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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-02-13
    Description: We suggest a new clustering approach to classify focal mechanisms from large moment tensor catalogues, with the purpose of automatically identify families of earthquakes with similar source geometry, recognize the orientation of most active faults, and detect temporal variations of the rupture processes. The approach differs in comparison to waveform similarity methods since clusters are detected even if they occur in large spatial distances. This approach is particularly helpful to analyse large moment tensor catalogues, as in microseismicity applications, where a manual analysis and classification is not feasible. A flexible algorithm is here proposed: it can handle different metrics, norms, and focal mechanism representations. In particular, the method can handle full moment tensor or constrained source model catalogues, for which different metrics are suggested. The method can account for variable uncertainties of different moment tensor components. We verify the method with synthetic catalogues. An application to real data from mining induced seismicity illustrates possible applications of the method and demonstrate the cluster detection and event classification performance with different moment tensor catalogues. Results proof that main earthquake source types occur on spatially separated faults, and that temporal changes in the number and characterization of focal mechanism clusters are detected. We suggest that moment tensor clustering can help assessing time dependent hazard in mines.
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-12-31
    Description: On September 16, 2015, the M W =8.2 Illapel megathrust earthquake ruptured the Central Chilean margin. Combining inversions of displacement measurements and seismic waveforms with high frequency (HF) teleseismic backprojection we derive a comprehensive description of the rupture, which also predicts deep-ocean tsunami waveheights. We further determine moment tensors and obtain accurate depth estimates for the aftershock sequence. The earthquake nucleated near the coast but then propagated to the north and updip, attaining a peak slip of 5–6 m. In contrast, HF seismic radiation is mostly emitted downdip of the region of intense slip, and arrests earlier than the long period rupture, indicating smooth slip along the shallow plate interface in the final phase. A superficially similar earthquake in 1943 with a similar aftershock zone had a much shorter source time function, which matches the duration of HF seismic radiation in the recent event, indicating that the 1943 event lacked the shallow slip.
    Print ISSN: 0094-8276
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-8007
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-06-14
    Description: [1]  Real-time detection and precise estimation of strong ground motion are crucial for rapid assessment and early warning of geohazards such as earthquakes, landslides and volcanic activity. This challenging task can be accomplished by combining GPS and accelerometer measurements because of their complementary capabilities to resolve broadband ground motion signals. However, for implementing an operational monitoring network of such joint measurement systems, cost-effective techniques need to be developed and rigorously tested. We propose a new approach for joint processing of single-frequency GPS and MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) accelerometer data in real time. To demonstrate the performance of our method, we describe results from outdoor experiments under controlled conditions. For validation, we analyzed dual-frequency GPS data and images recorded by a video camera. The results of the different sensors agree very well, suggesting that real-time broadband information of ground motion can be provided by using single-frequency GPS and MEMS accelerometers.
    Print ISSN: 0094-8276
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-8007
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-08-15
    Description: On 1 April 2014, Northern Chile was struck by a magnitude 8.1 earthquake following a protracted series of foreshocks. The Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile monitored the entire sequence of events, providing unprecedented resolution of the build-up to the main event and its rupture evolution. Here we show that the Iquique earthquake broke a central fraction of the so-called northern Chile seismic gap, the last major segment of the South American plate boundary that had not ruptured in the past century. Since July 2013 three seismic clusters, each lasting a few weeks, hit this part of the plate boundary with earthquakes of increasing peak magnitudes. Starting with the second cluster, geodetic observations show surface displacements that can be associated with slip on the plate interface. These seismic clusters and their slip transients occupied a part of the plate interface that was transitional between a fully locked and a creeping portion. Leading up to this earthquake, the b value of the foreshocks gradually decreased during the years before the earthquake, reversing its trend a few days before the Iquique earthquake. The mainshock finally nucleated at the northern end of the foreshock area, which skirted a locked patch, and ruptured mainly downdip towards higher locking. Peak slip was attained immediately downdip of the foreshock region and at the margin of the locked patch. We conclude that gradual weakening of the central part of the seismic gap accentuated by the foreshock activity in a zone of intermediate seismic coupling was instrumental in causing final failure, distinguishing the Iquique earthquake from most great earthquakes. Finally, only one-third of the gap was broken and the remaining locked segments now pose a significant, increased seismic hazard with the potential to host an earthquake with a magnitude of 〉8.5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schurr, Bernd -- Asch, Gunter -- Hainzl, Sebastian -- Bedford, Jonathan -- Hoechner, Andreas -- Palo, Mauro -- Wang, Rongjiang -- Moreno, Marcos -- Bartsch, Mitja -- Zhang, Yong -- Oncken, Onno -- Tilmann, Frederik -- Dahm, Torsten -- Victor, Pia -- Barrientos, Sergio -- Vilotte, Jean-Pierre -- England -- Nature. 2014 Aug 21;512(7514):299-302. doi: 10.1038/nature13681. Epub 2014 Aug 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉GFZ Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany. ; School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. ; Centro Sismologico National, Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, Chile. ; Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 1, rue Jussieu, 75238 Paris cedex 05, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25119049" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-25
    Description: SUMMARY On 2001 May 7, following unintentional water injection, a moderate size induced earthquake struck the Ekofisk oil field, North Sea. Despite of its relatively moderate magnitude, clear low-frequency waveforms could be recorded up to more than 2000 km epicentral distance, suggesting a slow rupture at very shallow depth and wave propagation through low-velocity shallow structures. The event poses a rare opportunity to constrain rupture velocity, duration and rise time of a superficial M 〉 4 event occurring on a horizontal plane in soft, water-saturated sediments. Two previous studies discussed the earthquake point source finding vertical dip-slip focal mechanisms with opposite senses of P and T axes. A further investigation was thus required to provide a basis for a deeper discussion of the failure dynamics. We significantly improve the used data set, test different earth models and derive a point source as well as a kinematic rupture model. We carefully discuss parameter uncertainties and effects related to shallow sources and wave propagation through different crustal structures to resolve the previous controversy. We additionally provide a kinematic rupture model, based on apparent source times derived from Rayleigh and Love waves. The waveforms resolve a predominant unilateral rupture along a horizontal plane at about 2 km depth. We derive an unusually slow rupture, consequence of a slow rupture velocity of about 500 m s –1 and a long rise time of about 7 s. An independent modelling of GPS- based static displacements allows to confirm the focal mechanism polarity and to locate the centroid at the eastern side of the field, resulting in a much larger seismic moment in comparison with dynamic seismic moment. The rupture directivity is confirmed by the relative location of the centroid with respect to the epicentre, which is set at the site of water injection.
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-10-09
    Description: Seismicity induced by coal mining in the Ruhr region, Germany, has been monitored continuously over the last 25 yr. In 2006, a dense temporary network (HAMNET) was deployed to locally monitor seismicity induced by longwall mining close to the town of Hamm. Between 2006 July and 2007 July, more than 7000 events with magnitudes M L from –1.7 to 2.0 were detected. The spatiotemporal distribution of seismicity shows high correlation with the mining activity. In order to monitor rupture processes, we set up an automated source inversion routine and successfully perform double couple and full moment tensor (MT) inversions for more than 1000 events with magnitudes above M L  –0.5. The source inversion is based on a full waveform approach, both in the frequency and in the time domain, providing information about the centroid location, focal mechanism, scalar moment and full MT. Inversion results indicate a strong dominance of normal faulting focal mechanisms, with a steeper plane and a subhorizontal one. Fault planes are oriented parallel to the mining stopes. We classify the focal mechanisms based on their orientation and observe different frequency-magnitude distributions for families of events with different focal mechanisms; the overall frequency-magnitude distribution is not fitting the Gutenberg–Richter relation. Full MTs indicate that non-negligible opening tensile components accompanied normal faulting source mechanisms. Finally, extended source models are investigated for largest events. Results suggest that the rupture processes mostly occurred along the subvertical planes.
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 9
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    Universität Karlsruhe
    In:  Professional Paper, Spannung und Spannungsumwandlung in der Lithosphäre, Berichtsband für die Jahre 1990 - 1992, Teil B, Stuttgart, Universität Karlsruhe, vol. 271, no. 16, pp. 899-903, (ISBN 0080419208)
    Publication Date: 1993
    Keywords: Seismicity ; Stress
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  • 10
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    Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH
    In:  Professional Paper, Volcanic Tremor and Magma Flow, Jülich, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, vol. 4, no. 16, pp. 97-114, (ISBN 1-86239-165-3, vi + 330 pp.)
    Publication Date: 1991
    Keywords: Fluids ; Tectonics ; Seismicity ; Volcanology
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