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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 247-257 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Current guidelines for sizing of vents in dust explosions deal with panel inertia effects either by suggesting that the issue be approached experimentally on a case-by-case basis (VDI 3673) or by recommending a maximum mass per unit area (NFPA 68). This empirical approach to the problem is surprising, given that this aspect of explosion venting should be easily amenable to analytical treatment. From this assessment, an analysis of vent panel dynamics was carried out based on a simplified explosion model, which has also been used to develop a generalized vent sizing correlation. The main result of the analysis is the identification of a dimensionless parameter which fully characterizes the effects associated with the inertia of the panel. This inertia parameter includes: the reactivity of the mixture; the volume of the enclosure; the mass of the vent per unit area; the number of equal panels on the vented volume; and a panel shape factor. The analysis has quanitified the intuitive expectation that the mass per unit area of the panel is not a property that should be considered in isolation, and that panel inertia effects are more important the more reactive the mixture and the smaller the volume. The predictions from the model have been validated by comparison with available data for both dust and gas explosions. The extensive validation work that has supported their development provides confidence that the design correlations derived from the analysis can be used reliably to account for an effect that is either neglected or referred to testing by existing guidelines.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 243-258 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Research was carried out to develop improved protection guidelines for silane handling systems through enhanced understanding of the behavior of releases of this pyrophoric gas. The approach involved addressing three aspects of the problem: the prompt ignition behavior of silane; the reactivity characteristics of quiescent silane/air mixtures; and the rates of reaction of silane leaked into enclosures with and without explosion venting, in the presence of ventilation air flow. A first conclusion, reached from tests in a ventilated cabinet, was that, contrary to prevailing belief, the ventilation flow has no measurable effect on the prompt ignition of the release. From experiments in a 5.1-liter (311-in.3) sphere it was found that silane/air mixtures of concentrations between 1.4 and 4.1% (by volume) are explosive but stable. In this case, piloted ignition tests yielded laminar burning velocities up to 5 m/s (1000 ft/min). Mixtures between 4.5 and 38% (the maximum reached in the tests) were found to be metastable, and would undergo spontaneous ignition after a delay ranging from 15 to 120 seconds, with the shorter values corresponding to higher silane concentrations. Experiments were also performed in a 0.645-m3 (22.8-ft3) vessel both with and without explosion venting, to measure the rates of energy release associated with impulsively-started silane leaks from 1/8 and 1/4-in. (3.2 and 6.4-mm) lines. A method for the prediction of the venting requirements of partial-volume deflagrations (PVD) was evolved into a tool to quantify the pressure rise from ignition of silane leaks in enclosures. These results represent a significant step toward updating existing design recommendations which prescribe ventilation requirements that are based on outdated and, in some instances, misinterpreted data.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Plant/Operations Progress 9 (1990), S. 52-60 
    ISSN: 0278-4513
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The ability to estimate the intensity of accidental dust explosions is an essential prerequisite of methodologies intended to provide design guidelines for the protection of equipment and buildings where combustible dusts are being handled. In general, the severity of an explosion depends on the type of dust involved, its physical properties (such as particle size and moisture content), the characteristics of the interested volume (size, shape, presence of vents, and blockages), the strength and type of the ignition source, and the conditions of the environment (air flow, turbulence).
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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