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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A new nonequilibrium turbulence closure model has been developed for computing wall bounded two-dimensional turbulent flows. This two-layer eddy viscosity model was motivated by the success of the Johnson-King model in separated flow regions. The influence of history effects are described by an ordinary differential equation developed from the turbulent kinetic energy equation. The performance of the present model has been evaluated by solving the flow around three airfoils using the Reynolds time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Excellent results were obtained for both attached and separated turbulent flows about the NACA 0012 airfoil, the RAE 2822 airfoil, and the Integrated Technology A 153W airfoil. Based on the comparison of the numerical solutions with the available experimental data, it is concluded that the new nonequilibrium turbulence model accurately captures the history effects of convection and diffusion on turbulence.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 90-1469
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The hypersonic, laminar flow around the Space Shuttle Orbiter has been computed for both an ideal gas (gamma = 1.2) and equilibrium air using a real-gas, parabolized Navier-Stokes code. This code employs a generalized coordinate transformation; hence, it places no restrictions on the orientation of the solution surfaces. The initial solution in the nose region was computed using a 3-D, real-gas, time-dependent Navier-Stokes code. The thermodynamic and transport properties of equilibrium air were obtained from either approximate curve fits or a table look-up procedure. Numerical results are presented for flight conditions corresponding to the STS-3 trajectory. The computed surface pressures and convective heating rates are compared with data from the STS-3 flight.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1747
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: New, improved curve fits for the transport properties of equilibruim air have been developed. The curve fits are for viscosity and Prandtl number as functions of temperature and density, and viscosity and thermal conductivity as functions of internal energy and density. The curve fits were constructed using grabau-type transition functions to model the tranport properties of Peng and Pindroh. The resulting curve fits are sufficiently accurate and self-contained so that they can be readily incorporated into new or existing computational fluid dynamics codes. The range of validity of the new curve fits are temperatures up to 15,000 K densities from 10 to the -5 to 10 amagats (rho/rho sub o).
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NAS 1.26:178411 , ISU-ERI-AMES-88405 , NASA-CR-178411
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: New improved curve fits for the thermodynamic properties of equilibrium air were developed. The curve fits are for p = p(e,rho), a = a(e,rho), T = T(e,rho), s = s(e,rho), T = T(p,rho), h = h(p,rho), rho = rho(p,s), e = e(p,s) and a = a(p,s). These curve fits can be readily incorporated into new or existing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes if real-gas effects are desired. The curve fits were constructed using Grabau-type transition functions to model the thermodynamic surfaces in a piecewise manner. The accuracies and continuity of these curve fits are substantially improved over those of previous curve fits appearing in NASA CR-2470. These improvements were due to the incorporation of a small number of additional terms in the approximating polynomials and careful choices of the transition functions. The ranges of validity of the new curve fits are temperatures up to 25,000 K and densities from 10 to the minus 7th to 100 amagats (rho/rho sub 0).
    Keywords: THERMODYNAMICS AND STATISTICAL PHYSICS
    Type: CFD-15 , NAS 1.26:181245 , NASA-CR-181245 , ISU-ERI-AMES-86401
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: New, improved curve fits for the thermodynamic properties of equilibrium air have been developed. The curve fits are for pressure, speed of sound, temperature, entropy, enthalpy, density, and internal energy. These curve fits can be readily incorporated into new or existing computational fluid dynamics codes if real gas effects are desired. The curve fits are constructed from Grabau-type transition functions to model the thermodynamic surfaces in a piecewise manner. The accuracies and continuity of these curve fits are substantially improved over those of previous curve fits. These improvements are due to the incorporation of a small number of additional terms in the approximating polynomials and careful choices of the transition functions. The ranges of validity of the new curve fits are temperatures up to 25 000 K and densities from 10 to the -7 to 10 to the 3d power amagats.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NAS 1.61:1181 , L-16276 , NASA-RP-1181
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: MacCormack's implicit finite-difference scheme was used to solve the two-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations. This method for solving the PNS equations does not require the inversion of block tridiagonal systems of algebraic equations and permits the original explicit MacCormack scheme to be employed in those regions where implicit treatment is not needed. The advantages and disadvantages of the present adaptation are discussed in relation to those of the conventional Beam-Warming scheme for a flat plate boundary layer test case. Comparisons are made for accuracy, stability, computer time, computer storage, and ease of implementation. The present method was also applied to a second test case of hypersonic laminar flow over a 15% compression corner. The computed results compare favorably with experiment and a numerical solution of the complete Navier-Stokes equations.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: ISU-ERI-AMES-84432 , NAS 1.26:166579 , NASA-CR-166579
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The iterative convergence properties of an approximate-factorization implicit finite-difference algorithm are analyzed both theoretically and numerically. Modifications to the base algorithm were made to remove the inconsistency in the original implementation of artificial dissipation. In this way, the steady-state solution became independent of the time-step, and much larger time-steps can be used stably. To accelerate the iterative convergence, large time-steps and a cyclic sequence of time-steps were used. For a model transonic flow problem governed by the Euler equations, convergence was achieved with 10 times fewer time-steps using the modified differencing scheme. A particular form of instability due to variable coefficients is also analyzed.
    Keywords: NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
    Type: NASA-TM-78495 , A-7474
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Simplified curve fits for the thermodynamic properties of equilibrium air were devised for use in either the time-dependent or shock-capturing computational methods. For the time-dependent method, curve fits were developed for p = p(e, rho), a = a(e, rho), and T = T(e, rho). For the shock-capturing method, curve fits were developed for h = h(p, rho) and T = T(p, rho). The ranges of validity for these curves fits were for temperatures up to 25,000 K and densities from 10 to the minus 7th power to 10 to the 3d power amagats. These approximate curve fits are considered particularly useful when employed on advanced computers such as the Burroughs ILLIAC 4 or the CDC STAR.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-2470
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two-dimensional viscous blunt body flows with an impinging shock have been computed using a time-dependent finite-difference method which solves the complete set of Navier-Stokes equations for a compressible flow. For low Reynolds number flows, the entire flow field, including the bow shock and impinging shock, has been captured in the computation. For higher Reynolds number flows, the bow shock is treated as a discontinuity across which the Rankine-Hugoniot equations are applied, while the boundary layer and interaction regions are captured as before. Using this latter shock-fitting approach, a Type III shock interaction flow field has been computed with flow conditions corresponding to the space shuttle orbiter freestream conditions at 61 km (200,000 ft).
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138594 , ISU-ERI-AMES-74057-PT-2
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A new two-dimensional computer code was developed to analyze the viscous flow around unconventional airfoils at various Mach numbers and angles of attack. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using an implicit, upwind, finite-volume scheme. Both laminar and turbulent flows can be computed. A new nonequilibrium turbulence closure model was developed for computing turbulent flows. This two-layer eddy viscosity model was motivated by the success of the Johnson-King model in separated flow regions. The influence of history effects are described by an ordinary differential equation developed from the turbulent kinetic energy equation. The performance of the present code was evaluated by solving the flow around three airfoils using the Reynolds time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Excellent results were obtained for both attached and separated flows about the NACA 0012 airfoil, the RAE 2822 airfoil, and the Integrated Technology A 153W airfoil. Based on the comparison of the numerical solutions with the available experimental data, it is concluded that the present code in conjunction with the new nonequilibrium turbulence model gives excellent results.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: ISU-ERI-AMES-91-110 , NASA-CR-187343 , NAS 1.26:187343 , CFD-24
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