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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2010-08-16
    Description: The potential links between uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau and desertification of inland Asia have been a long-considered problem in geology. Although a close link between the two has been suggested by theoretical climatic simulations, not enough geological data has existed to test the theory. Here, we conducted semi-quantitative field observations of a Neogene fluvial sequence at the Yecheng section on the southwestern margin of the Tarim Basin in order to confirm the origin and mode of deposition of the aeolian siltstone, determine the onset timing, evaluate quantitatively the temporal evolution of its deposition and its relationship to the tectonically driven surface uplift of NW Tibet. The results suggest a close link between the uplift of northwestern Tibet, alluvial fan formation, dust emission from Taklimakan Desert and the deposition of loess on the alluvial fans.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2010-08-16
    Description: Recent progress both in studies of Chinese loess and deep-sea sediments have provided robust and longer records of winter monsoon variation and ice volume change back to the Late Miocene. However, when and how the winter monsoon became coupled with global ice volume change remains uncertain. Here we compare quartz grain size (a reliable winter monsoon proxy) generated from two loess-palaeosol and red clay sequences with a stacked benthic {delta}18O record (a global ice volume proxy). Our results indicate that at longer (〉500 ka) timescales, the winter monsoon became strongly coupled with global ice volume change at 2.1 Ma, while at orbital timescales the winter monsoon variations started to be influenced by global ice volume change at c. 3.3 Ma. Correlation coefficients between these two records further indicate that winter monsoon intensity was strongly coupled with global ice volume change during intervals of 0-1.1 Ma, 1.4-1.8 Ma, and 2-2.85 Ma. In spite of these close connections amplitude mismatches between these two records are evident in terms of both long-term trend and glacial-interglacial fluctuations, suggesting that additional processes might have played a role in modulating the response of the winter monsoon variation to ice volume forcing.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-11-22
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 20 (2005): PA4005, doi:10.1029/2004PA001061.
    Description: Detailed deglacial and Holocene records of planktonic δ18O and Mg/Ca–based sea surface temperature (SST) from the Okinawa Trough suggest that at ∼18 to 17 thousand years before present (kyr B.P.), late spring/early summer SSTs were approximately 3°C cooler than today, while surface waters were up to 1 practical salinity unit saltier. These conditions are consistent with a weaker influence of the summer East Asian Monsoon (EAM) than today. The timing of suborbital SST oscillations suggests a close link with abrupt changes in the EAM and North Atlantic climate. A tropical influence, however, may have resulted in subtle decoupling between the North Atlantic and the Okinawa Trough/EAM during the deglaciation. Okinawa Trough surface water trends in the Holocene are consistent with model simulations of an inland shift of intense EAM precipitation during the middle Holocene. Millennial-scale alternations between relatively warm, salty conditions and relatively cold, fresh conditions suggest varying influence of the Kuroshio during the Holocene.
    Description: Funding for this research was provided by NSFC (grants 40106006 and 40206007), SKLLQG (grant LLQG0204), and the NSF (OCE-020776 to DWO). Y.S.'s visit to WHOI was supported via a NSF START Fellowship.
    Keywords: Okinawa Trough ; Deglaciation ; Holocene ; Kuroshio Current ; East Asian monsoon ; Mg/Ca ; Oxygen isotopes ; Foraminifera
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Authors, 2006. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 243 (2007): 378-393, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.08.016.
    Description: Well-dated, high-resolution records of planktonic foraminifera and oxygen isotopes from two sediment cores, A7 and E017, in the middle Okinawa Trough reveal strong and rapid millennial-scale climate changes since ~18 to 17 thousand years before present (kyr B.P.). Sedimentation rate shows a sudden drop at ~11.2 cal. kyr B.P. due to a rapid rise of sea-level after the Younger Dryas (YD) and consequently submergence of the large continental shelf on the East China Sea (ECS) and the retreat of the estuary providing sediment to the basin. During the last deglaciation, the relative abundance of warm and cold species of planktonic foraminifera fluctuates strongly, consistent with the timing of sea surface temperature (SST) variations determined from Mg/Ca measurements of planktonic foraminifera from one of the two cores. These fluctuations are coeval with climate variation recorded in the Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediments, namely Heinrich event 1 (H1), Bølling-Allerød (B/A) and YD events. At about 9.4 kyr B.P., a sudden change in the relative abundance of shallow to deep planktonic species probably indicates a sudden strengthening of the Kuroshio Current in the Okinawa Trough, which was synchronous with a rapid sea-level rise at 9.5-9.2 kyr B.P. in the ECS, Yellow Sea (YS) and South China Sea (SCS). The abundance of planktonic foraminiferal species, together with Mg/Ca based SST, exhibits millennial-scale oscillations during the Holocene, with 7 cold events (at about 1.7, 2.3-4.6, 6.2, 7.3, 8.2, 9.6, 10.6 cal. kyr BP) superimposed on a Holocene warming trend. This Holocene trend, together with centennial-scale SST variations superimposed on the last deglacial trend, suggests that both high and low latitude influences affected the climatology of the Okinawa Trough.
    Description: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 40206007, 40106006, 90211022 and 40506027), the Chinese Academy of Sciences innovation program (KZCX3-SW-220), and the NSF (OCE05-29600 to DWO).
    Keywords: Okinawa Trough ; Last deglaciation ; Holocene ; Planktonic foraminifera ; Sedimentation rate ; Kuroshio Current ; Millennial- scale climate changes ; Oxygen isotope
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: image/jpeg
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Elsevier B.V., 2008. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Chemical Geology 257 (2008): 240-246, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2008.10.002.
    Description: Sediments of the upper 28.2 meters of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1145 from the northern South China Sea (SCS) were analyzed for their geochemical composition. Most of the major and trace elements exhibit significant fluctuations at glacial-interglacial scales, implying a close relation with regional and global climate change. Al-normalized elemental ratios can be subdivided into three principal components (PC). PC1 (e.g., Ca/Al, Ba/Al, Sr/Al) displays significant glacial-interglacial variation and is related to paleoproductivity in the northern SCS. PC2 (e.g., K/Al, Mg/Al, Rb/Al) is associated with the degree of chemical weathering in the source regions and shows little glacial-interglacial variation. PC3 (e.g., Ti/Al, Zr/Al) reflects the relative contribution of coarse- and fine-grained materials in the terrigenous components of the SCS sediments, likely associated with changes in sea level and monsoon-induced fluvial input. Spectral analyses indicate that paleoproductivity (i.e., Ba/Al) in the South China Sea lags Hulu/Sanbao speleothem δ18O record (a indicator of annual average meteoric precipitation) by 102° and Indian summer monsoon (multi-proxy stack) by 23° at the precession band, indicating a close relationship with the Indian summer monsoon. However, the chemical weathering degree in the source area (PC2) is not sensitive to monsoon-related changes at the precession band during the last climatic cycle.
    Description: This study was supported by the NSFC to Y.B. Sun and the US NSF to D.W. Oppo (OCE 0502960) and S.C. Clemens (OCE 0352215).
    Keywords: South China Sea ; Major and trace elements ; Elemental ratios ; East Asian monsoon
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 840 data points
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 60 data points
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  • 8
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Oppo, Delia W; Sun, Youbin (2005): Amplitude and timing of sea-surface temperature change in the northern South China Sea: Dynamic link to the East Asian monsoon. Geology, 33(10), 785-788, https://doi.org/10.1130/G21867.1
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Magnesium/calcium (Mg/Ca) ratios of foraminiferal shells from a sediment core from the northern South China Sea, a semi-enclosed basin in the western tropical Pacific, document variations in sea-surface temperature (SST) during the past 145 k.y. Glacial SSTs were 4°C colder than interglacial SSTs. During the last deglaciation, most of the warming was accomplished in a single abrupt step after continental ice-sheet decay had already begun, but warming and ice-sheet demise were nearly synchronous during the penultimate deglaciation. Abrupt SST changes of the past 15 k.y. were apparently synchronous with events in East Asian monsoon rainfall, suggesting that variations in monsoon winds and their influence on surface circulation of the western Pacific exerted a strong control on northern South China Sea SSTs. We suggest that this link persisted for the previous 130 k.y., during which time orbital-scale 2-3°C SST changes and several small (〈/=2°C) abrupt SST events occurred in the northern South China Sea. The similar timing of northern South China Sea SST, on a benthic d18O time scale, to a well-dated speleothem record from eastern China suggests that the demise of ice sheets associated with the penultimate deglaciation did not precede Northern Hemisphere summer insolation increase. Our results suggest that surface waters had higher d18O values during times of strong summer monsoon than during times of weak monsoon, likely reflecting a redistribution of 18O-depleted rainfall from land during times of strong summer monsoons, to the western Pacific during times of weaker summer monsoons.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 9
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    Unknown
    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Bailey, Ian; Liu, Qingsong; Swann, George E A; Jiang, Zhaoxia; Sun, Youbin; Zhao, Xiang; Roberts, Andrew P (2011): Iron fertilisation and biogeochemical cycles in the sub-Arctic northwest Pacific during the late Pliocene intensification of northern hemisphere glaciation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 307(3-4), 253-265, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2011.05.029
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Increases in the low-field mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (chi), dropstones and the terrigenous sediment component from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 882 (~45°N) have been interpreted to indicate a major onset of ice-rafting to the sub-Arctic northwest Pacific Ocean during marine isotope stage (MIS) G6 (from ~2.75 Ma). In contrast, studies of the terrigenous content of sediments cored downwind of ODP Site 882 indicate that dust and disseminated volcanic ash deposition in the sub-Arctic Pacific increased markedly during MIS G6. To investigate the relative contribution of dust, volcanic ash and ice rafting to the Pliocene chi increase, we present new high-resolution environmental magnetic and ice-rafted debris records from ODP Sites 882 and 885. Our results demonstrate that the chi increase at both sites across MIS G6 is predominantly controlled by a previously overlooked mixture of aeolian dust and volcanic ash. Our findings call into question the reliability of chi as a proxy for ice-rafting to the North Pacific. They also highlight a previously undocumented link between iron fertilisation and biogeochemical cycling in the North Pacific at a key stage during intensification of late Pliocene northern hemisphere glaciation.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 182 data points
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