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  • 1
    Call number: PIK N 455-16-89710
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XIII, 356 Seiten , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9781107071421 (hardback)
    Language: English
    Note: Preface ; Acknowledgements ; List of contributors ; Part I. Diagnostics and Prediction of High-Impact Weather: 1. Global prediction of high-impact weather: diagnosis and performance Mark Rodwell and Alan Thorpe ; 2. Severe weather diagnosis from the perspective of generalized slantwise vorticity development Guoxiong Wu, Yongjun Zheng and Yimin Liu ; 3. Probabilistic extreme event attribution Pardeep Pall, Michael Wehner and Dáithí Stone ; 4. Observed and projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes Xuebin Zhang and Francis Zwiers ; Part II. High-Impact Weather in Mid-Latitudes: 5. Rossby wave breaking: climatology, interaction with low-frequency climate variability, and links to extreme weather events Olivia Martius and Gwendal Rivière ; 6. The influence of jet stream regime on extreme weather events Nili Harnik, Chaim Garfinkel and Orli Lachmy ; 7. Forecasting high-impact weather using ensemble prediction systems Richard Swinbank, Petra Friederichs and Sabrina Wahl ; 8. Storm tracks, blocking and climate change: a review Tim Woollings ; 9. The North Atlantic and Arctic Oscillations: climate variability, extremes and stratosphere troposphere interaction Adam A. Scaife ; Part III. Tropical Cyclones: 10. Opportunities and challenges in dynamical and predictability studies of tropical cyclone events Russell L. Elsberry and Hsiao-Chung Tsai ; 11. Predictability of severe weather and tropical cyclones at the mesoscales Fuqing Zhang, Christopher Melhauser, Dandan Tao, Y. Qiang Sun, Erin B. Munsell, Yonghui Weng and Jason A. Sippel ; 12. Dynamics, predictability, and high-impact weather associated with the extratropical transition of tropical cyclones Patrick Harr and Heather M. Archambault ; 13. Secondary eyewall formation in tropical cyclones Chun-Chieh Wu, Yi-Hsuan Huang and Zhe-Min Tan ; 14. Seasonal forecasting of floods and tropical cyclones Tom Beer and Oscar Alves ; Part IV. Heat-Waves and Cold-Air Outbreaks: 15. European heat waves: the effect of soil moisture, vegetation and land use Fabio D'Andrea, Philippe Drobinski and Marc Stéfanon ; 16. Western North American extreme heat, associated large scale synoptic-dynamics, and performance by a climate model Richard Grotjahn ; 17. Decadel to interdecadel variations of Northern China heatwave frequency: impact of the Tibetan Plateau snow cover Zhiwei Wu and Jianping Li ; 18. Global warming targets and heatwave risk Robin Clark ; 19. Cold-air outbreaks over East Asia associated with blocking highs: mechanisms and their interaction with the polar stratosphere Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Lin Wang, Yvan J. Orsolini and Koutarou Takaya ; Part V. Ocean Connections: 20. Response of the Atlantic Ocean circulation to North Atlantic freshwater perturbations Henk A. Dijkstra ; 21. Key role of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in twentieth-century drought and wet periods over the US Great Plains and the Sahel Sumant Nigam and Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas ; 22. Floods and droughts along the Guinea Coast in connection with the South Atlantic Dipole Hyacinth C. Nnamchi and Jianping Li ; 23. The effect of global dynamical factors on the interannual variability of land-based rainfall Peter G. Baines and Benjamin J. Henley ; 24. MJO and extreme weather and climate events Chidong Zhang ; Part VI. Asian Monsoons: 25. Extreme weather and seasonal events during the Indian summer monsoon and prospects of improvement in their prediction skill under India's monsoon mission D. R. Sikka ; 26. Interannual variability and predictability of summer climate over the Northwest Pacific and East Asia Shang-Ping Xie and Yu Kosaka ; 27. Impacts of Annular Modes on extreme climate events over the East Asian monsoon region Jianping Li ; Index.
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-10-04
    Description: The Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP) is planned for mid-2017 to mid-2019, centred on 2018. Its goal is to enable a significant improvement in environmental prediction capabilities for the polar regions and beyond, by coordinating a period of intensive observing, modelling, prediction, verification, user-engagement and education activities. With a focus on time scales from hours to a season, YOPP is a major initiative of the World Meteorological Organization’s World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) and a key component of the Polar Prediction Project (PPP). YOPP is being planned and coordinated by the PPP Steering Group together with representatives from partners and other initiatives, including the World Climate Research Programme’s Polar Climate Predictability Initiative (PCPI). The objectives of YOPP are to: 1. Improve the existing polar observing system (enhanced coverage, higher-quality observations). 2. Gather additional observations through field programmes aimed at improving understanding of key polar processes. 3. Develop improved representation of key polar processes in (un)coupled models used for prediction. 4. Develop improved (coupled) data assimilation systems accounting for challenges in the polar regions such as sparseness of observational data. 5. Explore the predictability of the atmosphere-cryosphere-ocean system, with a focus on sea ice, on time scales from hours to a season. 6. Improve understanding of linkages between polar regions and lower latitudes, assess skill of models representing these linkages, and determine the impact of improved polar prediction on forecast skill in lower latitudes. 7. Improve verification of polar weather and environmental predictions to obtain better quantitative knowledge on model performance, and on the skill, especially for user- relevant parameters. 8. Identify various stakeholders and establish their decisionmaking needs with respect to weather, climate, ice, and related environmental services. 9. Assess the costs and benefits of using predictive information for a spectrum of users and services. 10. Provide training opportunities to generate a sound knowledge base (and its transfer across generations) on polar prediction related issues. YOPP is implemented in three distinct phases. During the YOPP Preparation Phase (2013 through to mid-2017) this Implementation Plan was developed, which includes key outcomes of consultations with partners at the YOPP Summit in July 2015. Plans will be further developed and refined through focused international workshops. There will be engagement with stakeholders and arrangement of funding, coordination of observations and modelling activities, and preparatory research. During the YOPP Core Phase (mid-2017 to mid-2019), four elements will be staged: intensive observing periods for both hemispheres, a complementary intensive modelling and prediction period, a period of enhanced monitoring of forecast use in decisionmaking including verification, and a special educational effort. Finally, during the YOPP Consolidation Phase (mid-2019 to 2022) the legacy of data, science and publications will be organized. The WWRP-PPP Steering Group provides endorsement throughout the YOPP phases for projects that contribute to YOPP. This process facilitates coordination and enhances visibility, communication, and networking.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Miscellaneous , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Our current confidence in 'observed' climatological winds and temperatures in the middle atmosphere (over altitudes approx. 10-80 km) is assessed by detailed intercomparisons of contemporary and historic data sets. These data sets include global meteorological analyses and assimilations, climatologies derived from research satellite measurements, and historical reference atmosphere circulation statistics. We also include comparisons with historical rocketsonde wind and temperature data, and with more recent lidar temperature measurements. The comparisons focus on a few basic circulation statistics, such as temperature, zonal wind, and eddy flux statistics. Special attention is focused on tropical winds and temperatures, where large differences exist among separate analyses. Assimilated data sets provide the most realistic tropical variability, but substantial differences exist among current schemes.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Journal of Climate
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: This atlas presents detailed incomparisons of several climatological wind and temperature data sets which cover the middle atmosphere (over altitudes approx. 10-80 km). A number of middle atmosphere climatologies have been developed in the research community based on a variety of meteorological analyses and satellite data sets. Here we present comparisons between these climatological data sets for a number of basic circulation statistics, such as zonal mean temperature, winds and eddy flux statistics. Special attention is focused on tropical winds and temperatures, where large differences exist among separate analyses. We also include comparisons between the global climatologies and historical rocketsonde wind and temperature measurements, and also with more recent lidar temperature data. These comparisons highlight differences and uncertainties in contemporary middle atmosphere data sets, and allow biases in particular analyses to be isolated. In addition, a brief atlas of zonal mean temperature and wind statistics is provided to highlight data availability and as a quick-look reference. This technical report is intended as a companion to the climatological data sets held in archive at the SPARC Data Center (http://www.sparc.sunysb.edu).
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: A mechanistic model simulation initialized on 14 September 2002, forced by 100-hPa geopotential heights from Met Office analyses, reproduced the dynamical features of the 2002 Antarctic major warming. The vortex split on approx.25 September; recovery after the warming, westward and equatorward tilting vortices, and strong baroclinic zones in temperature associated with a dipole pattern of upward and downward vertical velocities were all captured in the simulation. Model results and analyses show a pattern of strong upward wave propagation throughout the warming, with zonal wind deceleration throughout the stratosphere at high latitudes before the vortex split, continuing in the middle and upper stratosphere and spreading to lower latitudes after the split. Three-dimensional Eliassen-Palm fluxes show the largest upward and poleward wave propagation in the 0(deg)-90(deg)E sector prior to the vortex split (coincident with the location of strongest cyclogenesis at the model's lower boundary), with an additional region of strong upward propagation developing near 180(deg)-270(deg)E. These characteristics are similar to those of Arctic wave-2 major warmings, except that during this warming, the vortex did not split below approx.600 K. The effects of poleward transport and mixing dominate modeled trace gas evolution through most of the mid- to high-latitude stratosphere, with a core region in the lower-stratospheric vortex where enhanced descent dominates and the vortex remains isolated. Strongly tilted vortices led to low-latitude air overlying vortex air, resulting in highly unusual trace gas profiles. Simulations driven with several meteorological datasets reproduced the major warming, but in others, stronger latitudinal gradients at high latitudes at the model boundary resulted in simulations without a complete vortex split in the midstratosphere. Numerous tests indicate very high sensitivity to the boundary fields, especially the wave-2 amplitude. Major warmings occurred for initial fields with stronger winds and larger vortices, but not smaller vortices, consistent with the initiation of wind-deceleration by upward-propagating waves near the poleward edge of the region where wave 2 can propagate above the jet core. Thus, given the observed 100-hPa boundary forcing, stratospheric preconditioning is not needed to reproduce a major warming similar to that observed. The anomalously strong forcing in the lower stratosphere can be viewed as the primary direct cause of the major warming.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric Sciences; Volume 62; Issue 3; 690-707
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Several meteorological datasets, including U.K. Met Office (MetO), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and NASA's Goddard Earth Observation System (GEOS-4) analyses, are being used in studies of the 2002 Southern Hemisphere (SH) stratospheric winter and Antarctic major warming. Diagnostics are compared to assess how these studies may be affected by the meteorological data used. While the overall structure and evolution of temperatures, winds, and wave diagnostics in the different analyses provide a consistent picture of the large-scale dynamics of the SH 2002 winter, several significant differences may affect detailed studies. The NCEP-NCAR reanalysis (REAN) and NCEP-Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis-2 (REAN-2) datasets are not recommended for detailed studies, especially those related to polar processing, because of lower-stratospheric temperature biases that result in underestimates of polar processing potential, and because their winds and wave diagnostics show increasing differences from other analyses between similar to 30 and 10 hPa (their top level). Southern Hemisphere polar stratospheric temperatures in the ECMWF 40-Yr Re-analysis (ERA-40) show unrealistic vertical structure, so this long-term reanalysis is also unsuited for quantitative studies. The NCEP/Climate Prediction Center (CPC) objective analyses give an inferior representation of the upper-stratospheric vortex. Polar vortex transport barriers are similar in all analyses, but there is large variation in the amount, patterns, and timing of mixing, even among the operational assimilated datasets (ECMWF, MetO, and GEOS-4). The higher-resolution GEOS-4 and ECMWF assimilations provide significantly better representation of filamentation and small-scale structure than the other analyses, even when fields gridded at reduced resolution are studied. The choice of which analysis to use is most critical for detailed transport studies (including polar process modeling) and studies involving synoptic evolution in the upper stratosphere. The operational assimilated datasets are better suited for most applications than the NCEP/CPC objective analyses and the reanalysis datasets.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Monthly Weather Review; Volume 133; Issue 5; 1261-1278
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Lagrangian material line simulations are performed using U.K. Meteorological Office simulated winds and temperatures to examine mixing processes in the middle- and lower-stratospheric polar night jet during the 1992 Southern Hemisphere spring and Northern Hemisphere winter. The Lagrangian simulations are undertaken to provide insight into the effects of mixing within the polar night jet on observations of the polar vortex made by instruments onboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) during these periods. A moderate to strong kinematic barrier to large-scale isentropic exchange, similar to the barrier identified in General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations, is identified during both of these periods. Characteristic timescales for mixing by large-scale isentropic motions within the polar night jet range from 20 days in the Southern Hemisphere lower stratosphere to years in the Northern Hemisphere middle stratosphere. The long mixing timescales found in the Northern Hemisphere polar night jet do not persist. Instead, the Northern Hemisphere kinematic barriers are broken down as part of the large-scale stratospheric response to a strong tropospheric blocking event. A series of Lagrangian experiments are conducted to investigate the sensitivity of the kinematic barrier to diabatic effects and to small-scale inertial gravity wave motions. Differential diabatic descent is found to have a significant impact on mixing processes within the Southern Hemisphere middle-stratospheric jet core. The interaction between small-scale displacements by idealized, inertial gravity waves and the large-scale flow is found to have a significant impact on mixing within the polar night jet in both hemispheres. These sensitivity experiments suggest that scales of motion that are unresolved in global assimilated datasets may contribute to mass exchange across the kinematic barrier to large-scale isentropic motion.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (ISSN 0022-4928); 51; 20; p. 2957-2972
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The distribution of dehydrated air in the middle and lower stratosphere during the 1992 Southern Hemisphere spring is investigated using Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) observations and trajectory techniques. Comparisons between previously published Version 9 and the improved Version 16 retrievals on the 700-K isentropic surface show very slight (0.05 ppmv) increases in Version 16 CH4 relative to Version 9 within the polar vortex. Version 16 H2O mixing ratios show a reduction of 0.5 ppmv relative to Version 9 within the polar night jet and a reduction of nearly 1.0 ppmv in middle latitudes when compared to Version 9. The version 16 HALOE retrievals show low mixing ratios of total hydrogen (2CH4 + H2O) within the polar vortex on both 700 and 425 K isentropic surfaces relative to typical middle-stratospheric 2CH4 + H2O mixing ratios. The low 2CH4 + H2O mixing ratios are associated with dehydration. Slight reductions in total hydrogen, relative to typical middle-stratospheric values, are found at these levels throughout the Southern Hemisphere during this period. Trajectory calculations show that middle-latitude air masses are composed of a mixture of air from within the polar night jet and air from middle latitudes. A strong kinematic barrier to large-scale exchange is found on the poleward flank of the polar night jet at 700 K. A much weaker kinematic barrier is found at 425 K. The impact of the finite tangent pathlength of the HALOE measurements is investigated using an idealized tracer distribution. This experiment suggests that HALOE should be able to resolve the kinematic barrier, if it exists.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (ISSN 0022-4928); 51; 20; p. 2931-2941
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Meteorological analyses, produced at the U.K. Meteorological Office by data assimilation, are used to study the circulation of the stratosphere in the Northern Hemisphere during winter 1991/92. The analyses are supplemented by Lagrangian visualizations of the circulation. The main features discussed are (1) the changes in vertical structure of the circulation, (2) the merger of anticyclones that precipitated a strong stratospheric warming, (3) vortex roll up in the upper stratosphere, (4) the entrainment of air into the polar vortex in the middle and upper stratosphere, and (5) the influence of tropospheric blocking on the lower stratosphere. The study provides a meteorological basis for the interpretation of data from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS).
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (ISSN 0022-4928); 51; 20; p. 2800-2817
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: A quantitative intercomparison of six meteorological analyses is presented for the cold 1999-2000 and 1995-1996 Arctic winters. The impacts of using different analyzed temperatures in calculations of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation potential, and of different winds in idealized trajectory-based temperature histories, are substantial. The area with temperatures below a PSC formation threshold commonly varies by approximately 25% among the analyses, with differences of over 50% at some times/locations. Freie University at Berlin analyses are often colder than others at T is less than or approximately 205 K. Biases between analyses vary from year to year; in January 2000. U.K. Met Office analyses were coldest and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) analyses warmest. while NCEP analyses were usually coldest in 1995-1996 and Met Office or NCEP[National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis (REAN) warmest. European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) temperatures agreed better with other analyses in 1999-2000, after improvements in the assimilation model. than in 1995-1996. Case-studies of temperature histories show substantial differences using Met Office, NCEP, REAN and NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) analyses. In January 2000 (when a large cold region was centered in the polar vortex), qualitatively similar results were obtained for all analyses. However, in February 2000 (a much warmer period) and in January and February 1996 (comparably cold to January 2000 but with large cold regions near the polar vortex edge), distributions of "potential PSC lifetimes" and total time spent below a PSC formation threshold varied significantly among the analyses. Largest peaks in "PSC lifetime" distributions in January 2000 were at 4-6 and 11-14 days. while in the 1996 periods, they were at 1-3 days. Thus different meteorological conditions in comparably cold winters had a large impact on expectations for PSC formation and on the discrepancies between different meteorological analyses. Met Office. NCEP, REAN, ECMWF and DAO analyses are commonly used for trajectory calculations and in chemical transport models; the choice of which analysis to use can strongly influence the results of such studies.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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