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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons
    Call number: PIK N 454-16-90277
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XI, 238 Seiten , Illustrationen, Digramme, Karten
    ISBN: 9781118971765 , 1118971760
    Series Statement: Geophysical monograph 221
    Language: English
    Note: Contents: Part I: Overview of the Changes in the Terrestrial Water Cycle ; Chapter 1: Macroscale Hydrological Modeling and Global Water Balance ; Chapter 2: Historical and Future Changes in Streamflow and Continental Runoff ; Chapter 3: Changes in the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle ; Part II: Human Alterations of the Terrestrial Water Cycle ; Chapter 4: Human-Induced Changes in the Global Water Cycle ; Chapter 5: Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources ; Chapter 6: Land Use/Cover Change Impacts on Hydrology in Large River Basins ; Part III: Recent Advances in Hydrological Measurement and Observation ; Chapter 7: GRACE-Based Estimates of Global Groundwater Depletion ; Chapter 8: Regional-Scale Combined Land-Atmosphere Water Balance Based on Daily Observations in Illinois ; Part IV: Integrated Modeling of the Terrestrial Water Cycle ; Chapter 9: Drivers of Change in Managed Water Resources ; Chapter 10: Modeling the Role of Vegetation in Hydrological Responses to Climate Change ; Chapter 11: Estimating Virtual Water Contents Using a Global Hydrological Model ; Index
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-03-06
    Description: Abstract
    Description: VERSION HISTORY:-On October 18, 2018 we republished all simulation data for all water (global) sector impact models to get the data sets into the new ESGF search facet structure. There were no changes to the simulation data.- On November 27, 2018 we republished simulation data for monthly variables swe, soilmoist and rootmoist for impact model PCR-GLOBWB due to an error in the units. Instead of reporting mass per area (kg/m2), values corresponded to mass flux rate (kg/m2/s). Values were thus multiplied by 86400 in order to obtain the correct values in kg/m2. This data caveat was documented in the ISIMIP website (ISIMIP2a: PCR-GLOBWB reported three variables in wrong unit).----------------------------------------------------------------------------The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) simulation data is under continuous review and improvement, and updates are thus likely to happen. All changes and caveats are documented under https://www.isimip.org/outputdata/output-data-changelog/. For accessing the data set as in http://doi.org/10.5880/PIK.2017.010 before November 27, 2018 please write to the ISIMIP Data Management Team: isimip-data[at]pik-potsdam.de.----------------------------------------------------------------------------DATA DESCRIPTION:The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a set of consistent, multi-sector, multi-scale climate-impact simulations, based on scientifically and politically-relevant historical and future scenarios. This framework serves as a basis for robust projections of climate impacts, as well as facilitating model evaluation and improvement, allowing for improved estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming. It also provides a unique opportunity to consider interactions between climate change impacts across sectors.ISIMIP2a is the second ISIMIP simulation round, focusing on historical simulations (1971-2010 approx.) of climate impacts on agriculture, fisheries, permafrost, biomes, regional and global water and forests. This may serve as a basis for model evaluation and improvement, allowing for improved estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming.The focus topic for ISIMIP2a is model evaluation and validation, in particular with respect to the representation of impacts of extreme weather events and climate variability. During this phase, four common global observational climate data sets were provided across all impact models and sectors. In addition, appropriate observational data sets of impacts for each sector were collected, against which the models can be benchmarked. Access to the input data for the impact models is provided through a central ISIMIP archive (see https://www.isimip.org/gettingstarted/#input-data-bias-correction).This entry refers to the ISIMIP2a simulation data from global hydrology models: CLM4, DBH, H08, JULES_W1, JULES_B1, LPJmL, MATSIRO, MPI-HM, ORCHIDEE, PCR-GLOBWB, SWBM, VIC, WaterGAP2
    Description: Methods
    Description: The ISIMIP2a water (global) outputs are based on simulations from 13 global hydrology models (see listing) according to the ISIMIP2a protocol (https://www.isimip.org/protocol/#isimip2a). The models simulate hydrological processes and dynamics (part of the models also considering human water abstractions and reservoir regulation) based on climate and physio-geographical information. A more detailed description of the models and model-specific amendments of the protocol are available here: https://www.isimip.org/impactmodels/.
    Keywords: EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 MODELS 〉 HYDROLOGIC AND TERRESTRIAL WATER CYCLE MODELS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 CLIMATE INDICATORS 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE INDICATORS 〉 FRESHWATER RUNOFF ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 GROUND WATER 〉 GROUND WATER DISCHARGE/FLOW ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 SNOW/ICE 〉 SNOW WATER EQUIVALENT ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 SURFACE WATER 〉 TOTAL SURFACE WATER ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 SURFACE WATER 〉 RUNOFF ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 SURFACE WATER 〉 DISCHARGE/FLOW ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 SURFACE WATER 〉 RIVERS/STREAMS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 SURFACE WATER 〉 FLOODS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 SURFACE WATER 〉 DRAINAGE ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 SURFACE WATER 〉 AQUIFER RECHARGE ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 CRYOSPHERE 〉 SNOW/ICE 〉 SNOW WATER EQUIVALENT ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 LAND SURFACE 〉 GEOMORPHOLOGY 〉 FLUVIAL LANDFORMS/PROCESSES ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 LAND SURFACE 〉 SOILS 〉 SOIL MOISTURE/WATER CONTENT ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 AGRICULTURE 〉 AGRICULTURAL PLANT SCIENCE 〉 IRRIGATION ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 SUSTAINABILITY 〉 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 SUSTAINABILITY 〉 ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE/MANAGEMENT 〉 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE/MANAGEMENT 〉 WATER MANAGEMENT ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 NATURAL HAZARDS 〉 DROUGHTS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 NATURAL HAZARDS 〉 FLOODS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 ECONOMIC RESOURCES 〉 ENERGY PRODUCTION/USE 〉 HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION/USE ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 HABITAT CONVERSION/FRAGMENTATION 〉 IRRIGATION
    Language: English
    Type: Dataset , Dataset
    Format: 1 Files
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-03-06
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a set of consistent, multi-sector, multi-scale climate-impact simulations, based on scientifically and politically-relevant historical and future scenarios. This framework serves as a basis for robust projections of climate impacts, as well as facilitating model evaluation and improvement, allowing for improved estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming. It also provides a unique opportunity to consider interactions between climate change impacts across sectors.ISIMIP2a is the second ISIMIP simulation round, focusing on historical simulations (1971-2010 approx.) of climate impacts on agriculture, fisheries, permafrost, biomes, regional and global water and forests. This may serve as a basis for model evaluation and improvement, allowing for improved estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming.The focus topic for ISIMIP2a is model evaluation and validation, in particular with respect to the representation of impacts of extreme weather events and climate variability. During this phase, four common global observational climate data sets were provided across all impact models and sectors. In addition, appropriate observational data sets of impacts for each sector were collected, against which the models can be benchmarked. Access to the input data for the impact models is provided through a central ISIMIP archive (see https://www.isimip.org/gettingstarted/#input-data-bias-correction).This entry refers to the ISIMIP2a simulation data from global hydrology models: CLM4, DBH, H08, JULES_W1, JULES_B1, LPJmL, MATSIRO, MPI-HM, ORCHIDEE, PCR-GLOBWB, SWBM, VIC, WaterGAP2.
    Description: Methods
    Description: The ISIMIP2a water (global) outputs are based on simulations from 13 global hydrology models (see listing) according to the ISIMIP2a protocol (https://www.isimip.org/protocol/#isimip2a). The models simulate hydrological processes and dynamics (part of the models also considering human water abstractions and reservoir regulation) based on climate and physio-geographical information. A more detailed description of the models and model-specific amendments of the protocol are available here: https://www.isimip.org/impactmodels/.
    Keywords: EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 MODELS 〉 HYDROLOGIC AND TERRESTRIAL WATER CYCLE MODELS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 CLIMATE INDICATORS 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE INDICATORS 〉 FRESHWATER RUNOFF ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 GROUND WATER 〉 GROUND WATER DISCHARGE/FLOW ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 SNOW/ICE 〉 SNOW WATER EQUIVALENT ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 SURFACE WATER 〉 TOTAL SURFACE WATER ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 SURFACE WATER 〉 RUNOFF ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 SURFACE WATER 〉 DISCHARGE/FLOW ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 SURFACE WATER 〉 RIVERS/STREAMS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 SURFACE WATER 〉 FLOODS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 SURFACE WATER 〉 DRAINAGE ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 SURFACE WATER 〉 AQUIFER RECHARGE ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 CRYOSPHERE 〉 SNOW/ICE 〉 SNOW WATER EQUIVALENT ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 LAND SURFACE 〉 GEOMORPHOLOGY 〉 FLUVIAL LANDFORMS/PROCESSES ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 LAND SURFACE 〉 SOILS 〉 SOIL MOISTURE/WATER CONTENT ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 AGRICULTURE 〉 AGRICULTURAL PLANT SCIENCE 〉 IRRIGATION ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 SUSTAINABILITY 〉 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 SUSTAINABILITY 〉 ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE/MANAGEMENT 〉 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE/MANAGEMENT 〉 WATER MANAGEMENT ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 NATURAL HAZARDS 〉 DROUGHTS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 NATURAL HAZARDS 〉 FLOODS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 ECONOMIC RESOURCES 〉 ENERGY PRODUCTION/USE 〉 HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION/USE ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 HABITAT CONVERSION/FRAGMENTATION 〉 IRRIGATION
    Language: English
    Type: Dataset , Dataset
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Freshwater availability is relevant to almost all socioeconomic and environmental impacts of climate and demographic change and their implications for sustainability. We compare ensembles of water supply and demand projections driven by ensemble output from five global climate models. Our results suggest reasons for concern. Direct climate impacts to maize, soybean, wheat, and rice involve losses of 4002,600 Pcal (843% of present-day total). Freshwater limitations in some heavily irrigated regions could necessitate reversion of 2060 Mha of cropland from irrigated to rainfed management, and a further loss of 6002,900 Pcal. Freshwater abundance in other regions could help ameliorate these losses, but substantial investment in infrastructure would be required. We compare ensembles of water supply and demand projections from 10 global hydrological models and six global gridded crop models. These are produced as part of the Inter-Sectoral Impacts Model Intercomparison Project, with coordination from the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project, and driven by outputs of general circulation models run under representative concentration pathway 8.5 as part of the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Models project that direct climate impacts to maize, soybean, wheat, and rice involve losses of 4001,400 Pcal (824% of present-day total) when CO2 fertilization effects are accounted for or 1,4002,600 Pcal (2443%) otherwise. Freshwater limitations in some irrigated regions (western United States; China; and West, South, and Central Asia) could necessitate the reversion of 2060 Mha of cropland from irrigated to rainfed management by end-of-century, and a further loss of 6002,900 Pcal of food production. In other regions (northern/eastern United States, parts of South America, much of Europe, and South East Asia) surplus water supply could in principle support a net increase in irrigation, although substantial investments in irrigation infrastructure would be required.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing; Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN7902 , Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (ISSN 0027-8424) (e-ISSN 1091-6490); 111; 9; 3239-3244
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Hydrometeorological hazards are caused by extreme meteorological and climate events, such as floods, droughts, hurricanes,tornadoes, or landslides. They account for a dominant fraction of natural hazards and occur in all regions of the world, although the frequency and intensity of certain hazards and societies vulnerability to them differ between regions. Severe storms, strong winds, floods, and droughts develop at different spatial and temporal scales, but all can become disasters that cause significant infrastructure damage and claim hundreds of thousands of lives annually worldwide. Oftentimes, multiple hazards can occur simultaneously or trigger cascading impacts from one extreme weather event. For example, in addition to causing injuries, deaths, and material damage, a tropical storm can also result in flooding and mudslides, which can disrupt water purification and sewage disposal systems, cause overflow of toxic wastes, andincrease propagation of mosquito-borne diseases.
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN41150 , Advances in Meteorology (ISSN 1687-9309) (e-ISSN 1687-9317); 2016; 1-3
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Human impacts increasingly affect the global hydrological cycle and indeed dominate hydrological changes in some regions. Hydrologists have sought to identify the human-impact-induced hydrological variations via parameterizing anthropogenic water uses in global hydrological models (GHMs). The consequently increased model complexity is likely to introduce additional uncertainty among GHMs. Here, using four GHMs, between-model uncertainties are quantified in terms of the ratio of signal to noise (SNR) for average river flow during 1971-2000 simulated in two experiments, with representation of human impacts (VARSOC) and without (NOSOC). It is the first quantitative investigation of between-model uncertainty resulted from the inclusion of human impact parameterizations. Results show that the between-model uncertainties in terms of SNRs in the VARSOC annual flow are larger (about 2 for global and varied magnitude for different basins) than those in the NOSOC, which are particularly significant in most areas of Asia and northern areas to the Mediterranean Sea. The SNR differences are mostly negative (-20 to 5, indicating higher uncertainty) for basin-averaged annual flow. The VARSOC high flow shows slightly lower uncertainties than NOSOC simulations, with SNR differences mostly ranging from -20 to 20. The uncertainty differences between the two experiments are significantly related to the fraction of irrigation areas of basins. The large additional uncertainties in VARSOC simulations introduced by the inclusion of parameterizations of human impacts raise the urgent need of GHMs development regarding a better understanding of human impacts. Differences in the parameterizations of irrigation, reservoir regulation and water withdrawals are discussed towards potential directions of improvements for future GHM development. We also discuss the advantages of statistical approaches to reduce the between-model uncertainties, and the importance of calibration of GHMs for not only better performances of historical simulations but also more robust and confidential future projections of hydrological changes under a changing environment.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN39068 , Environmental Research Letters (e-ISSN 1748-9326); 12; 2; 025009
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Global hydrological models (GHMs) have been applied to assess global flood hazards, but their capacity to capture the timing and amplitude of peak river discharge which is crucial in flood simulations has traditionally not been the focus of examination. Here we evaluate to what degree the choice of river routing scheme affects simulations of peak discharge and may help to provide better agreement with observations. To this end we use runoff and discharge simulations of nine GHMs forced by observational climate data (1971-2010) within the ISIMIP2a (Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project phase 2a) project. The runoff simulations were used as input for the global river routing model CaMa-Flood (Catchment-based Macro-scale Floodplain). The simulated daily discharge was compared to the discharge generated by each GHM using its native river routing scheme. For each GHM both versions of simulated discharge were compared to monthly and daily discharge observations from 1701 GRDC (Global Runoff Data Centre) stations as a benchmark. CaMa-Flood routing shows a general reduction of peak river discharge and a delay of about two to three weeks in its occurrence, likely induced by the buffering capacity of floodplain reservoirs. For a majority of river basins, discharge produced by CaMa-Flood resulted in a better agreement with observations. In particular, maximum daily discharge was adjusted, with a multi-model averaged reduction in bias over about two-thirds of the analysed basin area. The increase in agreement was obtained in both managed and near-natural basins. Overall, this study demonstrates the importance of routing scheme choice in peak discharge simulation, where CaMa-Flood routing accounts for floodplain storage and backwater effects that are not represented in most GHMs. Our study provides important hints that an explicit parameterisation of these processes may be essential in future impact studies.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN44438 , Environmental Research Letters (e-ISSN 1748-9326); 12; 7; 075003
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-03-27
    Print ISSN: 0930-7575
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0894
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Springer
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-01-01
    Description: Using the coupled WRF-Noah model, we conducted two experiments to investigate impacts of the interannual variability of leaf area index (LAI) on the surface air temperature (SAT) in eastern China. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observed dynamic LAI data from 2002 to 2009 were used in one modeling experiment, and the climatological seasonal cycle of the MODIS LAI was used in the other experiment. The results show that the use of dynamic LAI improves model performance. Compared with the use of climatological LAI, the use of dynamic LAI may reduce the warm (cool) bias in the years with large positive (negative) LAI anomalies. The reduction of the warm bias results from the modeled cooling effect of LAI increase through reducing canopy resistance, promoting transpiration, and decreasing sensible heat flux. Conversely, the reduction of cool bias is a result of the warming effect of negative anomaly of LAI. The use of dynamic LAI can improve model performance in summer and to a lesser extent, spring and autumn. Moreover, the dynamic LAI exerts a detectable influence on SAT in the WRF model when the LAI anomaly is at least 20% of the climatological LAI.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9309
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9317
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-01-01
    Description: The sensitivity of hydrologic variables in East China, that is, runoff, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture to the fluctuation of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), is evaluated by the Mann-Kendall correlation analysis on a spatial resolution of 1/4° in the period of 1952–2012. The results indicate remarkable spatial disparities in the correlation between the hydrologic variables and EASM. The regions in East China susceptible to hydrological change due to EASM fluctuation are identified. When the standardized anomaly of intensity index of EASM (EASMI) is above 1.00, the runoff of Haihe basin has increased by 49% on average, especially in the suburb of Beijing and Hebei province where the runoff has increased up to 105%. In contrast, the runoff in the basins of Haihe and Yellow River has decreased by about 27% and 17%, respectively, when the standardized anomaly of EASMI is below −1.00, which has brought severe drought to the areas since mid-1970s. The study can be beneficial for national or watershed agencies developing adaptive water management strategies in the face of global climate change.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9309
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9317
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Hindawi
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