2) to test Bry partitioning, and explain the gas phase Bry minimum in the aged TTL, 3) to constrain heterogeneous reaction rates of bromine, and 4) to account for all of the sources of Bry to the lower stratosphere.
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7375
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-02-19
    Description: The sources and atmospheric chemistry of gas-phase organic acids are currently poorly understood due in part to the limited range of measurement techniques available. In this work, we evaluated the use of SF6− as a sensitive and selective chemical ionization reagent ion for real-time measurements of gas-phase organic acids. Field measurements are made using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) at a rural site in Yorkville, Georgia from September to October 2016 to investigate the capability of this measurement technique. Our measurements demonstrate that SF6− can be used to measure a range of organic acids in the atmosphere. Ambient concentrations of organic acids ranged from a few parts per trillion by volume (ppt) to several parts per billion by volume (ppb). Assuming that these organic acids are completely water-soluble, the carbon mass fraction of gas-phase water-soluble organic carbon (WSOCg) comprised of these organic acids ranged from 7 to 100 % with a study average of 30 %. All the organic acids displayed similar strong diurnal behaviors, reaching maximum concentrations between 5 and 7 pm local time. The organic acid concentrations are dependent on ambient temperature, with higher organic acid concentrations being measured during warmer periods.
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8610
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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