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  • 1
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    Elsevier
    In:  Deep-Sea Research Part II-Topical Studies in Oceanography, 119 . pp. 69-76.
    Publication Date: 2017-12-19
    Description: Mesoscale eddies and meanders have been shown to be one of the dominant sources of flow variability in the world's ocean. One example of an isolated eddy hotspot is the South-West Indian Ridge (SWIR). Several investigations have shown that the SWIR and the corresponding planetary potential vorticity field (f/H) exert a strong influence on the location and dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), resulting in substantial fragmentation of the jets downstream of the ridge. The easterly extension of this eddy corridor appears to be restricted to the deep channel separating the Conrad Rise from the Del Cano and Crozet Plateau. However, while the fate of eddies formed at the SWIR has been widely investigated and the frontal character of this eastward extension is well known, the zone of diminishing variability that extends southwards to approximately 60°S remains poorly sampled. Using a combination of Argo, AVISO and NCEP/NCAR datasets, the character of this eddy corridor as a conduit for warm core eddies to move across the ACC into the Antarctic zone is investigated. In this study, we track a single warm-core eddy as it moves southwards from an original position of 31°E, 50°20'S to where it dissipates 10 months later in the Enderby Basin at 56°20'S. An Argo float entrained within the eddy confirms that its water masses are consistent with water found within the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone north of the APF. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are on average 8W/m2 and 10W/m2 greater over the eddy than directly east of this feature. It is estimated that the eddy lost an average of 5W/m2 of latent heat and 5W/m2 of sensible heat over a 1-year period, an amount capable of melting approximately 0.92m of sea ice. In addition, using an eddy tracking algorithm a total of 28 eddies are identified propagating southwards, 25 of which are anti-cyclonic in rotation. Based on the new Argo float data, combined with AVISO and NCEP/NCAR datasets, these results suggest that the southward passage of warm-core eddies act as vehicles transporting heat, salt and biota southwards across the ACC and into the eastern boundary of the Weddell gyre.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96, Special supplement (7). S157-S160.
    Publication Date: 2018-06-20
    Description: [in “State of the Climate in 2014” : Special Supplement to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society Vol. 96, No. 7, July 2015]
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2002-01-01
    Description: Hlobane Colliery, located in the Vryheid Coalfields of South Africa, is to close down its operations after more than a century of mining activities. This paper presents a review of the assessments that were undertaken in order to determine the long-term water quality risks after mine closure and evaluate the effects of various water management actions thereon. An integrated assessment approach was adopted that incorporated hydrological, hydrogeological, mineralogical and geochemical assessment, and modelling techniques to predict the volumes and qualities of water discharging from various points on the mine for the base case situation where no water management options were implemented. Various water management options were identified that are primarily aimed at preventing the contamination of clean water, and the effects of these strategies were predicted and compared with the base case situation in order to provide a rational basis for the selection of the most appropriate strategies.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-09-02
    Description: Tidal oscillations dominate the flow field in many submarine canyons. Observations have shown that semidiurnal tidal energy in submarine canyons is significantly amplified with respect to adjacent shelves. This amplification is thought to be caused by focusing of propagating internal tides incident from the open ocean, or local in-canyon generation on critical canyon floor slopes. These mechanisms require freely propagating internal tides, with superinertial frequencies. We present results from a moored array in a canyon at 44°N, where the observed velocities reached over 0.8 m s−1. The canyon flow field was highly unusual because it was dominated by the subinertial diurnal tide. This occurred despite the fact that the barotropic tide was predominantly semidiurnal. The diurnal tide was dramatically amplified in the canyon, its velocities increasing toward the seafloor and canyon head. The diurnal oscillations also exhibited marked modulation in time by the background barotropic forcing. Length scales suggest that the diurnal tide should be resonant in the canyon. An analytical framework is used to explain the mechanisms behind the strong diurnal currents observed by the moored array. In the model, along-shelf barotropic flow sets up a double Kelvin wave response in the canyon, generating along-canyon velocities which are subsequently amplified by resonance. The pattern of the model predictions is in excellent agreement with the observed velocity pattern.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-07-29
    Description: In the Southern Ocean, there is increasing evidence that seasonal to subseasonal temporal scales, and meso- to submesoscales play an important role in understanding the sensitivity of ocean primary productivity to climate change. This drives the need for a high-resolution approach to resolving biogeochemical processes. In this study, 5.5 months of continuous, high-resolution (3 h, 2 km horizontal resolution) glider data from spring to summer in the Atlantic Subantarctic Zone is used to investigate: (i) the mechanisms that drive bloom initiation and high growth rates in the region and (ii) the seasonal evolution of water column production and respiration. Bloom initiation dates were analysed in the context of upper ocean boundary layer physics highlighting sensitivities of different bloom detection methods to different environmental processes. Model results show that in early spring (September to mid-November) increased rates of net community production ( NCP ) are strongly affected by meso- to submesoscale features. In late spring/early summer (late-November to mid-December) seasonal shoaling of the mixed layer drives a more spatially homogenous bloom with maximum rates of NCP and chlorophyll biomass. A comparison of biomass accumulation rates with a study in the North Atlantic highlights the sensitivity of phytoplankton growth to fine-scale dynamics and emphasizes the need to sample the ocean at high resolution to accurately resolve phytoplankton phenology and improve our ability to estimate the sensitivity of the biological carbon pump to climate change.
    Print ISSN: 1054-3139
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9289
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-01-23
    Description: Increasing anthropogenic CO2 is decreasing surface water aragonite saturation state (ΩA), a growing concern for calcifying Euthecosome pteropods and its wider impact on Antarctic ecosystems. However, our understanding of the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of this vulnerable ecosystem remains limited. This study examines surface water ΩA from four consecutive summers in the Eastern Weddell Gyre (EWG) ice shelf region, and investigates the drivers and the role played by the seasonal cycle in the interannual variability of ΩA. Interannual variability in the seasonal phasing and the rate of summer sea ice thaw was found to be the primary factor explaining interannual variability in surface water ΩA. In "optimal" summers when summer sea ice thaw began in late November/early December (2008/2009 and 2010/2011), the summertime increase in ΩA was found to be 1.02, approximately double that from summers when sea ice thaw was delayed to late December (2009/2010 and 2011/2012). We propose that the two critical climate (physical-biogeochemical) sensitivities for ΩA are the timing and the rate of sea ice thaw, which has a direct impact on the mixed layer and the resulting onset and persistence of phytoplankton blooms. The strength of summertime carbonate saturation depends on seasonal changes of sea ice, stratification and primary production. The sensitivity of surface water biogeochemistry in this region to interannual changes in mixed layer – sea ice processes, suggests that future trends in climate and the seasonal cycle of sea ice, combined with rapidly increasing anthropogenic CO2 will likely be a concern for the Antarctic ice shelf ecosystem within the next few decades. If in the future, primary production is reduced and CO2 increased, our results suggest that in the EWG summertime surface water aragonite undersaturation will emerge by the middle of this century.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-06-29
    Description: Due to its importance as a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth in large regions of the world's oceans, ocean water column observations of concentration of the trace-metal iron (Fe) have increased markedly over recent decades. Here we compile 〉13 000 global measurements of dissolved Fe (dFe) and make this available to the community. We then conduct a synthesis study focussed on the Southern Ocean, where dFe plays a fundamental role in governing the carbon cycle, using four regions, six basins and five depth intervals as a framework. Our analysis highlights depth-dependent trends in the properties of dFe between different regions and basins. In general, surface dFe is highest in the Atlantic basin and the Antarctic region. While attributing drivers to these patterns is uncertain, inter-basin patterns in surface dFe might be linked to differing degrees of dFe inputs, while variability in biological consumption between regions covaries with the associated surface dFe differences. Opposite to the surface, dFe concentrations at depth are typically higher in the Indian basin and the Subantarctic region. The inter-region trends can be reconciled with similar ligand variability (although only from one cruise), and the inter-basin difference might be explained by differences in hydrothermal inputs suggested by modelling studies (Tagliabue et al., 2010) that await observational confirmation. We find that even in regions where many dFe measurements exist, the processes governing the seasonal evolution of dFe remain enigmatic, suggesting that, aside from broad Subantarctic – Antarctic trends, biological consumption might not be the major driver of dFe variability. This highlights the apparent importance of other processes such as exogenous inputs, physical transport/mixing or dFe recycling processes. Nevertheless, missing measurements during key seasonal transitions make it difficult to better quantify and understand surface water replenishment processes and the seasonal Fe cycle. Finally, we detail the degree of seasonal coverage by region, basin and depth. By synthesising prior measurements, we suggest a role for different processes and highlight key gaps in understanding, which we hope can help structure future research efforts in the Southern Ocean.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 8
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-03-18
    Description: The seasonal cycle of primary productivity is impacted by seasonal and intra-seasonal dynamics of the mixed layer through the changing balance between mixing and buoyancy forcing, which regulates nutrient supply and light availability. Of particular recent interest is the role of synoptic scale events in supplying nutrients, particularly iron, to the euphotic zone in the Sub Antarctic Zone (SAZ), where phytoplankton blooms occur throughout summer. In this study, we present high resolution measurements of net community production (NCP) constrained by ΔO2/Ar ratios, and mixed layer depth (MLD) in the Atlantic SAZ. We found a non-linear relationship between NCP and MLD, with the highest and most variable NCP observed in shallow MLDs (〈 45 m). We propose that NCP variability in the SAZ may be driven by alternating states of synoptic-scale deepening of the mixed layer, leading to the entrainment of iron (dFe), followed by restratification, allowing rapid growth in an iron replete, high light environment. Synoptic iron fluxes into the euphotic zone based on water column dFe profiles and high resolution glider MLD data, reveal a potentially significant contribution of "new iron" which could sustain NCP throughout summer. Future process studies will help elaborate these findings further.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-05-01
    Print ISSN: 2169-9275
    Electronic ISSN: 2169-9291
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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