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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Social choice and welfare 12 (1995), S. A5 
    ISSN: 1432-217X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitsmarktflexibilisierung ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Reform ; Beschäftigungseffekt ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 3
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    Düsseldorf: Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut (WSI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: The outcomes of the 2013 German Bundestag (federal parliament) are analyzed from the viewpoint of direct democracy. For this purpose, the party positions on 36 topical issues are compared with the results of public opinion polls, and the party and coalition indices of popularity (the average percentage of the population represented) and universality (frequency in representing a majority) are constructed. It is shown that the 2013 election winner, the union of two conservative parties CDU/CSU with their 41.6% of the votes, is the least representative among the four parties eligible for parliament seats (with 〉 5% of the votes). The most representative among the eligible ones is the left party DIE LINKE that received only 8.6% of the votes. It is concluded that voters are not very consistent with their own political profiles, disregard party manifestos, and are likely driven by political traditions, even if outdated, or by personal images of politicians. Moreover, the actual practice of coalition formation further aggravates the low representativeness of the parliament. Thereby it is shown that representative democracy, as it is, guarantees no adequate representation of public opinion even in Germany with its multiparty system and strong socialdemocratic traditions. To bridge approaches of representative and direct democracy, an alternative election procedure is proposed. For illustration, it is hypothetically applied to redistribute the Bundestag seats with a considerable gain in its representativeness.
    Keywords: D71 ; ddc:330 ; representative democracy ; direct democracy ; elections ; coalitions ; theory of voting ; mathematical theory of democracy ; indices of popularity and universality
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Düsseldorf: Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut (WSI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: In economics and other social sciences, complex processes are often represented by numerical models of reality which more or less well reflect behavioral relationships and interactions. Such attempts are the subject of a lecture course 'Mathematical Theory of Democracy' by the author at the Faculty of Economics of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. One new result in this field is presented here in the form of a statistical test to decide whether a political party or coalition of parties represents a majority of the population. For this purpose, party or coalition positions on a sample of policy issues, like introduction of a legal nationwide minimum wage, privatization of railways, and others, are compared with the results of public opinion polls on the same issues. The test is based on estimating the statistical significance of the coincidence observed (i.e. how likely is the coincidence by chance) to the end of accepting or rejecting the representativeness hypothesis. The test is developed for single parties and coalitions of two or three parties. It is illustrated with an estimation of representativeness of five major German parties and their potential coalitions basing on the official party manifestos published before the German parliamentary elections 2009 and on relevant polls of public opinion.
    Description: In der Ökonomie und den anderen Sozialwissenschaften wird immer wieder versucht, komplexe Prozesse der Wirklichkeit durch numerische Modelle abzubilden - was mit Abstraktionen für z. B. Verhaltens- und Wirkungsrelationen mehr oder weniger gut gelingt. Solche Versuche sind Gegenstand einer Vorlesungsreihe 'Mathematische Theorie der Demokratie' des Autors an der Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät des Karlsruhe Institut für Technologie. Ein neues Ergebnis in diesem Bereich wird hier vorgelegt in Form eines statistischen Tests, der entscheiden soll, ob eine politische Partei oder eine Parteienkoalition repräsentativ im Sinn der Bevölkerungsmehrheit agiert. Zu diesem Zweck wird die Übereinstimmung von Parteien- oder Koalitionspositionen mit Ergebnissen von Meinungsumfragen in der Bevölkerung verglichen, etwa zur Einführung eines bundesweiten gesetzlichen Mindestlohns oder der Privatisierung des Schienenverkehrs und anderem mehr. Der Test basiert auf der Einschätzung der statistischen Signifikanz der beobachteten Übereinstimmung (d.h. wie wahrscheinlich ist eine nur zufällige Übereinstimmung), um die Hypothese von der Repräsentativität der Politik zu akzeptieren oder abzulehnen. Die Studie spielt die Repräsentativität von einzelnen Parteien sowie von Zweier- und Dreier-Koalitionen durch. Darunter ist auch die Konstellation der fünf großen deutschen Parteien und ihrer potentiell möglichen Koalitionen auf der Basis der Bundestagswahl von 2009.
    Keywords: C12 ; C44 ; C63 ; D71 ; D72 ; ddc:330 ; mathematical theory of democracy ; statistical test ; parties ; coalitions ; representativeness ; Bernoulli matrices ; sums of random vectors ; Demokratie ; Politische Partei ; Öffentliche Meinung ; Wahlverhalten ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Düsseldorf: Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut (WSI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: The advocates of modern western democracy promote the viewpoint that the class division of the society is becoming outdated. We attempt to disprove this state ment with an example of 28 German parties who participated in the 2013 federal election. The official party positions on 38 policy issues are considered and the parties are identified with vectors of this 38-dimensional policy space. The statement in question, that there is no predominant political axis, would imply that the party vectors are scattered homogeneously, making a ballshaped cloud of `observations'. However, the Prime Component Analysis (PCA) shows that the party vectors constitute a thin ellipsoid whose two longest diameters cover 83.4% of the total variance. The consequent party ordering is the left-right axis rolled in a circumference, making the far-left and far-right ends meet. Basing on this empirical evidence, we conclude that neither the left-right characterization of parties nor the class opposition is outdated.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Düsseldorf: Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut (WSI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: Nach einer umfassenden Auswertung der Ergebnisse der Bundestagswahl 2005 hinsichtlich der Wahlprogramme bleibt die SPD die repräsentativste Partei Deutschlands, obwohl ihr Stimmenanteil nicht der höchste ist. Um dies zu zeigen, werden die Indikatoren der Popularität und der Universalität der Parteien aufgrund der Wahlprogramme und Wahlergebnisse abgeleitet. Eine Auswertung der möglichen Koalitionen wird vorgenommen.
    Keywords: D71 ; ddc:330 ; Bundestagswahl ; Fraktionen ; Koaitionen ; Wahltheorie ; mathematische Theorie der Demokratie ; Indikatoren der Popularität und der Universalität
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 7
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    Düsseldorf: Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut (WSI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: The notion of flexicurity promotes the idea of compensation of labour market deregulation (= flexibilization) with advantages in employment and social security. The paper contains a brief history of the concept and its operational definition. To monitor effects of flexicurity policies in Europe, flexicurity indicators are constructed. The European flexicurity polices are analyzed in the neo-liberal perspective, from the trade-unionist viewpoint, and within the conception of European welfare state. The empirical investigation shows that, contrary to political promises and theoretical considerations, the deregulation of European labour markets is absolutely predominating. A contradiction between several European employment policies is suggested to surmount by introducing a so called flexinsurance, meaning that the employer's contribution to social security should be proportional to the flexibility of the contract/risk of becoming unemployed in conjunction with elements of the basic minimum income model.
    Description: Das Konzept Flexicurity umfasst die Kompensation der Arbeitsmarktderegulierung (= Flexibilisierung) durch Fortschritte in der Beschäftigungssicherheit und sozialen Sicherheit. Um die Flexicurity-Politiken in Europa nachzuvollziehen, werden Flexicurity-Indikatoren entwickelt. Die europäischen Flexicurity-Politiken werden in der neo-liberalen Perspektive, vom gewerkschaftlichen Standpunkt und im Rahmen der Konzeption des europäischen Wohlfahrtsstaates analysiert. Die empirische Studie zeigt, dass entgegen politischer Versprechungen und theoretischer Betrachtungen die Deregulierung der europäischen Arbeitsmärkte absolut dominiert. Um den politischen Widerspruch zu beseitigen, wird eine so genannte Flexinsurance (= Flexicurity-Versicherung) vorgeschlagen. Der Beitragsanteil des Arbeitgebers zu den sozialen Kassen soll proportional zu der Flexibilität des Arbeitsvertrages und dem entsprechenden Risiko der Arbeitslosigkeit gebildet werden.
    Keywords: J26 ; J21 ; C51 ; J65 ; C43 ; ddc:330 ; Flexicurity ; Arbeitsmarktflexibilität ; soziale Sicherheit ; zusammengesetzte Indikatoren ; flexicurity ; labour market flexibility ; social security ; composite indicators
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Düsseldorf: Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut (WSI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: The paper develops a negotiation model for flexicurity-relevant collective bargaining. Flexicurity is a European labour market policy which should compensate the ongoing flexibilization of employment relations by advances in employment security and social security. Flexibility is promoted by employers, whereas trade unions are concerned with security. First, the opposite interests of negotiating sides are expressed by indicators which evaluate flexibility and security aspects of a collective labour agreement (CLA). A fair agreement should have 0-balance, by analogy with credit-debit 0-balance in finances. Since the flexibility and security indices are expressed in different scales ('in different currencies'), the substitution rate ('exchange rate') should be determined. In our case it is done by regression analysis of flexicurity-relevant CLAs from the past practice. The data are taken from the Dutch computer archive of about 5400 CLAs in years 1995 - 2007. For a given CLA, a positive deviation from the flexibility-security 0-balance means that flexibilization issues are well compensated by security measures (better than on the average). A negative deviation means that flexibility prevails over security, implying that trade unions are disadvantaged. The model outputs tables and graphics and can be regarded as a kind of interactive check-list. It shows shortages and advantages of a given collective agreement with several indices, and displays its relative position with regard to all reference CLAs considered, to those of the given year, to those within the branch, or within the branch in the given year. Finally, the total evaluation of the CLA is made in terms of so called flexicurity balance. This approach can be easily extended to issues beyond flexibility and security. Besides pragmatic goals, the study provides empirical evidence of increasing flexibility at the price of security. This is a serious warning against improper implementation of flexicurity and one-sided use of this policy in favor of employers. The computer tool developed is just aimed at enhancing the position of trade unions to the end of surmounting this negative trend.
    Keywords: C43 ; C51 ; C78 ; H55 ; J5 ; J21 ; J88 ; ddc:330 ; Trade unions ; collective bargaining ; collective agreements ; labour market ; flexicurity ; composite indicators ; decision support ; Lohnverhandlungen ; Tarifpolitik ; Management-Informationssystem ; Flexicurity ; Arbeitsmarktflexibilisierung ; Soziale Sicherung ; EU-Politik ; Niederlande
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Düsseldorf: Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut (WSI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: Composite indicators of Decent work for 31 European countries are constructed with the data of the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey 2005 (EWCS 2005). Partial indices reflect 15 aspects of working conditions as in the recently published German DGBindex Gute-Arbeit. In a sense, the German indicator is extended to European data. Two methodologies, of the OECD and of the Hans Böckler Foundation, differing in scaling, give very similar results. The main findings are as follows: 1. Evaluation of working conditions. Working conditions are evaluated on the average with 61 conditional % (= low medium level), ranging from 51 in Turkey (inferior level) to 67 in Switzerland (upper medium level). A good evaluation (〉 80) is inherent only in the meaningfulness of work (81). Two aspects got a bad evaluation (〈 50): qualification and development possibilities (33) and career chances (49). 2. Importance of different aspects of working conditions. Stepwise regression reveals that job stability is the most important factor for the satisfaction with working conditions. Strains, career chances, meaningfulness of work go next. Income and collegiality are ranked 5th or 6th, depending on the evaluation method. Creativity and industrial culture make no statistically significant impact. Learning and good management are regarded as shortcomings rather than as advantages. 3. Disparities among countries and social groups. The evaluation shows significant disparities among European countries and social groups. Those who work in finances have by far better working conditions, even comparing with the next best group of business people, women have worse working conditions than men with respect to 9 of 15 aspects, and all types of atypical employees (other than permanent employees) have working conditions below the European average, to say nothing of those with permanent contract. 4. Role of strong trade unions for job stability. A high job stability is observed in some countries with relaxed employment protection and strong trade unions. At the same time, a low job stability is inherent in some countries with strict employment protection but weak trade unions. It means that the institutional employment protection alone does not guarantee job stability, and other factors, like strong trade unions, can be even more important. To stimulate employers to equalize working conditions it is proposed to introduce a workplace tax for bad working conditions which should protect 'the working environment' in the same way as the green tax protects the natural environment. Indexing working conditions at every workplace developed in our study can be regarded as prototype measuring the 'social pollution' and used to determine the tax amount.
    Keywords: C43 ; C51 ; J21 ; J88 ; ddc:330 ; Composite indicators ; quality of work ; European Union ; statistical indices ; processing qualitative and ordinal data ; Arbeitsbedingungen ; Qualitatives Verfahren ; Schätzung ; Europa
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Düsseldorf: Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut (WSI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: Aufgrund der Daten der Dritten Europäischen Umfrage für Arbeitsbedingungen wurde für den Vergleich europäischer Staaten ein zusammengesetzter Indikator der Arbeitsbedingungen aufgestellt. Die wichtigsten Forschungsergebnisse sind wie folgt: (a) die Ungleichheit zwischen europäischen Staaten ist statistisch signifikanter hinsichtlich der Arbeitsbedingungen als hinsichtlich des Einkommens; dies impliziert eine recht exakte Untersuchung in der Rangordnung der Länder nach den Arbeitsbedingungen, (b) durchschnittliche Arbeitsbedigungen und Einkommen in den Ländern stehen in einer positiven Korrelation zueinander, aber innerhalb der einzelnen Länder korrelieren sie wenig; das heißt, sie werden durch die nationale Spezifität beeinflusst und (c) die subjektiven Einschätzungen einschließlich der allgemeinen Arbeitszufriedenheit hängen nicht von den Einkünften ab, sondern hauptsächlich von Arbeitsbedingungen; dementsprechend sollte der Verbesserung der Arbeitsbedingungen mehr Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt werden. Zusätzlich wird ein dreidimensionaler Indikator für die Arbeitszeit konstruiert mit Aspekten wie Dauer, Lage (Abnormalität) und Flexibilität. Es ist statistisch bewiesen, dass Abnormalität und Flexibilität der Arbeitszeit sich gegenseitig kompensieren, aber die Dauer der Arbeitszeit ist von ihrer Lage und von ihrer Flexibilität unabhängig.
    Keywords: C43 ; C51 ; J21 ; J88 ; ddc:330 ; zusammengesetzte Indikatoren ; Arbeitsqualität ; Europäische Union ; statistische Indizes ; Bearbeitung der ordinalen (qualitativen) Daten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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