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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2008-04-04
    Description: Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death, causing about 5 million premature deaths worldwide each year. Evidence for genetic influence on smoking behaviour and nicotine dependence (ND) has prompted a search for susceptibility genes. Furthermore, assessing the impact of sequence variants on smoking-related diseases is important to public health. Smoking is the major risk factor for lung cancer (LC) and is one of the main risk factors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Here we identify a common variant in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15q24 with an effect on smoking quantity, ND and the risk of two smoking-related diseases in populations of European descent. The variant has an effect on the number of cigarettes smoked per day in our sample of smokers. The same variant was associated with ND in a previous genome-wide association study that used low-quantity smokers as controls, and with a similar approach we observe a highly significant association with ND. A comparison of cases of LC and PAD with population controls each showed that the variant confers risk of LC and PAD. The findings provide a case study of a gene-environment interaction, highlighting the role of nicotine addiction in the pathology of other serious diseases.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4539558/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4539558/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E -- Geller, Frank -- Sulem, Patrick -- Rafnar, Thorunn -- Wiste, Anna -- Magnusson, Kristinn P -- Manolescu, Andrei -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Stefansson, Hreinn -- Ingason, Andres -- Stacey, Simon N -- Bergthorsson, Jon T -- Thorlacius, Steinunn -- Gudmundsson, Julius -- Jonsson, Thorlakur -- Jakobsdottir, Margret -- Saemundsdottir, Jona -- Olafsdottir, Olof -- Gudmundsson, Larus J -- Bjornsdottir, Gyda -- Kristjansson, Kristleifur -- Skuladottir, Halla -- Isaksson, Helgi J -- Gudbjartsson, Tomas -- Jones, Gregory T -- Mueller, Thomas -- Gottsater, Anders -- Flex, Andrea -- Aben, Katja K H -- de Vegt, Femmie -- Mulders, Peter F A -- Isla, Dolores -- Vidal, Maria J -- Asin, Laura -- Saez, Berta -- Murillo, Laura -- Blondal, Thorsteinn -- Kolbeinsson, Halldor -- Stefansson, Jon G -- Hansdottir, Ingunn -- Runarsdottir, Valgerdur -- Pola, Roberto -- Lindblad, Bengt -- van Rij, Andre M -- Dieplinger, Benjamin -- Haltmayer, Meinhard -- Mayordomo, Jose I -- Kiemeney, Lambertus A -- Matthiasson, Stefan E -- Oskarsson, Hogni -- Tyrfingsson, Thorarinn -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel F -- Gulcher, Jeffrey R -- Jonsson, Steinn -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Kong, Augustine -- Stefansson, Kari -- R01 DA017932/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Apr 3;452(7187):638-42. doi: 10.1038/nature06846.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE Genetics, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. thorgeir@decode.is〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18385739" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15/*genetics ; Europe ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genotype ; Humans ; Lung Neoplasms/*genetics ; Male ; Multigene Family/genetics ; New Zealand ; Odds Ratio ; Peripheral Vascular Diseases/*genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/*genetics ; Receptors, Nicotinic/*genetics ; Smoking/adverse effects/genetics ; Tobacco Use Disorder/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2008-08-01
    Description: Reduced fecundity, associated with severe mental disorders, places negative selection pressure on risk alleles and may explain, in part, why common variants have not been found that confer risk of disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation. Thus, rare variants may account for a larger fraction of the overall genetic risk than previously assumed. In contrast to rare single nucleotide mutations, rare copy number variations (CNVs) can be detected using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. This has led to the identification of CNVs associated with mental retardation and autism. In a genome-wide search for CNVs associating with schizophrenia, we used a population-based sample to identify de novo CNVs by analysing 9,878 transmissions from parents to offspring. The 66 de novo CNVs identified were tested for association in a sample of 1,433 schizophrenia cases and 33,250 controls. Three deletions at 1q21.1, 15q11.2 and 15q13.3 showing nominal association with schizophrenia in the first sample (phase I) were followed up in a second sample of 3,285 cases and 7,951 controls (phase II). All three deletions significantly associate with schizophrenia and related psychoses in the combined sample. The identification of these rare, recurrent risk variants, having occurred independently in multiple founders and being subject to negative selection, is important in itself. CNV analysis may also point the way to the identification of additional and more prevalent risk variants in genes and pathways involved in schizophrenia.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2687075/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2687075/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stefansson, Hreinn -- Rujescu, Dan -- Cichon, Sven -- Pietilainen, Olli P H -- Ingason, Andres -- Steinberg, Stacy -- Fossdal, Ragnheidur -- Sigurdsson, Engilbert -- Sigmundsson, Thordur -- Buizer-Voskamp, Jacobine E -- Hansen, Thomas -- Jakobsen, Klaus D -- Muglia, Pierandrea -- Francks, Clyde -- Matthews, Paul M -- Gylfason, Arnaldur -- Halldorsson, Bjarni V -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel -- Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E -- Sigurdsson, Asgeir -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Bjornsson, Asgeir -- Mattiasdottir, Sigurborg -- Blondal, Thorarinn -- Haraldsson, Magnus -- Magnusdottir, Brynja B -- Giegling, Ina -- Moller, Hans-Jurgen -- Hartmann, Annette -- Shianna, Kevin V -- Ge, Dongliang -- Need, Anna C -- Crombie, Caroline -- Fraser, Gillian -- Walker, Nicholas -- Lonnqvist, Jouko -- Suvisaari, Jaana -- Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamarie -- Paunio, Tiina -- Toulopoulou, Timi -- Bramon, Elvira -- Di Forti, Marta -- Murray, Robin -- Ruggeri, Mirella -- Vassos, Evangelos -- Tosato, Sarah -- Walshe, Muriel -- Li, Tao -- Vasilescu, Catalina -- Muhleisen, Thomas W -- Wang, August G -- Ullum, Henrik -- Djurovic, Srdjan -- Melle, Ingrid -- Olesen, Jes -- Kiemeney, Lambertus A -- Franke, Barbara -- GROUP -- Sabatti, Chiara -- Freimer, Nelson B -- Gulcher, Jeffrey R -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Kong, Augustine -- Andreassen, Ole A -- Ophoff, Roel A -- Georgi, Alexander -- Rietschel, Marcella -- Werge, Thomas -- Petursson, Hannes -- Goldstein, David B -- Nothen, Markus M -- Peltonen, Leena -- Collier, David A -- St Clair, David -- Stefansson, Kari -- 089061/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G0901310/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- PDA/02/06/016/Department of Health/United Kingdom -- R01 MH078075/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH71425-01A1/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Sep 11;455(7210):232-6. doi: 10.1038/nature07229.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CNS Division, deCODE genetics, Sturlugata 8, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18668039" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: China ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15/genetics ; Europe ; Gene Dosage/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genotype ; Humans ; Loss of Heterozygosity ; Models, Genetic ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Psychotic Disorders/genetics ; Schizophrenia/*genetics ; Sequence Deletion/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2007-05-05
    Description: The global endemic of cardiovascular diseases calls for improved risk assessment and treatment. Here, we describe an association between myocardial infarction (MI) and a common sequence variant on chromosome 9p21. This study included a total of 4587 cases and 12,767 controls. The identified variant, adjacent to the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and CDKN2B, was associated with the disease with high significance. Approximately 21% of individuals in the population are homozygous for this variant, and their estimated risk of suffering myocardial infarction is 1.64 times as great as that of noncarriers. The corresponding risk is 2.02 times as great for early-onset cases. The population attributable risk is 21% for MI in general and 31% for early-onset cases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Helgadottir, Anna -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Manolescu, Andrei -- Gretarsdottir, Solveig -- Blondal, Thorarinn -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Sigurdsson, Asgeir -- Baker, Adam -- Palsson, Arnar -- Masson, Gisli -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel F -- Magnusson, Kristinn P -- Andersen, Karl -- Levey, Allan I -- Backman, Valgerdur M -- Matthiasdottir, Sigurborg -- Jonsdottir, Thorbjorg -- Palsson, Stefan -- Einarsdottir, Helga -- Gunnarsdottir, Steinunn -- Gylfason, Arnaldur -- Vaccarino, Viola -- Hooper, W Craig -- Reilly, Muredach P -- Granger, Christopher B -- Austin, Harland -- Rader, Daniel J -- Shah, Svati H -- Quyyumi, Arshed A -- Gulcher, Jeffrey R -- Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Kong, Augustine -- Stefansson, Kari -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Jun 8;316(5830):1491-3. Epub 2007 May 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE genetics, Sturlugata 8, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17478679" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age of Onset ; Aged ; Case-Control Studies ; Chromosome Mapping ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9/*genetics ; Coronary Artery Disease/genetics ; Female ; Genes, p16 ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; *Genetic Variation ; Genotype ; Haplotypes ; Heterozygote ; Homozygote ; Humans ; Linkage Disequilibrium ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Myocardial Infarction/*genetics ; *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Risk Factors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2007-06-08
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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