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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Errors have been analyzed for monthly-average downward and net longwave surface fluxes derived on a 5-deg equal-area grid over the globe, using a satellite technique. Meteorological data used in this technique are available from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) system flown aboard NOAA's operational sun-synchronous satellites. The data used are for February 1982 from NOAA-6 and NOAA-7 satellites. The errors in the parametrized equations were estimated by comparing their results with those from a detailed radiative transfer model. The errors in the TOVS-derived surface temperature, water vapor burden, and cloud cover were estimated by comparing these meteorological parameters with independent measurements obtained from other satellite sources. Analysis of the overall errors shows that the present technique could lead to underestimation of downward fluxes by 5 to 15 W/sq m and net fluxes by 4 to 12 W/sq m.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 14; 1; p. 95-114.
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Theoretical calculations predict that cloud reflectance in near infrared windows such as those at 1.6 and 2.2 microns should give lower reflectances than at visible wavelengths. The reason for this difference is that ice and liquid water show significant absorption at those wavelengths, in contrast to the nearly conservative scattering at wavelengths shorter than 1 micron. In addition, because the amount of absorption scales with the path length of radiation through the particle, increasing cloud particle size should lead to decreasing reflectances at 1.6 and 2.2 microns. Measurements at these wavelengths to date, however, have often given unpredicted results. Twomey and Cocks found unexpectedly high absorption (factors of 3 to 5) in optically thick liquid water clouds. Curran and Wu found expectedly low absorption in optically thick high clouds, and postulated the existence of supercooled small water droplets in place of the expected large ice particles. The implications of the FIRE data for optically thin cirrus are examined.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: FIRE Science Results 1989; p 369-373
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Observations of cirrus and altocumulus clouds during the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment (FIRE) are compared to theoretical models of cloud radiative properties. Three tests are performed. First, LANDSAT radiances are used to compare the relationship between nadir reflectance ot 0.83 micron and beam emittance at 11.5 microns with that predicted for model calculations using spherical and nonspherical phase functions. Good agreement is found between observations and theory when water droplets dominate. Poor agreement is found when ice particles dominate, especially using scattering phase functions for spherical particles. Even when compared to a laboratory measured ice particle phase function, the observations show increased side scattered radiation relative to the theoretical calculations. Second, the anisotropy of conservatively scattered radiation is examined using simultaneous multiple angle views of the cirrus from LANDSAT and ER-2 aircraft radiometers. Observed anisotropy gives good agreement with theoretical calculations using the laboratory measured ice particle phase function and poor agreement with a spherical particle phase function. Third, Landsat radiances at 0.83, 1.65, and 2.21 microns are used to infer particle phase and particle size. For water droplets, good agreement is found with King Air FSSP particle probe measurements in the cloud. For ice particles, the LANDSAT radiance observations predict an effective radius of 60 microns versus aircraft observations of about 200 microns. It is suggested that this descrepancy may be explained by uncertainty in the imaginary index of ice and by inadequate measurements of small ice particles by microphysical probes.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-103468 , NAS 1.15:103468
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The longwave angular radiation models that are required for analysis of satellite measurements of Earth radiation, such as those from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are presented. The models contain limb-darkening characteristics and mean fluxes. Limb-darkening characteristics are the longwave anisotropic factor and the standard deviation of the longwave radiance. Derivation of these models from the Nimbus 7 ERB (Earth Radiation Budget) data set is described. Tabulated values and computer-generated plots are included for the limb-darkening and mean-flux models.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-RP-1184-VOL-2 , NAS 1.61:1184-VOL-2 , L-16503
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Computer simulations of a least squares estimator operating on the ERBE scanning channels are discussed. The estimator is designed to minimize the errors produced by nonideal spectral response to spectrally varying and uncertain radiant input. The three ERBE scanning channels cover a shortwave band a longwave band and a ""total'' band from which the pseudo inverse spectral filter estimates the radiance components in the shortwave band and a longwave band. The radiance estimator draws on instantaneous field of view (IFOV) scene type information supplied by another algorithm of the ERBE software, and on a priori probabilistic models of the responses of the scanning channels to the IFOV scene types for given Sun scene spacecraft geometry. It is found that the pseudoinverse spectral filter is stable, tolerant of errors in scene identification and in channel response modeling, and, in the absence of such errors, yields minimum variance and essentially unbiased radiance estimates.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-85781 , NAS 1.15:85781
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Curve-fit formulas are presented for the stagnation-point radiative heating rate, cooling factor, and shock standoff distance for inviscid flow over blunt bodies at conditions corresponding to high-speed earth entry. The data which were curve fitted were calculated by using a technique which utilizes a one-strip integral method and a detailed nongray radiation model to generate a radiatively coupled flow-field solution for air in chemical and local thermodynamic equilibrium. The range of free-stream parameters considered were altitudes from about 55 to 70 km and velocities from about 11 to 16 km.sec. Spherical bodies with nose radii from 30 to 450 cm and elliptical bodies with major-to-minor axis ratios of 2, 4, and 6 were treated. Powerlaw formulas are proposed and a least-squares logarithmic fit is used to evaluate the constants. It is shown that the data can be described in this manner with an average deviation of about 3 percent (or less) and a maximum deviation of about 10 percent (or less). The curve-fit formulas provide an effective and economic means for making preliminary design studies for situations involving high-speed earth entry.
    Keywords: THERMODYNAMICS AND COMBUSTION
    Type: L-9315 , NASA-TN-D-7622
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A computer study was conducted to compare the numerical behavior of two approaches to describing the thermodynamic properties of oxygen near the critical point. Data on the relative differences between values of specific heats at constant pressure (sub p) density, and isotherm and isochor derivatives of the equation of state are presented for selected supercritical pressures at temperatures in the range 100 to 300 K. The results of a more detailed study of the sub p representations afforded by the two methods are also presented.
    Keywords: THERMODYNAMICS AND COMBUSTION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-2590 , L-8418
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Presented are shortwave angular radiation models which are required for analysis of satellite measurements of Earth radiation, such as those fro the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The models consist of both bidirectional and directional parameters. The bidirectional parameters are anisotropic function, standard deviation of mean radiance, and shortwave-longwave radiance correlation coefficient. The directional parameters are mean albedo as a function of Sun zenith angle and mean albedo normalized to overhead Sun. Derivation of these models from the Nimbus 7 ERB (Earth Radiation Budget) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data sets is described. Tabulated values and computer-generated plots are included for the bidirectional and directional modes.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-RP-1184 , L-16414 , NAS 1.61:1184
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An infrared radiative transfer model has been developed for evaluating anisotropic functions in the longwave region (5-50 microns) due to limb-darkening effects in the earth's atmosphere. An accurate narrow-band model of absorption has been used for computing transmission functions of the atmosphere. Absorption due to all major and minor atmospheric constituents has been taken into account including the continuum absorption due to water vapor. Anisotropic functions have been calculated for several latitudinal and seasonal climatological-average model atmospheres. The effects of the variability of various meteorological parameters, e.g. surface temperature, surface relative humidity, and cloud-top height have been examined. It has been found that the variability of cloud parameters has the largest effect on the infrared anisotropic functions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 83-0161
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-03-09
    Description: The Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) consists of the upwelling and downwelling radiation fluxes at the surface, separately determined for the broadband shortwave (SW) (0 to 5 micron) and longwave (LW) (greater than 5 microns) spectral regions plus certain key parameters that control these fluxes, specifically, SW albedo, LW emissivity, and surface temperature. The uses and requirements for SRB data, critical assessment of current capabilities for producing these data, and directions for future research are presented.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: L-16133 , NASA-RP-1169 , NAS 1.61:1169
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