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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2010-11-26
    Description: Kinetochores are macromolecular machines that couple chromosomes to dynamic microtubule tips during cell division, thereby generating force to segregate the chromosomes. Accurate segregation depends on selective stabilization of correct 'bi-oriented' kinetochore-microtubule attachments, which come under tension as the result of opposing forces exerted by microtubules. Tension is thought to stabilize these bi-oriented attachments indirectly, by suppressing the destabilizing activity of a kinase, Aurora B. However, a complete mechanistic understanding of the role of tension requires reconstitution of kinetochore-microtubule attachments for biochemical and biophysical analyses in vitro. Here we show that native kinetochore particles retaining the majority of kinetochore proteins can be purified from budding yeast and used to reconstitute dynamic microtubule attachments. Individual kinetochore particles maintain load-bearing associations with assembling and disassembling ends of single microtubules for 〉30 min, providing a close match to the persistent coupling seen in vivo between budding yeast kinetochores and single microtubules. Moreover, tension increases the lifetimes of the reconstituted attachments directly, through a catch bond-like mechanism that does not require Aurora B. On the basis of these findings, we propose that tension selectively stabilizes proper kinetochore-microtubule attachments in vivo through a combination of direct mechanical stabilization and tension-dependent phosphoregulation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3108429/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3108429/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Akiyoshi, Bungo -- Sarangapani, Krishna K -- Powers, Andrew F -- Nelson, Christian R -- Reichow, Steve L -- Arellano-Santoyo, Hugo -- Gonen, Tamir -- Ranish, Jeffrey A -- Asbury, Charles L -- Biggins, Sue -- CA015704/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- GM064386/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM078069/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA015704-27/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM076547/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM076547-05/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- PM50 GM076547/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM064386/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM064386-09/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM078069/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM078069-04/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM079373/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM079373-05/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM79373/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007270/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007270-35/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007312/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007312-26/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32GM07270/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32HL007312/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 Nov 25;468(7323):576-9. doi: 10.1038/nature09594.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21107429" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Chromosomes/*metabolism ; Fungal Proteins/isolation & purification/metabolism ; Kinetochores/*metabolism ; Microtubules/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*cytology/genetics/*metabolism
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-05-30
    Description: The self-assembly of proteins into highly ordered nanoscale architectures is a hallmark of biological systems. The sophisticated functions of these molecular machines have inspired the development of methods to engineer self-assembling protein nanostructures; however, the design of multi-component protein nanomaterials with high accuracy remains an outstanding challenge. Here we report a computational method for designing protein nanomaterials in which multiple copies of two distinct subunits co-assemble into a specific architecture. We use the method to design five 24-subunit cage-like protein nanomaterials in two distinct symmetric architectures and experimentally demonstrate that their structures are in close agreement with the computational design models. The accuracy of the method and the number and variety of two-component materials that it makes accessible suggest a route to the construction of functional protein nanomaterials tailored to specific applications.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4137318/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4137318/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉King, Neil P -- Bale, Jacob B -- Sheffler, William -- McNamara, Dan E -- Gonen, Shane -- Gonen, Tamir -- Yeates, Todd O -- Baker, David -- T32 GM067555/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM067555/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jun 5;510(7503):103-8. doi: 10.1038/nature13404. Epub 2014 May 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [3]. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] Graduate Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [3]. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2]. ; UCLA Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA. ; Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA. ; 1] UCLA Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA [2] UCLA-DOE Institute for Genomics and Proteomics, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA [3] UCLA Molecular Biology Institute, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [3] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24870237" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Computer Simulation ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Drug Design ; Models, Molecular ; Nanostructures/*chemistry/ultrastructure ; Protein Subunits/chemistry ; Proteins/*chemistry/ultrastructure
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-05-15
    Description: Mineral nitrogen in nature is often found in the form of nitrate (NO3(-)). Numerous microorganisms evolved to assimilate nitrate and use it as a major source of mineral nitrogen uptake. Nitrate, which is central in nitrogen metabolism, is first reduced to nitrite (NO2(-)) through a two-electron reduction reaction. The accumulation of cellular nitrite can be harmful because nitrite can be reduced to the cytotoxic nitric oxide. Instead, nitrite is rapidly removed from the cell by channels and transporters, or reduced to ammonium or dinitrogen through the action of assimilatory enzymes. Despite decades of effort no structure is currently available for any nitrate transport protein and the mechanism by which nitrate is transported remains largely unknown. Here we report the structure of a bacterial nitrate/nitrite transport protein, NarK, from Escherichia coli, with and without substrate. The structures reveal a positively charged substrate-translocation pathway lacking protonatable residues, suggesting that NarK functions as a nitrate/nitrite exchanger and that protons are unlikely to be co-transported. Conserved arginine residues comprise the substrate-binding pocket, which is formed by association of helices from the two halves of NarK. Key residues that are important for substrate recognition and transport are identified and related to extensive mutagenesis and functional studies. We propose that NarK exchanges nitrate for nitrite by a rocker switch mechanism facilitated by inter-domain hydrogen bond networks.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3669217/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3669217/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zheng, Hongjin -- Wisedchaisri, Goragot -- Gonen, Tamir -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 May 30;497(7451):647-51. doi: 10.1038/nature12139. Epub 2013 May 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23665960" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anion Transport Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Escherichia coli/*chemistry ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Models, Molecular ; Nitrates/*metabolism ; Nitrites/*metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Protons
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-09-10
    Description: The protein alpha-synuclein is the main component of Lewy bodies, the neuron-associated aggregates seen in Parkinson disease and other neurodegenerative pathologies. An 11-residue segment, which we term NACore, appears to be responsible for amyloid formation and cytotoxicity of human alpha-synuclein. Here we describe crystals of NACore that have dimensions smaller than the wavelength of visible light and thus are invisible by optical microscopy. As the crystals are thousands of times too small for structure determination by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, we use micro-electron diffraction to determine the structure at atomic resolution. The 1.4 A resolution structure demonstrates that this method can determine previously unknown protein structures and here yields, to our knowledge, the highest resolution achieved by any cryo-electron microscopy method to date. The structure exhibits protofibrils built of pairs of face-to-face beta-sheets. X-ray fibre diffraction patterns show the similarity of NACore to toxic fibrils of full-length alpha-synuclein. The NACore structure, together with that of a second segment, inspires a model for most of the ordered portion of the toxic, full-length alpha-synuclein fibril, presenting opportunities for the design of inhibitors of alpha-synuclein fibrils.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rodriguez, Jose A -- Ivanova, Magdalena I -- Sawaya, Michael R -- Cascio, Duilio -- Reyes, Francis E -- Shi, Dan -- Sangwan, Smriti -- Guenther, Elizabeth L -- Johnson, Lisa M -- Zhang, Meng -- Jiang, Lin -- Arbing, Mark A -- Nannenga, Brent L -- Hattne, Johan -- Whitelegge, Julian -- Brewster, Aaron S -- Messerschmidt, Marc -- Boutet, Sebastien -- Sauter, Nicholas K -- Gonen, Tamir -- Eisenberg, David S -- 1R01-AG029430/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG016570/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- GM095887/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM102520/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41 GM103403/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM095887/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM102520/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 24;525(7570):486-90. doi: 10.1038/nature15368. Epub 2015 Sep 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, UCLA-DOE Institute, Departments of Biological Chemistry and Chemistry and Biochemistry, Box 951570, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1570, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Research Campus, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA. ; Box 42, NPI-Semel Institute, 760 Westwood Plaza, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90024, USA. ; Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26352473" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amyloid/chemistry ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Electrons ; Humans ; Lewy Bodies/chemistry ; Models, Molecular ; Nanoparticles/*chemistry/*toxicity ; Parkinson Disease ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Scattering, Radiation ; alpha-Synuclein/*chemistry/*toxicity
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-06-02
    Description: We describe a general computational method for designing proteins that self-assemble to a desired symmetric architecture. Protein building blocks are docked together symmetrically to identify complementary packing arrangements, and low-energy protein-protein interfaces are then designed between the building blocks in order to drive self-assembly. We used trimeric protein building blocks to design a 24-subunit, 13-nm diameter complex with octahedral symmetry and a 12-subunit, 11-nm diameter complex with tetrahedral symmetry. The designed proteins assembled to the desired oligomeric states in solution, and the crystal structures of the complexes revealed that the resulting materials closely match the design models. The method can be used to design a wide variety of self-assembling protein nanomaterials.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4138882/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4138882/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉King, Neil P -- Sheffler, William -- Sawaya, Michael R -- Vollmar, Breanna S -- Sumida, John P -- Andre, Ingemar -- Gonen, Tamir -- Yeates, Todd O -- Baker, David -- RR-15301/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jun 1;336(6085):1171-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1219364.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22654060" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Chromatography, Gel ; Cloning, Molecular ; Computational Biology ; Computer Simulation ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Escherichia coli/genetics/metabolism ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Microscopy, Electron ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Weight ; Mutation ; *Nanostructures ; *Protein Engineering ; *Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Subunits/*chemistry/genetics ; Proteins/*chemistry/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-06-20
    Description: We describe a general approach to designing two-dimensional (2D) protein arrays mediated by noncovalent protein-protein interfaces. Protein homo-oligomers are placed into one of the seventeen 2D layer groups, the degrees of freedom of the lattice are sampled to identify configurations with shape-complementary interacting surfaces, and the interaction energy is minimized using sequence design calculations. We used the method to design proteins that self-assemble into layer groups P 3 2 1, P 4 2(1) 2, and P 6. Projection maps of micrometer-scale arrays, assembled both in vitro and in vivo, are consistent with the design models and display the target layer group symmetry. Such programmable 2D protein lattices should enable new approaches to structure determination, sensing, and nanomaterial engineering.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gonen, Shane -- DiMaio, Frank -- Gonen, Tamir -- Baker, David -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jun 19;348(6241):1365-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa9897.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA. Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA. gonent@janelia.hhmi.org dabaker@uw.edu. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. gonent@janelia.hhmi.org dabaker@uw.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26089516" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Computer-Aided Design ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; *Protein Array Analysis ; Protein Engineering/*methods ; Proteins/*chemistry
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-10-25
    Description: We describe a procedure for designing proteins with backbones produced by varying the parameters in the Crick coiled coil-generating equations. Combinatorial design calculations identify low-energy sequences for alternative helix supercoil arrangements, and the helices in the lowest-energy arrangements are connected by loop building. We design an antiparallel monomeric untwisted three-helix bundle with 80-residue helices, an antiparallel monomeric right-handed four-helix bundle, and a pentameric parallel left-handed five-helix bundle. The designed proteins are extremely stable (extrapolated DeltaGfold 〉 60 kilocalories per mole), and their crystal structures are close to those of the design models with nearly identical core packing between the helices. The approach enables the custom design of hyperstable proteins with fine-tuned geometries for a wide range of applications.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4612401/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4612401/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Po-Ssu -- Oberdorfer, Gustav -- Xu, Chunfu -- Pei, Xue Y -- Nannenga, Brent L -- Rogers, Joseph M -- DiMaio, Frank -- Gonen, Tamir -- Luisi, Ben -- Baker, David -- 076846/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 24;346(6208):481-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1257481.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Humboldtstrasse 50/3, 8010-Graz, Austria. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1GA, UK. ; Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. dabaker@u.washington.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25342806" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Protein Denaturation ; Protein Engineering/*methods ; *Protein Structure, Secondary ; Thermodynamics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Genome sequencing of environmental bacteria allows identification of biosynthetic gene clusters encoding unusual combinations of enzymes that produce unknown natural products. We identified a pathway in which a ribosomally synthesized small peptide serves as a scaffold for nonribosomal peptide extension and chemical modification. Amino acids are transferred to the carboxyl terminus of the peptide through adenosine triphosphate and amino acyl-tRNA–dependent chemistry that is independent of the ribosome. Oxidative rearrangement, carboxymethylation, and proteolysis of a terminal cysteine yields an amino acid–derived small molecule. Microcrystal electron diffraction demonstrates that the resulting product is isosteric to glutamate. We show that a similar peptide extension is used during the biosynthesis of the ammosamides, which are cytotoxic pyrroloquinoline alkaloids. These results suggest an alternative paradigm for biosynthesis of amino acid–derived natural products.〈/p〉
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-10-08
    Description: Electrons, because of their strong interaction with matter, produce high-resolution diffraction patterns from tiny 3D crystals only a few hundred nanometers thick in a frozen-hydrated state. This discovery offers the prospect of facile structure determination of complex biological macromolecules, which cannot be coaxed to form crystals large enough for conventional...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-10-03
    Description: The conserved Ndc80 complex is an essential microtubule-binding component of the kinetochore. Recent findings suggest that the Ndc80 complex influences microtubule dynamics at kinetochores in vivo. However, it was unclear if the Ndc80 complex mediates these effects directly, or by affecting other factors localized at the kinetochore. Using a reconstituted...
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    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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