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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  It is generally accepted that early human prostate cancers reveal higher androgen dependency than do advanced ones. In the present study, we examined whether the animal model of prostate cancer has already lost androgen dependency at the early stages of carcinogenesis. At experimental week 46, androgen deprivation was induced in rats and the incidences of atypical hyperplasia and cancer were examined in the ventral, dorsolateral prostate, coagulating glands, and seminal vesicles. Androgen deprivation significantly lowered the incidence of atypical hyperplasia in all four organs. As for the incidence of cancer, no significant differences were observed in the coagulating glands and seminal vesicles. Regarding atypical hyperplasia, androgen deprivation significantly decreased the proliferative cell nuclear antigen labeling index in the coagulating gland and seminal vesicles. The presence of cancer was also decreased in the coagulating gland but not in the seminal vesicles. With control group specimens, more intense staining of androgen receptor was observed in atypical hyperplasias than in cancers. Compared with the atypical hyperplasias, the cancers revealed low androgen dependency at the early stages of carcinogenesis. The cancers in the seminal vesicles also revealed higher androgen independency than did those in the coagulating gland.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    Ministry of Education
    In:  In: Report of the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. A-61302084; 1986-1987). Ministry of Education, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 45-52.
    Publication Date: 2016-12-20
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Total ozone amounts in the Antarctic atmosphere are derived from infrared nadir scanning data of TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) of NOAA-6 and 7. HRPT data of the TIROS-N NOAA series of meteorological satellites have been received at Syowa Station (69 deg 00'S, 39 deg 35'E), Antarctica, about once a day since February 1980, by the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition. HIRS/2 data of TOVS were extracted from HRPT data after being converted into CCT at the home institute. Total ozone amounts were derived for the northeastern part of the Antarctic, for about 100 orbits in 1981 and 1982.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions Handbook for MAP, Vol. 18; 4 p
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: An analysis is presented of the observed Pioneer 10 interplanetary data from 1972 to 1977, taking into account the interplanetary glow intensity observed by the Pioneer 10 UV photometer at sun-spacecraft distances of 2-14 AU. On the basis of the obtained data, it was determined that the background intensity for the 200-1400 A band pass of the photometer channel is about 40 + or - 10 R, and that the nearby interstellar density is 0.04 + or - 0.91 per ccm for hydrogen and about 0.01 + or - 0.002 per ccm for helium. Accordingly, the He/H number density is about 0.25 at large distances from the sun. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is leaving the solar system in the downwind direction, while both Pioneer 11 and Voyager will leave in the upwind direction. The combined UV observations of the interplanetary glow will provide accurate results on the physical status of the inflowing interstellar gas and the variability of background radiation as well.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 245
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Description: This paper is not subject to U.S. copyright. The definitive version was published in Marine and Petroleum Geology 66 (2015): 434-450, doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.02.033.
    Description: Natural hydrate-bearing sediments from the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan, were studied using the Pressure Core Characterization Tools (PCCTs) to obtain geomechanical, hydrological, electrical, and biological properties under in situ pressure, temperature, and restored effective stress conditions. Measurement results, combined with index-property data and analytical physics-based models, provide unique insight into hydrate-bearing sediments in situ. Tested cores contain some silty-sands, but are predominantly sandy- and clayey-silts. Hydrate saturations Sh range from 0.15 to 0.74, with significant concentrations in the silty-sands. Wave velocity and flexible-wall permeameter measurements on never-depressurized pressure-core sediments suggest hydrates in the coarser-grained zones, the silty-sands where Sh exceeds 0.4, contribute to soil-skeletal stability and are load-bearing. In the sandy- and clayey-silts, where Sh 〈 0.4, the state of effective stress and stress history are significant factors determining sediment stiffness. Controlled depressurization tests show that hydrate dissociation occurs too quickly to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium, and pressure–temperature conditions track the hydrate stability boundary in pure-water, rather than that in seawater, in spite of both the in situ pore water and the water used to maintain specimen pore pressure prior to dissociation being saline. Hydrate dissociation accompanied with fines migration caused up to 2.4% vertical strain contraction. The first-ever direct shear measurements on never-depressurized pressure-core specimens show hydrate-bearing sediments have higher sediment strength and peak friction angle than post-dissociation sediments, but the residual friction angle remains the same in both cases. Permeability measurements made before and after hydrate dissociation demonstrate that water permeability increases after dissociation, but the gain is limited by the transition from hydrate saturation before dissociation to gas saturation after dissociation. In a proof-of-concept study, sediment microbial communities were successfully extracted and stored under high-pressure, anoxic conditions. Depressurized samples of these extractions were incubated in air, where microbes exhibited temperature-dependent growth rates.
    Description: PCCTs were developed with funding to Georgia Tech from the DOE/Chevron Joint Industry Project (JIP), with additional funds from the Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc. The JIP also funded the Georgia Tech participation in Sapporo. USGS participation in Sapporo was funded through a technical assistance agreement with Chevron (TAA-12-2135/CW928359). Some USGS developments on the IPTC were funded under Interagency Agreement DE-FE0002911 with the U.S. Department of Energy, with additional support from the U.S. Geological Survey. Core acquisition and Japanese participation in this study was supported by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) to carry out Japan's Methane Hydrate R&D Program conducted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).
    Keywords: Methane hydrate ; Hydrate-bearing sediment ; Nankai Trough ; Physical properties ; Pressure core
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the upper troposphere through numerical simulations and comparison with observations from a space-based instrument. To perform the simulations, we used the Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality model (GEM-AQ), which is based on the threedimensional Gobal multiscale model developed by the Meteorological Service of Canada for operational weather forecasting. The model was run for the period 2004-2006 on a 1.5deg x 1.5deg global grid with 28 hybrid vertical levels from the surface up to 10 hPa. Objective analysis data from the Canadian Meteorological Centre were used to update the meteorological fields every 24 h. Fire emission fluxes of gas species were generated by using year-specific inventories of carbon emissions with 8-day temporal resolution from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) version 2. The model output is compared with HCN profiles measured by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) instrument onboard the Canadian SCISAT-1 satellite. High values of up to a few ppbv are observed in the tropics in the Southern Hemisphere; the enhancement in HCN volume mixing ratios in the upper troposphere is most prominent in October. Low upper-tropospheric mixing ratios of less than 100 pptv are mostly recorded at middle and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere in May-July. Mixing ratios in Northern Hemisphere peak in the boreal summer. The amplitude of the seasonal variation is less pronounced than in the Southern Hemisphere. The comparison with the satellite data shows that in the upper troposphere GEM-AQ perform7s well globally for all seasons, except at northern hi gh and middle latitudes in surnmer, where the model has a large negative bias, and in the tropics in winter and spring, where it exhibits large positive bias. This may reflect inaccurate emissions or possible inaccuracies in the emission profile. The model is able to explain most of the observed variability in the upper troposphere HCN field, includin g the interannual variations in the observed mixing ratio. A complementary comparison with daily total columns of HCN from two middle latitude ground-based stations in Northern Japan for the same simulation period shows that the model captures the observed seasonal variation and also points to an underestimation of model emissions in the Northern Hemisphere in the summer. The estimated average global emission equals 1.3 Tg N/yr. The average atmospheric burden is 0.53 Tg N, and the corresponding lifetime is 4.9 months.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: LF99-9630 , Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics; 9; 4301-4313
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: Si3 N4 powder (amorphous, alpha-, and beta-Si3 N4) was mixed with MeOH containing 8.87 mol. % H2O and ground. The NH3 generation rapidly increased after a grinding time of 100 hours. Silicon nitride sintered material was chosen as one of the high temperature, high strength structural materials and studies of the control of the raw material powder, preparation of the sintered body (finding the right assistant, hot press, high pressure sintering, fracture toughness and oxidation at high temperature were performed.
    Keywords: INORGANIC AND PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
    Type: NASA-TM-77746 , NAS 1.15:77746
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: SiC based sinters are produced by pressureless sintering from a SiC-AlN solid solution containing Al2 to 20, N 0.2 to 10, O 0.2 to 5, a Group IIIB element 0 to 15 percent, the remainder being Si and C. Thus, a 90:10 mixture of SiC and AlN powders were cold pressed at 2000 kg/sq cm and sintered for 5 hours at 2100 C in a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting product had density of 3.11 g/cu cm and bending strength at ambient and 1400 C at 68.5 and 66.3 kg/sq mm.
    Keywords: NONMETALLIC MATERIALS
    Type: NASA-TM-77932 , NAS 1.15:77932
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  • 10
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: A method to produce sintered silicon carbide ceramics in which powdery carbonaceous components with a dispersant are mixed with silicon carbide powder, shaped as required with or without drying, and fired in nonoxidation atmosphere is described. Carbon black is used as the carbonaceous component.
    Keywords: ENGINEERING (GENERAL)
    Type: NASA-TM-77598 , NAS 1.15:77598
    Format: application/pdf
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