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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 45912 data points
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: We present a mapped climatology (GLODAPv2.2016b) of ocean biogeochemical variables based on the new GLODAP version 2 data product (Olsen et al., 2016; Key et al., 2015), which covers all ocean basins over the years 1972 to 2013. The quality-controlled and internally consistent GLODAPv2 was used to create global 1°  ×  1° mapped climatologies of salinity, temperature, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2), total alkalinity (TAlk), pH, and CaCO3 saturation states using the Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) mapping method. Improving on maps based on an earlier but similar dataset, GLODAPv1.1, this climatology also covers the Arctic Ocean. Climatologies were created for 33 standard depth surfaces. The conceivably confounding temporal trends in TCO2 and pH due to anthropogenic influence were removed prior to mapping by normalizing these data to the year 2002 using first-order calculations of anthropogenic carbon accumulation rates. We additionally provide maps of accumulated anthropogenic carbon in the year 2002 and of preindustrial TCO2. For all parameters, all data from the full 1972–2013 period were used, including data that did not receive full secondary quality control. The GLODAPv2.2016b global 1°  ×  1° mapped climatologies, including error fields and ancillary information, are available at the GLODAPv2 web page at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC; doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.NDP093_GLODAPv2).
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 3
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    Elsevier
    In:  Journal of Marine Systems, 170 . pp. 1-9.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The Sulu Sea, a semi-enclosed deep marginal basin, has limited exchange of deep water and poorly constrained ventilation time-scales. Here we use observations of the transient tracer CFC-12 to calculate the ventilation time-scale and the concentration of anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) in the Sulu Sea based on the transient time distribution (TTD) method. We found that CFC-12 has penetrated the entire water column in the Sulu Sea and the mean ages increase with depth monotonically and exceed 400 years below the depth of about 2500 m. The mean ages derived from CFC data in the Sulu Sea below about 500 m are lower than those in the South China Sea (SCS) at the same depth, indicating that the ventilation time of deep water is shorter in the Sulu Sea than the SCS. The mean column inventory of Cant in the Sulu Sea is 39 mol m- 2 (error range (ER): 30-49 mol m- 2) for the deeper part and the estimated total Cant inventory in 2011 is 81 Tg (ER: 66-98 Tg). By applying the Transient Steady State approximation on the Cant data we calculated the lower limit of the diapycnal diffusivity, Kz, to 1.1 × 10- 4 m2 s- 1 (ER: 0.7-1.8 × 10- 4 m2 s- 1) for the Sulu Sea below the surface mixed layer.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) focuses on the physics and biogeochemistry of the ocean component of Earth system models participating in the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). OMIP aims to provide standard protocols and diagnostics for ocean models, while offering a forum to promote their common assessment and improvement. It also offers to compare solutions of the same ocean models when forced with reanalysis data (OMIP simulations) vs. when integrated within fully coupled Earth system models (CMIP6). Here we detail simulation protocols and diagnostics for OMIP's biogeochemical and inert chemical tracers. These passive-tracer simulations will be coupled to ocean circulation models, initialized with observational data or output from a model spin-up, and forced by repeating the 1948–2009 surface fluxes of heat, fresh water, and momentum. These so-called OMIP-BGC simulations include three inert chemical tracers (CFC-11, CFC-12, SF6) and biogeochemical tracers (e.g., dissolved inorganic carbon, carbon isotopes, alkalinity, nutrients, and oxygen). Modelers will use their preferred prognostic BGC model but should follow common guidelines for gas exchange and carbonate chemistry. Simulations include both natural and total carbon tracers. The required forced simulation (omip1) will be initialized with gridded observational climatologies. An optional forced simulation (omip1-spunup) will be initialized instead with BGC fields from a long model spin-up, preferably for 2000 years or more, and forced by repeating the same 62-year meteorological forcing. That optional run will also include abiotic tracers of total dissolved inorganic carbon and radiocarbon, CTabio and 14CTabio, to assess deep-ocean ventilation and distinguish the role of physics vs. biology. These simulations will be forced by observed atmospheric histories of the three inert gases and CO2 as well as carbon isotope ratios of CO2. OMIP-BGC simulation protocols are founded on those from previous phases of the Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project. They have been merged and updated to reflect improvements concerning gas exchange, carbonate chemistry, and new data for initial conditions and atmospheric gas histories. Code is provided to facilitate their implementation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-11-03
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-06-13
    Description: The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) focuses on the physics and biogeochemistry of the ocean component of Earth system models participating in the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). OMIP aims to provide standard protocols and diagnostics for ocean models, while offering a forum to promote their common assessment and improvement. It also offers to compare solutions of the same ocean models when forced with reanalysis data (OMIP simulations) vs. when integrated within fully coupled Earth system models (CMIP6). Here we detail simulation protocols and diagnostics for OMIP’s biogeochemical and inert chemical tracers. These passive-tracer simulations will be coupled to ocean circulation models, initialized with observational data or output from a model spin-up, and forced by repeating the 1948– 2009 surface fluxes of heat, fresh water, and momentum. These so-called OMIP-BGC simulations include three inert chemical tracers (CFC-11, CFC-12, SF6) and biogeochemical tracers (e.g., dissolved inorganic carbon, carbon isotopes, alkalinity, nutrients, and oxygen). Modelers will use their preferred prognostic BGC model but should follow common guidelines for gas exchange and carbonate chemistry. Simulations include both natural and total carbon tracers. The required forced simulation (omip1) will be initialized with gridded observational climatologies. An optional forced simulation (omip1-spunup) will be initialized instead with BGC fields from a long model spin-up, preferably for 2000 years or more, and forced by repeating the same 62-year meteorological forcing. That optional run will also include abiotic tracers of total dissolved inorganic carbon and radiocarbon, Cabio T and 14Cabio T , to assess deep-ocean ventilation and distinguish the role of physics vs. biology. These simulations will be forced by observed atmospheric histories of the three inert gases and CO2 as well as carbon isotope ratios of CO2. OMIP-BGC simulation protocols are founded on those from previous phases of the Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project. They have been merged and updated to reflect improvements concerning gas exchange, carbonate chemistry, and new data for initial conditions and atmospheric gas histories. Code is provided to facilitate their implementation.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-04-10
    Description: This paper is the outcome of a workshop held in Rome in November 2011 on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the POEM (Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean) program. In the workshop discussions, a number of unresolved issues were identified for the physical and biogeochemical properties of the Mediterranean Sea as a whole, i.e., comprising the Western and Eastern sub-basins. Over the successive two years, the related ideas were discussed among the group of scientists who participated in the workshop and who have contributed to the writing of this paper. Three major topics were identified, each of them being the object of a section divided into a number of different sub-sections, each addressing a specific physical, chemical or biological issue: 1. Assessment of basin-wide physical/biochemical properties, of their variability and interactions. 2. Relative importance of external forcing functions (wind stress, heat/moisture fluxes, forcing through straits) vs. internal variability. 3. Shelf/deep sea interactions and exchanges of physical/biogeochemical properties and how they affect the sub-basin circulation and property distribution. Furthermore, a number of unresolved scientific/methodological issues were also identified and are reported in each sub-section after a short discussion of the present knowledge. They represent the collegial consensus of the scientists contributing to the paper. Naturally, the unresolved issues presented here constitute the choice of the authors and therefore they may not be exhaustive and/or complete. The overall goal is to stimulate a broader interdisciplinary discussion among the scientists of the Mediterranean oceanographic community, leading to enhanced collaborative efforts and exciting future discoveries.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 9
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    Elsevier
    In:  Journal of Marine Systems, 151 . pp. 57-70.
    Publication Date: 2017-04-11
    Description: Transient tracer data (CFC-12 and SF6) from three oceanographic field campaigns to the Mauritanian Upwelling area conducted during winter, spring and summer from 2005 to 2007 is presented. The transient tracers are used to constrain a possible solution to the transient time distribution (TTD) along 18°N and to quantify the mean ages in vertical sections perpendicular to the coast. We found that an Inverse Gaussian distribution where the ratio of the moments δ and Γ equals 1.2 is a possible solution (δ/Γ=1.2) of the TTD. The transient tracers further show considerable under-saturation in the mixed layer during the winter and spring cruises that can only be maintained by mixing or upwelling by tracer-poor water from below the mixed layer. We use dissipation data from microstructure measurements and the tracer depth distribution to quantify the flux of tracers to the mixed layer by vertical diffusivity and wind data from the ship to quantify the air-sea flux. We then use the magnitude of the under-saturation in the mixed layer to estimate the advective upwelling velocity which is the balance the first two processes, in a steady state assumption. We find that the upwelling velocities range from less than 1 to 5.6×10-5ms-1 (<0.8-4.8md-1), with generally higher values close to the coast, but with comparable upwelling velocities during spring and winter. During the summer cruise the transient tracers were close to equilibrium with the atmosphere, suggesting no upwelling. We have shown the use of CFC-12 and SF6 transient tracer data for calculating upwelling velocity, and found an overall uncertainty of roughly ±50%.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
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    Worlds Meteorological Organization
    In:  WMO Bulletin, 64 (1).
    Publication Date: 2016-04-26
    Description: As atmospheric CO2 continues to increase, more and more CO2 enters the ocean, which reduces pH (pH is a measure of acidity, the lower the pH, the more acidic the liquid) in a process referred to as ocean acidification. Declines in surface ocean pH due to ocean acidification are already detectable and accelerating.
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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