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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Airborne Raman Ozone Temperature Lidar (AROTEL) made temperature retrievals within Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) on several flights during the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) campaign. The location of the PSCs was confirmed using simultaneously acquired data from the NASA Langley Aerosol lidar. Retrievals were made on flight dates 991207, 991210 and 000127 from just above the aircraft to 25 kilometers geometric altitude. Raman temperature retrievals are, to first order, insensitive to Mie interference because the Raman signals are red shifted by 2331 cm(exp -1) from the initial laser wavelength. Backscattering from clouds and aerosols is consequently not observed by the detector; however, extinction does impact the measurement and limits retrievals to optically thin clouds. Comparisons between retrievals employing Rayleigh and Raman scattering show the Raman temperatures to be significantly warmer than those employing Rayleigh scattering. Uncertainties are a function of altitude: at 25 km they were approximately 3 K. Temperature profiles could not be retrieved for optically thick clouds.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: Fall American Geophysical Union Meeting; Dec 15, 2000 - Dec 19, 2000; San Francisco, CA; United States
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: Temperature profiles acquired by Goddard Space Flight Center's AROTEL lidar during the SOLVE mission onboard NASA's DC-8 are compared with predicted values from several atmospheric models (DAO, NCEP and UKMO). The variability in the differences between measured and calculated temperature fields was approximately 5 K. Retrieved temperatures within the polar vortex showed large regions that were significantly colder than predicted by the atmospheric models.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: International Laser Radar Conference; Jul 10, 2000 - Jul 14, 2000; Vichy; France
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: During the winter of 1999-2000, the AROTEL instrument was deployed on the NASA DC-8 at Kiruna, Sweden for the SAGE III Ozone Loss Validation Experiment (SOLVE). Measurements of ozone, temperature and aerosols were made on 18 local science flights from December to March. Extremely low temperatures were observed throughout most of the Arctic vortex and polar stratospheric clouds were observed throughout the Arctic area during January. Significant ozone loss was measured after the sun began to rise on the vortex area in February. Ozone mixing ratios as low as 800 ppbv were observed during flights in March.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: International Laser Radar Conference; Jul 10, 2000 - Jul 14, 2000; Vichy; France
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-06-13
    Description: The Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) is a unique network of lidar systems that measure high-resolution atmospheric profiles of ozone. The accurate characterization of these lidars is necessary to determine the uniformity of the network calibration. From July to August 2014, three lidars, the TROPospheric OZone (TROPOZ) lidar, the Tunable Optical Profiler for Aerosol and oZone (TOPAZ) lidar, and the Langley Mobile Ozone Lidar (LMOL), of TOLNet participated in the Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) mission and the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry xperiment (FRAPP) to measure ozone variations from the boundary layer to the top of the troposphere. This study presents the analysis of the intercomparison between the TROPOZ, TOPAZ, and LMOL lidars, along with comparisons between the lidars and other in situ ozone instruments including ozonesondes and a P-3B airborne chemiluminescence sensor. The TOLNet lidars measured vertical ozone structures with an accuracy generally better than 15 % within the troposphere. Larger differences occur at some individual altitudes in both the near-field and far-field range of the lidar systems, largely as expected. In terms of column average, the TOLNet lidars measured ozone with an accuracy better than 5 % for both the intercomparison between the lidars and between the lidars and other instruments. These results indicate that these three TOLNet lidars are suitable for use in air quality, satellite validation, and ozone modeling efforts.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: NF1676L-26921 , Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (ISSN 1867-1381) (e-ISSN 1867-8548); 10; 10; 3865-3876
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Airborne Raman Ozone, Temperature and Aerosol Lidar (AROTEL) measured extremely cold temperatures during all three deployments (December 1-16, 1999, January 14-29, 2000 and February 27-March 15, 2000) of the Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). Temperatures were significantly below values observed in previous years with large regions regularly below 191 K and frequent temperature retrievals yielding values at or below 187 K. Temperatures well below the saturation point of type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) were regularly encountered but their presence was not well correlated with PSCs observed by the NASA Langley Research Center's Aerosol Lidar co-located with AROTEL. Temperature measurements by meteorological sondes launched within areas traversed by the DC-8 showed minimum temperatures consistent in time and vertical extent with those derived from AROTEL data. Calculations to establish whether PSCs could exist at measured AROTEL temperatures and observed mixing ratios of nitric acid and water vapor showed large regions favorable to PSC formation. On several occasions measured AROTEL temperatures up to 10 K below the NAT saturation temperature were insufficient to produce PSCs even though measured values of nitric acid and water were sufficient for their formation.
    Keywords: Ground Support Systems and Facilities (Space)
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: Although characterizing the interactions of ozone throughout the entire troposphere are important for health and climate processes, there is a lack of routine measurements of vertical profiles within the United States. In order to monitor this lower ozone more effectively, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center TROPospheric OZone DIfferential Absorption Lidar (GSFC TROPOZDIAL) has been developed and validated within the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet). Two scientifically interesting ozone episodes are presented that were observed during the 2014 Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER AQ) campaign at Ft. Collins,Colorado.The first case study, occurring between 22-23 July 2014, indicates enhanced concentrations of ozone at Ft. Collins during nighttime hours, which was due to the complex recirculation of ozone within the foothills of the Rocky Mountain region. Although quantifying the ozone increase a loft during recirculation episodes has been historically difficult, results indicate that an increase of 20 -30 ppbv of ozone at the Ft. Collins site has been attributed to this recirculation. The second case, occurring between Aug 4-8th 2014, characterizes a dynamical exchange of ozone between the stratosphere and the troposphere. This case, along with seasonal model parameters from previous years, is used to estimate the stratospheric contribution to the Rocky Mountain region. Results suggest that a large amount of stratospheric air is residing in the troposphere in the summertime near Ft. Collins, CO. The results also indicate that warmer tropopauses are correlated with an increase in stratospheric air below the tropopause in the Rocky Mountain Region.
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN41450 , EPJ Web of Conferences; 119; 05014|International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 27); Jul 05, 2015 - Jul 10, 2015; New York, NY; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Measurements of Humidity in the Atmosphere and Validation Experiments (MOHAVE, MOHAVE-II) inter-comparison campaigns took place at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Table Mountain Facility (TMF, 34.5(sup o)N) in October 2006 and 2007 respectively. Both campaigns aimed at evaluating the capability of three Raman lidars for the measurement of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS). During each campaign, more than 200 hours of lidar measurements were compared to balloon borne measurements obtained from 10 Cryogenic Frost-point Hygrometer (CFH) flights and over 50 Vaisala RS92 radiosonde flights. During MOHAVE, fluorescence in all three lidar receivers was identified, causing a significant wet bias above 10-12 km in the lidar profiles as compared to the CFH. All three lidars were reconfigured after MOHAVE, and no such bias was observed during the MOHAVE-II campaign. The lidar profiles agreed very well with the CFH up to 13-17 km altitude, where the lidar measurements become noise limited. The results from MOHAVE-II have shown that the water vapor Raman lidar will be an appropriate technique for the long-term monitoring of water vapor in the UT/LS given a slight increase in its power-aperture, as well as careful calibration.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: 24th International Laser radar Remote Sensing Conference (ILRC); Jun 23, 2008; Boulder, CO; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A high-ozone (O3) pollution episode was observed on 22 July 2014 during the concurrent Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) and Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) campaigns in northern Colorado. Surface O3 monitors at three regulatory sites exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) daily maximum 8h average (MDA8) of 75ppbv. To further characterize the polluted air mass and assess transport throughout the event, measurements are presented from O3 and wind profilers, O3-sondes, aircraft, and surface-monitoring sites. Observations indicate that thermally driven upslope flow was established throughout the Colorado Front Range during the pollution episode. As the thermally driven flow persisted throughout the day, O3 concentrations increased and affected high-elevation Rocky Mountain sites. These observations, coupled with modeling analyses, demonstrate a westerly return flow of polluted air aloft, indicating that the mountain-plains solenoid circulation was established and impacted surface conditions within the Front Range.
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN41366 , Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres (ISSN 2169-897X); 121; 17; 10,377-10,390
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Between November, 2015 and January, 2015, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) operated a pair of lidar instruments at the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) facility at Mauna Loa on the Big Island of Hawaii (Latitude 19.5 degrees North, Longitude 155.5 degrees West, altitude 3.397 kilometers). Measurements were made during six different four week periods during this time period by both the NASA GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar (STROZ) and the Aerosol and Temperature (ATL) lidar. Also making measurements were the JPL Stratospheric Ozone Lidar and the NOAA Aerosol and Water Vapor Lidar. All instruments participate and archive data with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). Measurement comparisons were made among various instruments in accordance with the standard intercomparison protocols of the NDACC.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution; Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN41456 , International Laser Radar Conference; Jul 05, 2015; New York, NY; United States|EPJ Web of Conferences; 119; 05015
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: The AROTEL instrument, deployed on the NASA DC-8 at Kiruna, Sweden for the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), flew over the NDSC station operated by the Alfred Wegner Institute at Ny Aalesund, Spitsbergen. AROTEL ozone and temperature measurements made during near overflights of Ny Aalesund are compared with sonde ozone and temperature, and lidar ozone measurements from the NDSC station. Nine of the seventeen science flights during the December through March measurement period overflew near Ny Aalesund. Agreement of AROTEL with the ground-based temperature and ozone values at altitudes from just above the aircraft to about 30 km gives strong confidence in using AROTEL temperature and ozone mixing ratio to study the mechanisms of ozone loss in the winter arctic polar region.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: International Laser Radar Conference; Jul 10, 2000 - Jul 14, 2000; Vichy; France
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