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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Determination of cell populations was carried out using the potentiostatic systems. The system was constructed from two platinum electrodes and a saturated calomel electrode. The anode of a reference system was covered with cellulose dialysis membrane. The response time of the system was 3–5 min, and current differences between the two components were proportional to cell populations in a culture of Bacillus subtilis. Current differences were reproducible with an average relative error of 4%. Cell populations of B. subtilis in a fermentor could be continuously determined by using this new electrochemical method. Moreover, these systems can be sterilized by heat before use.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Viable cell numbers were determined with an electrode system composed of a membrane filter for retaining microorganisms and an oxygen electrode. The principle of the cell number determination is based on sensing microbial respiration. The response time of the system was 10 min. A linear relationship was obtained between the current and the cell numbers ofEscherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium arabrescence, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, andTrichosporon cutaneum on the membrane filter. The current was reproducible, with an average relative error of 5% when the electrode contained 2×108 Escherichia coli. A good agreement (a correlation coefficient; 0.98 in 10 experiments) was obtained, when the cell populations ofE. coli were determined by the proposed method and colony counts. The minimum measurable cell populations were 106 cells per ml with the bacteria and 105 cells per ml with the yeasts.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Clostridium butyricum was immobilized in a porous carrier (acetylcellulose filter) with agar. Addition of peptone to the reaction mixture increased the hydrogen productivity from glucose. The number of cells in the agaracetylcellulose increased during incubation in the medium containing glucose and peptone, and the immobilized growing cells converted 45% of the glucose to hydrogen. Riboflavin enhanced the hydrogen productivity and the lactate produced by the native cells decreased remarkably. Therefore, the immobilized whole cells incubated with riboflavin were employed for repeated hydrogen production in the medium containing glucose and peptone. The hydrogen productivity of the immobilized cells increased markedly after repeated use, and the immobilized cells produced hydrogen in stoichiometric amounts from glucose.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Whole cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens which utilized mainly glucose were immobilized in collagen membrane. The microbial electrode consisted of a bacteria-collagen membrane and an oxygen electrode was developed for the determination of glucose. When the electrode was inserted in a sample solution containing glucose, the current of the electrode decreased markedly with time until a steady state was reached. The response time of the electrode was 10 min by the steady state method. A linear relationship was observed between the steady state current and the concentration of glucose below 20 mg l −1. The minimum concentration for determination was 2 mg of glucose per liter. The reproducibility of the current was examined using the same sample solution. The current was reproducible within ±6% of the relative error when a sample solution containing 10 mg {ie343-1} of glucose was employed. The standard deviation was 0.6 mg {ie343-2} in 20 experiments. The reusability of the glucose sensor was examined using the same sample solution (10 mg {ie343-3}). No decrease in current output was observed over a two week period and 150 assays. Glucose in molasses was determined with an average relative error of 10% by the microbial electrode sensor.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A microbial electrode consisting of immobilized living whole cells of yeasts, porous membrane and an oxygen electrode was prepared for continuous estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Immobilized Trichosporon cutaneum was employed for the microbial electrode sensor for BOD. When a sample solution containing the equivalent amount of glucose and glutamic acid was injected into the sensor system, the current of the electrode decreased markedly with time until steady state was reached. The response time was within 18 min. A linear relationship was observed between the current decrease and the concentration below 41 mg l − of glucose and 41 mg l − glutamic acid (5-day BOD 60 mg l −). The current decrease was reproducible within ± 6% of the relative error when a sample solution containing 27 mg l − of glucose and 27 mg l − of glutamic acid (5-day BOD 40 mg l −) was employed. The microbial electrode sensor was applied to untreated waste waters from a fermentation factory. Good comparative results were obtained between BOD estimated by the microbial electrode and that determined by the conventional 5-day method (regression coefficient was 1.2). Furthermore, the effect of various compounds on BOD estimation was also examined. The current output of the microbial electrode sensor was almost constant for 17 d and 400 tests.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Whole cells of Kluyvera citrophila were immobilized in polyacrylamide gel. The penicillin acylase activity of immobilized whole cells was 60%–70% of native cells. When the immobilized cells were continuously cultivated for 40 h in an aerated fermentor containing peptone medium and were treated with alkali in order to remove β-lactamase activity, the immobilized cells produced ampicillin up to 4.4 times faster than noncultivated cells. Ampicillin production was investigated in a column system using these cultivated immobilized whole cells. The cultivated immobilized cells showed excellent performance in continuous ampicillin production.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A microbial sensor consisting of immobilized Clostridium butyricum, two gas permeable Teflon membranes and fuel cell type electrode was suitable for the determination of formic acid. When the sensor was inserted into the sample solution containing formic acid, the current increases to a steady state with a response time of 20 min. The relationship between the steady state current and the formic acid concentration is linear up to 1 000 mg l−1. The currents are reproducible with an average relative error of 5%. Selectivity of the sensor is satisfactory. Results obtained with this sensor and by gas chromatography were in good agreement (regression coefficient; 0.98) when the cultivation medium of Aeromonas formicans was employed. Immobilized Clostridium butyricum is stable for more than 20 days.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A blue-green algae, Anabaena N-7363, was immobilized in 2% agar gel. The hydrogen productivity of the immobilized algae was three times higher than that of free algae. The maximum hydrogen production rate by the immobilized blue-green algae was 0.52 μ moles h−1 g−1 (of wet gel) in the medium without nitrogen sources under illumination (10,000 lux). The oxygen evolved was then removed by a reactor containing aerobic bacteria. A photo-current of 15–20 mA was continuously produced for 7 days by the photochemical fuel cell system consisting of the immobilized Anabaena reactor, the oxygen-removing reactor and the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell. The conversion ratio of hydrogen to current was from 80% to 100%.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on a nylon membrane. No activity of the GOD-nylon membrane was observed under normal conditions but it appeared when the membrane was mechanically stretched. A linear relationship was observed between the stress strength and the GOD activity of the membrane. The appearance of the GOD activity of the membrane with stress was reproducible and the membrane could be stored for at least 2 months. Therefore, the GOD-nylon membrane can be called a stress sensitive membrane.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A microbial sensor was prepared to determine sodium nitrite. This microbial sensor consisted of immobilized Nitrobacter sp. and an oxygen electrode. When a sample solution containing sodium nitrite was tested, nitrite was changed to NO2 gas in the buffer (pH 2.0) and the current of the electrode decreased with time until a steady state was reached. The steady state current was attained within 10 min and the maximum decrease in current was obtained at 30°C and pH 2.0. A linear relationship was observed between the current decrease and the sodium nitrite concentration below 0.59 mM, the minimum sodium nitrite concentration that could be determined was 0.01 mM. The current decrease was reproducible (5% relative error). The current output of the sensor was almost constant for more than 21 days and 400 assays.
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