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  • 1
    ISSN: 1615-1488
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract This paper analyses the design sensitivity of a suspension system with material and geometric nonlinearities for a motorcycle structure. The main procedures include nonlinear structural analysis, formulation of the problem with nonlinear dynamic response, design sensitivity analysis, and optimization. The incremental finite element method is used in structural analysis. The stiffness and damping parameters of the suspension system are considered as design variables. The maximum amplitude of nonlinear transient response at the seat is taken as the objective function during the optimization simulation. A more realistic finite element model for the motorcycle structure with elasto-damping elements of different material models is presented. A comparison is made of the optimum designs with and without geometric nonlinear response and is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1615-1488
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The weight optimization of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with material nonlinear response is formulated as a general nonlinear optimization problem. Incremental finite element procedures are used to integrate the structural response analysis and design sensitivity analysis in a consistent manner. In the finite element discretization, the concrete is modelled by plane stress elements and steel reinforcement is modelled by discrete truss elements. The cross-sectional areas of the steel and the thickness of the concrete are chosen as design variables, and design constraints can include the displacement, stress and sizing constraints. The objective function is the weight of the RC beams. The optimal design is performed by using the sequential linear programming algorithm for the changing process of design variables, and the gradient projection method for the calculations of the search direction. Three example problems are considered. The first two are demonstrated to show the stability and accuracy of the approaches by comparing previous results for truss and plane stress elements, separately. The last one is an example of an RC beam. Comparative cost objective functions are presented to prove the validity of the approach.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2064
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of theoretical probability 10 (1997), S. 279-286 
    ISSN: 1572-9230
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: The purpose of this work is to use dynamic histomorphometry to evaluate the basic biological mechanisms by which hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) implant coatings accelerate bone formation rates. Twenty-five rabbits had an HA/TCP coated cylindrical titanium fiber metal mesh implant surgically placed in the subchondral bone of the proximal tibia and a noncoated implant placed in the contralateral tibia. Twenty-two of these animals had HA/TCP coated cylindrical solid titanium implants placed in the distal femur and an uncoated implant placed in te contraleteral femur. The animals were double labeled with vital stains, and sacrificed at 3, 6, 16, or 26 weeks after surgery. Histomorphometric analyses were done of the bone implant interfaces. Both static and dynamic histomorphometric parameters indicate that HA/TCP coatings stimulate faster bone ingrowth to coated fiber metal implants through the early production of woven bone and by subsequent rapid lamellar bone formation rates. Coated fiber metal implants demonstrated significantly more bone ingrowth than noncoated implants through 16 weeks postimplatatin, but not by 26 weeks, In solid implants, the differences between coated and noncoated implants are less pronouned and not statistically significant, although there is a trend toward increased bone appostion to the surface of the implants over the first 16 weeks following implantation. The clinical significance of these results is that coated implants may allow earlier return to normal weightbearing. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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