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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-09-12
    Description: Gibbons are small arboreal apes that display an accelerated rate of evolutionary chromosomal rearrangement and occupy a key node in the primate phylogeny between Old World monkeys and great apes. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a northern white-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) genome. We describe the propensity for a gibbon-specific retrotransposon (LAVA) to insert into chromosome segregation genes and alter transcription by providing a premature termination site, suggesting a possible molecular mechanism for the genome plasticity of the gibbon lineage. We further show that the gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Hoolock and Symphalangus) experienced a near-instantaneous radiation approximately 5 million years ago, coincident with major geographical changes in southeast Asia that caused cycles of habitat compression and expansion. Finally, we identify signatures of positive selection in genes important for forelimb development (TBX5) and connective tissues (COL1A1) that may have been involved in the adaptation of gibbons to their arboreal habitat.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4249732/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4249732/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Carbone, Lucia -- Harris, R Alan -- Gnerre, Sante -- Veeramah, Krishna R -- Lorente-Galdos, Belen -- Huddleston, John -- Meyer, Thomas J -- Herrero, Javier -- Roos, Christian -- Aken, Bronwen -- Anaclerio, Fabio -- Archidiacono, Nicoletta -- Baker, Carl -- Barrell, Daniel -- Batzer, Mark A -- Beal, Kathryn -- Blancher, Antoine -- Bohrson, Craig L -- Brameier, Markus -- Campbell, Michael S -- Capozzi, Oronzo -- Casola, Claudio -- Chiatante, Giorgia -- Cree, Andrew -- Damert, Annette -- de Jong, Pieter J -- Dumas, Laura -- Fernandez-Callejo, Marcos -- Flicek, Paul -- Fuchs, Nina V -- Gut, Ivo -- Gut, Marta -- Hahn, Matthew W -- Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica -- Hillier, LaDeana W -- Hubley, Robert -- Ianc, Bianca -- Izsvak, Zsuzsanna -- Jablonski, Nina G -- Johnstone, Laurel M -- Karimpour-Fard, Anis -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Kostka, Dennis -- Lazar, Nathan H -- Lee, Sandra L -- Lewis, Lora R -- Liu, Yue -- Locke, Devin P -- Mallick, Swapan -- Mendez, Fernando L -- Muffato, Matthieu -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Nevonen, Kimberly A -- O'Bleness, Majesta -- Ochis, Cornelia -- Odom, Duncan T -- Pollard, Katherine S -- Quilez, Javier -- Reich, David -- Rocchi, Mariano -- Schumann, Gerald G -- Searle, Stephen -- Sikela, James M -- Skollar, Gabriella -- Smit, Arian -- Sonmez, Kemal -- ten Hallers, Boudewijn -- Terhune, Elizabeth -- Thomas, Gregg W C -- Ullmer, Brygg -- Ventura, Mario -- Walker, Jerilyn A -- Wall, Jeffrey D -- Walter, Lutz -- Ward, Michelle C -- Wheelan, Sarah J -- Whelan, Christopher W -- White, Simon -- Wilhelm, Larry J -- Woerner, August E -- Yandell, Mark -- Zhu, Baoli -- Hammer, Michael F -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Eichler, Evan E -- Fulton, Lucinda -- Fronick, Catrina -- Muzny, Donna M -- Warren, Wesley C -- Worley, Kim C -- Rogers, Jeffrey -- Wilson, Richard K -- Gibbs, Richard A -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 15603/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- 260372/European Research Council/International -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P30 AA019355/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- P30CA006973/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P51 RR000163/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM059290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM59290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002939/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG005226/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH081203/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01_HG005226/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T15 LM007088/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- U41 HG007497/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U41 HG007497-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U41HG007234/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- WT095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Sep 11;513(7517):195-201. doi: 10.1038/nature13679.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Oregon Health &Science University, Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. [2] Oregon National Primate Research Center, Division of Neuroscience, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA. [3] Oregon Health &Science University, Department of Molecular &Medical Genetics, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. [4] Oregon Health &Science University, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Division, Department of Medical Informatics &Clinical Epidemiology, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Nabsys, 60 Clifford Street, Providence, Rhode Island 02903, USA. ; 1] University of Arizona, ARL Division of Biotechnology, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA. [2] Stony Brook University, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook, New York 11790, USA. ; IBE, Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (UPF-CSIC), Universitat Pompeu Fabra, PRBB, Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. ; 1] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 1705 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Oregon Health &Science University, Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; 1] European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. [2] The Genome Analysis Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK. [3] Bill Lyons Informatics Center, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6DD, UK (J.He); Seven Bridges Genomics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (D.P.L.); Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA (F.L.M.); BioNano Genomics, San Diego, California 92121, USA (B.t.H.); University of Chicago, Department of Human Genetics, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA (M.C.W.); Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (C.W.W.); The CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China (B.Z.). ; Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Gene Bank of Primates, German Primate Center, Gottingen 37077, Germany. ; 1] European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. [2] European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. ; University of Bari, Department of Biology, Via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari, Italy. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Louisiana State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA. ; European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. ; University of Paul Sabatier, Toulouse 31062, France. ; The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA. ; Texas A&M University, Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, College Station, Texas 77843, USA. ; Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Babes-Bolyai-University, Institute for Interdisciplinary Research in Bio-Nano-Sciences, Molecular Biology Center, Cluj-Napoca 400084, Romania. ; Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, BACPAC Resources, Oakland, California 94609, USA. ; University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA. ; Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin 13125, Germany. ; Centro Nacional de Analisis Genomico (CNAG), Parc Cientific de Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain. ; Indiana University, School of Informatics and Computing, Bloomington, Indiana 47408, USA. ; The Genome Center at Washington University, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, Saint Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington 98109-5234, USA. ; The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Anthropology, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ; University of Arizona, ARL Division of Biotechnology, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA. ; University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Developmental Biology, Department of Computational and Systems Biology, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; Oregon Health &Science University, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Division, Department of Medical Informatics &Clinical Epidemiology, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; 1] The Genome Center at Washington University, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, Saint Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. [2] Bill Lyons Informatics Center, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6DD, UK (J.He); Seven Bridges Genomics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (D.P.L.); Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA (F.L.M.); BioNano Genomics, San Diego, California 92121, USA (B.t.H.); University of Chicago, Department of Human Genetics, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA (M.C.W.); Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (C.W.W.); The CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China (B.Z.). ; Harvard Medical School, Department of Genetics, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] University of Arizona, ARL Division of Biotechnology, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA. [2] Bill Lyons Informatics Center, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6DD, UK (J.He); Seven Bridges Genomics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (D.P.L.); Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA (F.L.M.); BioNano Genomics, San Diego, California 92121, USA (B.t.H.); University of Chicago, Department of Human Genetics, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA (M.C.W.); Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (C.W.W.); The CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China (B.Z.). ; Oregon National Primate Research Center, Division of Neuroscience, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA. ; 1] European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. [2] University of Cambridge, Cancer Research UK-Cambridge Institute, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK. ; 1] University of California, Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, California 94158-226, USA. [2] Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0794, USA. [3] Division of Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0794, USA. ; Paul Ehrlich Institute, Division of Medical Biotechnology, 63225 Langen, Germany. ; European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. ; Gibbon Conservation Center, 19100 Esguerra Rd, Santa Clarita, California 91350, USA. ; 1] Oregon Health &Science University, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Division, Department of Medical Informatics &Clinical Epidemiology, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. [2] Oregon Health &Science University, Center for Spoken Language Understanding, Institute on Development and Disability, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; 1] Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, BACPAC Resources, Oakland, California 94609, USA. [2] Bill Lyons Informatics Center, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6DD, UK (J.He); Seven Bridges Genomics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (D.P.L.); Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA (F.L.M.); BioNano Genomics, San Diego, California 92121, USA (B.t.H.); University of Chicago, Department of Human Genetics, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA (M.C.W.); Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (C.W.W.); The CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China (B.Z.). ; Louisiana State University, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA. ; 1] Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0794, USA. [2] Division of Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0794, USA. ; 1] University of Cambridge, Cancer Research UK-Cambridge Institute, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK. [2] Bill Lyons Informatics Center, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6DD, UK (J.He); Seven Bridges Genomics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (D.P.L.); Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA (F.L.M.); BioNano Genomics, San Diego, California 92121, USA (B.t.H.); University of Chicago, Department of Human Genetics, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA (M.C.W.); Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (C.W.W.); The CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China (B.Z.). ; 1] Oregon Health &Science University, Center for Spoken Language Understanding, Institute on Development and Disability, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. [2] Bill Lyons Informatics Center, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6DD, UK (J.He); Seven Bridges Genomics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (D.P.L.); Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA (F.L.M.); BioNano Genomics, San Diego, California 92121, USA (B.t.H.); University of Chicago, Department of Human Genetics, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA (M.C.W.); Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (C.W.W.); The CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China (B.Z.). ; 1] IBE, Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (UPF-CSIC), Universitat Pompeu Fabra, PRBB, Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. [2] Centro Nacional de Analisis Genomico (CNAG), Parc Cientific de Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25209798" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Evolution, Molecular ; Genome/*genetics ; Hominidae/classification/genetics ; Humans ; Hylobates/*classification/*genetics ; *Karyotype ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Phylogeny ; Retroelements/genetics ; Selection, Genetic ; Transcription Termination, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-01-28
    Description: Ancient genomic sequences have started to reveal the origin and the demographic impact of farmers from the Neolithic period spreading into Europe. The adoption of farming, stock breeding and sedentary societies during the Neolithic may have resulted in adaptive changes in genes associated with immunity and diet. However, the limited data available from earlier hunter-gatherers preclude an understanding of the selective processes associated with this crucial transition to agriculture in recent human evolution. Here we sequence an approximately 7,000-year-old Mesolithic skeleton discovered at the La Brana-Arintero site in Leon, Spain, to retrieve a complete pre-agricultural European human genome. Analysis of this genome in the context of other ancient samples suggests the existence of a common ancient genomic signature across western and central Eurasia from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic. The La Brana individual carries ancestral alleles in several skin pigmentation genes, suggesting that the light skin of modern Europeans was not yet ubiquitous in Mesolithic times. Moreover, we provide evidence that a significant number of derived, putatively adaptive variants associated with pathogen resistance in modern Europeans were already present in this hunter-gatherer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4269527/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4269527/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Olalde, Inigo -- Allentoft, Morten E -- Sanchez-Quinto, Federico -- Santpere, Gabriel -- Chiang, Charleston W K -- DeGiorgio, Michael -- Prado-Martinez, Javier -- Rodriguez, Juan Antonio -- Rasmussen, Simon -- Quilez, Javier -- Ramirez, Oscar -- Marigorta, Urko M -- Fernandez-Callejo, Marcos -- Prada, Maria Encina -- Encinas, Julio Manuel Vidal -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Netea, Mihai G -- Novembre, John -- Sturm, Richard A -- Sabeti, Pardis -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Navarro, Arcadi -- Willerslev, Eske -- Lalueza-Fox, Carles -- F32 GM106656/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- F32GM106656/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG007089/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01-HG007089/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 13;507(7491):225-8. doi: 10.1038/nature12960. Epub 2014 Jan 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Institut de Biologia Evolutiva, CSIC-UPF, Barcelona 08003, Spain [2]. ; 1] Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark [2]. ; Institut de Biologia Evolutiva, CSIC-UPF, Barcelona 08003, Spain. ; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; 1] Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [2] Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, 502 Wartik Laboratory, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ; Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark. ; I.E.S.O. 'Los Salados', Junta de Castilla y Leon, E-49600 Benavente, Spain. ; Junta de Castilla y Leon, Servicio de Cultura de Leon, E-24071 Leon, Spain. ; Center for Theoretical Evolutionary Genomics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Department of Medicine and Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 6500 Nijmegen, The Netherlands. ; Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Institute for Molecular Bioscience, Melanogenix Group, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. ; 1] Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA [2] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Institut de Biologia Evolutiva, CSIC-UPF, Barcelona 08003, Spain [2] Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ; 1] Institut de Biologia Evolutiva, CSIC-UPF, Barcelona 08003, Spain [2] Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain [3] Centre de Regulacio Genomica (CRG), Barcelona 08003, Catalonia, Spain [4] National Institute for Bioinformatics (INB), Barcelona 08003, Catalonia, Spain. ; Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24463515" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/history ; *Alleles ; Biological Evolution ; Caves ; European Continental Ancestry Group/*genetics ; Eye Color/genetics ; *Fossils ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genomics ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Immunity/*genetics ; Lactose Intolerance/genetics ; Male ; Pigmentation/*genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Principal Component Analysis ; Skeleton ; Skin Pigmentation/genetics ; Spain/ethnology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-07-05
    Description: Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape species and seven subspecies and report 88.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our analysis provides support for genetically distinct populations within each species, signals of gene flow, and the split of common chimpanzees into two distinct groups: Nigeria-Cameroon/western and central/eastern populations. We find extensive inbreeding in almost all wild populations, with eastern gorillas being the most extreme. Inferred effective population sizes have varied radically over time in different lineages and this appears to have a profound effect on the genetic diversity at, or close to, genes in almost all species. We discover and assign 1,982 loss-of-function variants throughout the human and great ape lineages, determining that the rate of gene loss has not been different in the human branch compared to other internal branches in the great ape phylogeny. This comprehensive catalogue of great ape genome diversity provides a framework for understanding evolution and a resource for more effective management of wild and captive great ape populations.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3822165/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3822165/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Prado-Martinez, Javier -- Sudmant, Peter H -- Kidd, Jeffrey M -- Li, Heng -- Kelley, Joanna L -- Lorente-Galdos, Belen -- Veeramah, Krishna R -- Woerner, August E -- O'Connor, Timothy D -- Santpere, Gabriel -- Cagan, Alexander -- Theunert, Christoph -- Casals, Ferran -- Laayouni, Hafid -- Munch, Kasper -- Hobolth, Asger -- Halager, Anders E -- Malig, Maika -- Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica -- Hernando-Herraez, Irene -- Prufer, Kay -- Pybus, Marc -- Johnstone, Laurel -- Lachmann, Michael -- Alkan, Can -- Twigg, Dorina -- Petit, Natalia -- Baker, Carl -- Hormozdiari, Fereydoun -- Fernandez-Callejo, Marcos -- Dabad, Marc -- Wilson, Michael L -- Stevison, Laurie -- Camprubi, Cristina -- Carvalho, Tiago -- Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora -- Vives, Laura -- Mele, Marta -- Abello, Teresa -- Kondova, Ivanela -- Bontrop, Ronald E -- Pusey, Anne -- Lankester, Felix -- Kiyang, John A -- Bergl, Richard A -- Lonsdorf, Elizabeth -- Myers, Simon -- Ventura, Mario -- Gagneux, Pascal -- Comas, David -- Siegismund, Hans -- Blanc, Julie -- Agueda-Calpena, Lidia -- Gut, Marta -- Fulton, Lucinda -- Tishkoff, Sarah A -- Mullikin, James C -- Wilson, Richard K -- Gut, Ivo G -- Gonder, Mary Katherine -- Ryder, Oliver A -- Hahn, Beatrice H -- Navarro, Arcadi -- Akey, Joshua M -- Bertranpetit, Jaume -- Reich, David -- Mailund, Thomas -- Schierup, Mikkel H -- Hvilsom, Christina -- Andres, Aida M -- Wall, Jeffrey D -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- Hammer, Michael F -- Eichler, Evan E -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 260372/European Research Council/International -- DP1 ES022577/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- DP1ES022577-04/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/ -- GM100233/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM095882/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM100233/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01_HG005226/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jul 25;499(7459):471-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12228. Epub 2013 Jul 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut de Biologia Evolutiva, CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, PRBB, Doctor Aiguader 88, Barcelona, Catalonia 08003, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23823723" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa ; Animals ; Animals, Wild/genetics ; Animals, Zoo/genetics ; Asia, Southeastern ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Flow/genetics ; *Genetic Variation ; Genetics, Population ; Genome/genetics ; Gorilla gorilla/classification/genetics ; Hominidae/classification/*genetics ; Humans ; Inbreeding ; Pan paniscus/classification/genetics ; Pan troglodytes/classification/genetics ; Phylogeny ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Population Density
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-01-10
    Description: The emergence of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) from jawless vertebrates was accompanied by major morphological and physiological innovations, such as hinged jaws, paired fins and immunoglobulin-based adaptive immunity. Gnathostomes subsequently diverged into two groups, the cartilaginous fishes and the bony vertebrates. Here we report the whole-genome analysis of a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). We find that the C. milii genome is the slowest evolving of all known vertebrates, including the 'living fossil' coelacanth, and features extensive synteny conservation with tetrapod genomes, making it a good model for comparative analyses of gnathostome genomes. Our functional studies suggest that the lack of genes encoding secreted calcium-binding phosphoproteins in cartilaginous fishes explains the absence of bone in their endoskeleton. Furthermore, the adaptive immune system of cartilaginous fishes is unusual: it lacks the canonical CD4 co-receptor and most transcription factors, cytokines and cytokine receptors related to the CD4 lineage, despite the presence of polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. It thus presents a new model for understanding the origin of adaptive immunity.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3964593/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3964593/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Venkatesh, Byrappa -- Lee, Alison P -- Ravi, Vydianathan -- Maurya, Ashish K -- Lian, Michelle M -- Swann, Jeremy B -- Ohta, Yuko -- Flajnik, Martin F -- Sutoh, Yoichi -- Kasahara, Masanori -- Hoon, Shawn -- Gangu, Vamshidhar -- Roy, Scott W -- Irimia, Manuel -- Korzh, Vladimir -- Kondrychyn, Igor -- Lim, Zhi Wei -- Tay, Boon-Hui -- Tohari, Sumanty -- Kong, Kiat Whye -- Ho, Shufen -- Lorente-Galdos, Belen -- Quilez, Javier -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Raney, Brian J -- Ingham, Philip W -- Tay, Alice -- Hillier, LaDeana W -- Minx, Patrick -- Boehm, Thomas -- Wilson, Richard K -- Brenner, Sydney -- Warren, Wesley C -- AI27877/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI027877/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 OD010549/OD/NIH HHS/ -- RR006603/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U41 HG002371/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jan 9;505(7482):174-9. doi: 10.1038/nature12826.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Comparative Genomics Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR, Biopolis, Singapore 138673 [2] Department of Paediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228. ; Comparative Genomics Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR, Biopolis, Singapore 138673. ; Developmental and Biomedical Genetics Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR, Biopolis, Singapore 138673. ; Department of Developmental Immunology, Max-Planck-Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Stuebeweg 51, 79108 Freiburg, Germany. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan. ; Molecular Engineering Laboratory, Biomedical Sciences Institutes, A*STAR, Biopolis, Singapore 138673. ; Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132, USA. ; Banting and Best Department of Medical Research and Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. ; Fish Developmental Biology Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR, Biopolis, Singapore 138673. ; 1] Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (UPF-CSIC), PRBB, 08003 Barcelona, Spain [2] Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ; Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA. ; The Genome Institute at Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24402279" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/metabolism ; Cell Lineage/immunology ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Fish Proteins/classification/genetics ; Gene Deletion ; Genome/*genetics ; Genomics ; Immunity, Cellular/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Osteogenesis/genetics ; Phosphoproteins/genetics/metabolism ; Phylogeny ; Protein Structure, Tertiary/genetics ; Sharks/*genetics/immunology ; T-Lymphocytes/cytology/immunology ; Time Factors ; Vertebrates/classification/genetics ; Zebrafish/genetics/growth & development
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2010-05-08
    Description: Neandertals, the closest evolutionary relatives of present-day humans, lived in large parts of Europe and western Asia before disappearing 30,000 years ago. We present a draft sequence of the Neandertal genome composed of more than 4 billion nucleotides from three individuals. Comparisons of the Neandertal genome to the genomes of five present-day humans from different parts of the world identify a number of genomic regions that may have been affected by positive selection in ancestral modern humans, including genes involved in metabolism and in cognitive and skeletal development. We show that Neandertals shared more genetic variants with present-day humans in Eurasia than with present-day humans in sub-Saharan Africa, suggesting that gene flow from Neandertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Green, Richard E -- Krause, Johannes -- Briggs, Adrian W -- Maricic, Tomislav -- Stenzel, Udo -- Kircher, Martin -- Patterson, Nick -- Li, Heng -- Zhai, Weiwei -- Fritz, Markus Hsi-Yang -- Hansen, Nancy F -- Durand, Eric Y -- Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo -- Jensen, Jeffrey D -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Alkan, Can -- Prufer, Kay -- Meyer, Matthias -- Burbano, Hernan A -- Good, Jeffrey M -- Schultz, Rigo -- Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer -- Butthof, Anne -- Hober, Barbara -- Hoffner, Barbara -- Siegemund, Madlen -- Weihmann, Antje -- Nusbaum, Chad -- Lander, Eric S -- Russ, Carsten -- Novod, Nathaniel -- Affourtit, Jason -- Egholm, Michael -- Verna, Christine -- Rudan, Pavao -- Brajkovic, Dejana -- Kucan, Zeljko -- Gusic, Ivan -- Doronichev, Vladimir B -- Golovanova, Liubov V -- Lalueza-Fox, Carles -- de la Rasilla, Marco -- Fortea, Javier -- Rosas, Antonio -- Schmitz, Ralf W -- Johnson, Philip L F -- Eichler, Evan E -- Falush, Daniel -- Birney, Ewan -- Mullikin, James C -- Slatkin, Montgomery -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Kelso, Janet -- Lachmann, Michael -- Reich, David -- Paabo, Svante -- GM40282/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2010 May 7;328(5979):710-22. doi: 10.1126/science.1188021.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. green@eva.mpg.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20448178" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: African Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Animals ; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Base Sequence ; Bone and Bones ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Extinction, Biological ; Female ; *Fossils ; Gene Dosage ; Gene Flow ; Genetic Variation ; *Genome ; *Genome, Human ; Haplotypes ; Hominidae/*genetics ; Humans ; Pan troglodytes/genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Selection, Genetic ; Sequence Alignment ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Time
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-04-11
    Description: Mountain gorillas are an endangered great ape subspecies and a prominent focus for conservation, yet we know little about their genomic diversity and evolutionary past. We sequenced whole genomes from multiple wild individuals and compared the genomes of all four Gorilla subspecies. We found that the two eastern subspecies have experienced a prolonged population decline over the past 100,000 years, resulting in very low genetic diversity and an increased overall burden of deleterious variation. A further recent decline in the mountain gorilla population has led to extensive inbreeding, such that individuals are typically homozygous at 34% of their sequence, leading to the purging of severely deleterious recessive mutations from the population. We discuss the causes of their decline and the consequences for their future survival.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4668944/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4668944/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Xue, Yali -- Prado-Martinez, Javier -- Sudmant, Peter H -- Narasimhan, Vagheesh -- Ayub, Qasim -- Szpak, Michal -- Frandsen, Peter -- Chen, Yuan -- Yngvadottir, Bryndis -- Cooper, David N -- de Manuel, Marc -- Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica -- Lobon, Irene -- Siegismund, Hans R -- Pagani, Luca -- Quail, Michael A -- Hvilsom, Christina -- Mudakikwa, Antoine -- Eichler, Evan E -- Cranfield, Michael R -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Tyler-Smith, Chris -- Scally, Aylwyn -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 099769/Z/12/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 260372/European Research Council/International -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Apr 10;348(6231):242-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa3952. Epub 2015 Apr 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. ; Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (CSIC/UPF), Parque de Investigacion Biomedica de Barcelona (PRBB), Barcelona, Catalonia 08003, Spain. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WA, UK. ; Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. ; Institute of Medical Genetics, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, 40134 Bologna, Italy. ; Research and Conservation, Copenhagen Zoo, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark. ; Rwanda Development Board, KG 9 Avenue, Kigali, Rwanda. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Seattle, WA 91895, USA. ; Gorilla Doctors, Karen C. Drayer Wildlife Health Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. ; Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (CSIC/UPF), Parque de Investigacion Biomedica de Barcelona (PRBB), Barcelona, Catalonia 08003, Spain. Centro Nacional de Analisis Genomico (Parc Cientific de Barcelona), Baldiri Reixac 4, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. cts@sanger.ac.uk aos21@cam.ac.uk. ; Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EH, UK. cts@sanger.ac.uk aos21@cam.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25859046" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological ; Animals ; Biological Evolution ; DNA Copy Number Variations ; Democratic Republic of the Congo ; Endangered Species ; Female ; *Genetic Variation ; *Genome ; Gorilla gorilla/classification/*genetics/physiology ; Homozygote ; *Inbreeding ; Linkage Disequilibrium ; Male ; Mutation ; Population Dynamics ; Rwanda ; Selection, Genetic ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Species Specificity ; Time Factors
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2009-02-13
    Description: It is generally accepted that the extent of phenotypic change between human and great apes is dissonant with the rate of molecular change. Between these two groups, proteins are virtually identical, cytogenetically there are few rearrangements that distinguish ape-human chromosomes, and rates of single-base-pair change and retrotransposon activity have slowed particularly within hominid lineages when compared to rodents or monkeys. Studies of gene family evolution indicate that gene loss and gain are enriched within the primate lineage. Here, we perform a systematic analysis of duplication content of four primate genomes (macaque, orang-utan, chimpanzee and human) in an effort to understand the pattern and rates of genomic duplication during hominid evolution. We find that the ancestral branch leading to human and African great apes shows the most significant increase in duplication activity both in terms of base pairs and in terms of events. This duplication acceleration within the ancestral species is significant when compared to lineage-specific rate estimates even after accounting for copy-number polymorphism and homoplasy. We discover striking examples of recurrent and independent gene-containing duplications within the gorilla and chimpanzee that are absent in the human lineage. Our results suggest that the evolutionary properties of copy-number mutation differ significantly from other forms of genetic mutation and, in contrast to the hominid slowdown of single-base-pair mutations, there has been a genomic burst of duplication activity at this period during human evolution.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2751663/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2751663/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Kidd, Jeffrey M -- Ventura, Mario -- Graves, Tina A -- Cheng, Ze -- Hillier, LaDeana W -- Jiang, Zhaoshi -- Baker, Carl -- Malfavon-Borja, Ray -- Fulton, Lucinda A -- Alkan, Can -- Aksay, Gozde -- Girirajan, Santhosh -- Siswara, Priscillia -- Chen, Lin -- Cardone, Maria Francesca -- Navarro, Arcadi -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Wilson, Richard K -- Eichler, Evan E -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P51-RR013986/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002385-08/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079-06/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):877-81. doi: 10.1038/nature07744.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19212409" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa ; Animals ; Catarrhini/classification/*genetics ; Chromosome Mapping ; *Evolution, Molecular ; *Gene Duplication ; Genome/*genetics ; Humans ; Polymorphism, Genetic ; Reproducibility of Results
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2010-12-24
    Description: Using DNA extracted from a finger bone found in Denisova Cave in southern Siberia, we have sequenced the genome of an archaic hominin to about 1.9-fold coverage. This individual is from a group that shares a common origin with Neanderthals. This population was not involved in the putative gene flow from Neanderthals into Eurasians; however, the data suggest that it contributed 4-6% of its genetic material to the genomes of present-day Melanesians. We designate this hominin population 'Denisovans' and suggest that it may have been widespread in Asia during the Late Pleistocene epoch. A tooth found in Denisova Cave carries a mitochondrial genome highly similar to that of the finger bone. This tooth shares no derived morphological features with Neanderthals or modern humans, further indicating that Denisovans have an evolutionary history distinct from Neanderthals and modern humans.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4306417/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4306417/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reich, David -- Green, Richard E -- Kircher, Martin -- Krause, Johannes -- Patterson, Nick -- Durand, Eric Y -- Viola, Bence -- Briggs, Adrian W -- Stenzel, Udo -- Johnson, Philip L F -- Maricic, Tomislav -- Good, Jeffrey M -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Alkan, Can -- Fu, Qiaomei -- Mallick, Swapan -- Li, Heng -- Meyer, Matthias -- Eichler, Evan E -- Stoneking, Mark -- Richards, Michael -- Talamo, Sahra -- Shunkov, Michael V -- Derevianko, Anatoli P -- Hublin, Jean-Jacques -- Kelso, Janet -- Slatkin, Montgomery -- Paabo, Svante -- R01 GM040282/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM40282/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 Dec 23;468(7327):1053-60. doi: 10.1038/nature09710.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. reich@genetics.med.harvard.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21179161" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Asia ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Europe ; Finger Phalanges/chemistry ; *Fossils ; *Gene Flow ; Genome/*genetics ; Hominidae/*classification/*genetics ; Humans ; Melanesia ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Siberia ; Tooth/anatomy & histology/chemistry
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: It has been shown that Neanderthals contributed genetically to modern humans outside Africa 47,000-65,000 years ago. Here we analyse the genomes of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan from the Altai Mountains in Siberia together with the sequences of chromosome 21 of two Neanderthals from Spain and Croatia. We find that a population that diverged early from other modern humans in Africa contributed genetically to the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains roughly 100,000 years ago. By contrast, we do not detect such a genetic contribution in the Denisovan or the two European Neanderthals. We conclude that in addition to later interbreeding events, the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains and early modern humans met and interbred, possibly in the Near East, many thousands of years earlier than previously thought.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kuhlwilm, Martin -- Gronau, Ilan -- Hubisz, Melissa J -- de Filippo, Cesare -- Prado-Martinez, Javier -- Kircher, Martin -- Fu, Qiaomei -- Burbano, Hernan A -- Lalueza-Fox, Carles -- de la Rasilla, Marco -- Rosas, Antonio -- Rudan, Pavao -- Brajkovic, Dejana -- Kucan, Zeljko -- Gusic, Ivan -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Andres, Aida M -- Viola, Bence -- Paabo, Svante -- Meyer, Matthias -- Siepel, Adam -- Castellano, Sergi -- GM102192/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM102192/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH106874/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 25;530(7591):429-33. doi: 10.1038/nature16544. Epub 2016 Feb 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; Efi Arazi School of Computer Science, Herzliya Interdisciplinary Center (IDC), Herzliya 46150, Israel. ; Department of Biological Statistics and Computational Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850, USA. ; Institute of Evolutionary Biology (UPF-CSIC), 08003 Barcelona, Spain. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, IVPP, CAS, Beijing 100044, China. ; Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, 72076 Tubingen, Germany. ; Area de Prehistoria, Departamento de Historia, Universidad de Oviedo, 33011 Oviedo, Spain. ; Departamento de Paleobiologia, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, 28006 Madrid, Spain. ; Anthropology Center of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. ; Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Institute for Quaternary Paleontology and Geology, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. ; Catalan Institution of Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, Spain. ; Centro Nacional de Analisis Genomico (CRG-CNAG), 08028 Barcelona, Spain. ; Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2S2, Canada. ; Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; Simons Center for Quantitative Biology, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26886800" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-01-29
    Description: 'Orang-utan' is derived from a Malay term meaning 'man of the forest' and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution. Here we present a Sumatran orang-utan draft genome assembly and short read sequence data from five Sumatran and five Bornean orang-utan genomes. Our analyses reveal that, compared to other primates, the orang-utan genome has many unique features. Structural evolution of the orang-utan genome has proceeded much more slowly than other great apes, evidenced by fewer rearrangements, less segmental duplication, a lower rate of gene family turnover and surprisingly quiescent Alu repeats, which have played a major role in restructuring other primate genomes. We also describe a primate polymorphic neocentromere, found in both Pongo species, emphasizing the gradual evolution of orang-utan genome structure. Orang-utans have extremely low energy usage for a eutherian mammal, far lower than their hominid relatives. Adding their genome to the repertoire of sequenced primates illuminates new signals of positive selection in several pathways including glycolipid metabolism. From the population perspective, both Pongo species are deeply diverse; however, Sumatran individuals possess greater diversity than their Bornean counterparts, and more species-specific variation. Our estimate of Bornean/Sumatran speciation time, 400,000 years ago, is more recent than most previous studies and underscores the complexity of the orang-utan speciation process. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size (N(e)) expanded exponentially relative to the ancestral N(e) after the split, while Bornean N(e) declined over the same period. Overall, the resources and analyses presented here offer new opportunities in evolutionary genomics, insights into hominid biology, and an extensive database of variation for conservation efforts.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060778/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060778/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Locke, Devin P -- Hillier, LaDeana W -- Warren, Wesley C -- Worley, Kim C -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Muzny, Donna M -- Yang, Shiaw-Pyng -- Wang, Zhengyuan -- Chinwalla, Asif T -- Minx, Pat -- Mitreva, Makedonka -- Cook, Lisa -- Delehaunty, Kim D -- Fronick, Catrina -- Schmidt, Heather -- Fulton, Lucinda A -- Fulton, Robert S -- Nelson, Joanne O -- Magrini, Vincent -- Pohl, Craig -- Graves, Tina A -- Markovic, Chris -- Cree, Andy -- Dinh, Huyen H -- Hume, Jennifer -- Kovar, Christie L -- Fowler, Gerald R -- Lunter, Gerton -- Meader, Stephen -- Heger, Andreas -- Ponting, Chris P -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Alkan, Can -- Chen, Lin -- Cheng, Ze -- Kidd, Jeffrey M -- Eichler, Evan E -- White, Simon -- Searle, Stephen -- Vilella, Albert J -- Chen, Yuan -- Flicek, Paul -- Ma, Jian -- Raney, Brian -- Suh, Bernard -- Burhans, Richard -- Herrero, Javier -- Haussler, David -- Faria, Rui -- Fernando, Olga -- Darre, Fleur -- Farre, Domenec -- Gazave, Elodie -- Oliva, Meritxell -- Navarro, Arcadi -- Roberto, Roberta -- Capozzi, Oronzo -- Archidiacono, Nicoletta -- Della Valle, Giuliano -- Purgato, Stefania -- Rocchi, Mariano -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Walker, Jerilyn A -- Ullmer, Brygg -- Batzer, Mark A -- Smit, Arian F A -- Hubley, Robert -- Casola, Claudio -- Schrider, Daniel R -- Hahn, Matthew W -- Quesada, Victor -- Puente, Xose S -- Ordonez, Gonzalo R -- Lopez-Otin, Carlos -- Vinar, Tomas -- Brejova, Brona -- Ratan, Aakrosh -- Harris, Robert S -- Miller, Webb -- Kosiol, Carolin -- Lawson, Heather A -- Taliwal, Vikas -- Martins, Andre L -- Siepel, Adam -- Roychoudhury, Arindam -- Ma, Xin -- Degenhardt, Jeremiah -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- Gutenkunst, Ryan N -- Mailund, Thomas -- Dutheil, Julien Y -- Hobolth, Asger -- Schierup, Mikkel H -- Ryder, Oliver A -- Yoshinaga, Yuko -- de Jong, Pieter J -- Weinstock, George M -- Rogers, Jeffrey -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Wilson, Richard K -- G0501331/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- HG002238/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- MC_U137761446/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P01 AG022064/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM059290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM59290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002939/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079-08/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jan 27;469(7331):529-33. doi: 10.1038/nature09687.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Genome Center at Washington University, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, Saint Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. dlocke@wustl.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21270892" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Centromere/genetics ; Cerebrosides/metabolism ; Chromosomes ; Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Gene Rearrangement/genetics ; Genetic Speciation ; *Genetic Variation ; Genetics, Population ; Genome/*genetics ; Humans ; Male ; Phylogeny ; Pongo abelii/*genetics ; Pongo pygmaeus/*genetics ; Population Density ; Population Dynamics ; Species Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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