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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: A recent analysis found a negative correlation between the area-mean cloud amount and the corresponding mean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) within the cloudy areas. The SST-cloud relation becomes more evident when the SST contrast between warm pool and surrounding cold pool (DSST) in the tropical Pacific is stronger than normal. The above feature is related to the finding that the strength of subsidence over the cold pool is limited by radiative cooling because of its small variability. As a result, the area of radiatively-driven subsidence must expand in response to enhanced low-boundary forcing due to SST warming or enhanced basin-scale DSST. This leads to more cloud free regions and less cloudy regions. The increased ratio of cloud-free areas to cloudy areas leads to more high SST areas (〉29.50C) due to enhanced solar radiation.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Responses of tropical atmosphere to low-boundary forcing are investigated in a 2-D cumulus ensemble model (CEM) with an imposed warm-pool and cold-pool SST contrast (deltaSST). The domain-mean vertical motion is constrained to produce heat sink and moisture source as in the observed tropical climate. In a series of experiments, the warm pool SST is specified at different values while the cold pool SST is specified at 26 C. The strength of the circulation increases with increasing deltaSST until deltaSST reaches 3.5 C, and remains unchanged as deltaSST exceeds 3.5 C. The regulation of tropical convection by zonal SST gradient is constrained by the radiative cooling over the cold pool. For deltaSST less than 3.5 C, an enhanced subsidence warming is balanced by a reduced condensation heating over the cold pool. For deltaSST greater than 3.5 C, the subsidence regime expands over the entire cold pool where no condensation heating exist so that a further enhanced subsidence warming can no longer be sustained. The above regulation mechanism is also evident in the change of energy at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) that is dominated by cloud and water vapor greenhouse effect (c (sub LW)) and G (sub clear). The change in shortwave radiation at TOA is largely cancelled between the warm pool and cold pool, likely due to the same imposed vertical motion in our experiments. For deltaSST less than 3.5 C, an increase of deltaSST is associated with a large increase in c (sub Lw) due to increased total clouds in response to enhanced SST-induced circulation. For deltaSST greater than 3.5 C, clouds over the warm pool decrease with increasing SST, and the change in c (sub LW) is much smaller. In both dSST regimes, the change in CLW is larger than the change in G(sub clear) which is slightly negative. However, in the case of uniform warming (deltaSST=0), DeltaG(sub clear), is positive, approximately 5 W per square meters per degree change of SST.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: An improved treatment of diabatic heating due to moist convection is introduced into the dynamical model of Lau and Peng (1987) to study the origin of intraseasonal oscillations in the tropics. It is found that the periods of slow-moving wave-CISK disturbances in the tropical troposphere with fixed sea surface temperature vary from 20 to 50 days. The results suggest that heating in the lower troposphere may be important in slowing down the wave-CISK modes. Also, it is shown that the intraseasonal oscillation can propagate around the globe even when the associated deep convection is only confined over warm sea surface temperatures.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (ISSN 0022-4928); 46; 37-56
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Coupling a cloud resolving model (CRM) with an ocean mixed layer (OML) model can provide a powerful tool for better understanding impacts of atmospheric precipitation on sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity. The objective of this study is twofold. First, by using the three dimensional (3-D) CRM-simulated (the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE) diabatic source terms, radiation (longwave and shortwave), surface fluxes (sensible and latent heat, and wind stress), and precipitation as input for the OML model, the respective impact of individual component on upper ocean heat and salt budgets are investigated. Secondly, a two-way air-sea interaction between tropical atmospheric climates (involving atmospheric radiative-convective processes) and upper ocean boundary layer is also examined using a coupled two dimensional (2-D) GCE and OML model. Results presented here, however, only involve the first aspect. Complete results will be presented at the conference.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: 11th Intera Conference; 14-18 May 2001; San Diego, CA; United States
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Local convective-radiative equilibrium states of the tropical atmosphere are determined by the following external forcing: 1) Insolation, 2) Surface heat and moisture exchanges (primarily radiation and evaporation), 3) Heating and moistening induced by large-scale circulation. Understanding the equilibrium states of the tropical atmosphere in different external forcing conditions is of vital importance for studying cumulus parameterization, climate feedbacks, and climate changes. We extend our previous study using the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model which resolves convective-radiative processes more explicitly than global climate models do. Several experiments are carried out under fixed insolation and sea surface temperature. The prescribed SST consists of a uniform warm pool (29C) surrounded by uniform cold SST (26C). The model produces "Walker"-type circulation with the ascending branch of the model atmosphere more humid than the descending part, but the vertically integrated temperature does not show a horizontal gradient. The results are compared with satellite measured moisture by SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) and temperature by MSU in the ascending and descending tropical atmosphere. The vertically integrated temperature and humidity in the two model regimes are comparable to the observed values in the tropics.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: 14-17 Apr. 1999; Princeton, NJ; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of high-frequency surface forcing (wind stresses and heat fluxes) on upper-ocean response. We use the reduced-gravity quasi-isopycnal ocean model by Schopf and Loughe (1995) for this study. Two experiments are performed: one with daily and the other with monthly surface forcing. The two experiments are referred to as DD and MM, respectively. The daily surface wind stress is produced from the SSM/I wind data (Atlas et al. 1991) using the drag coefficient of Large and Pond (1982). The surface latent and sensible heat fluxes are estimated using the atmospheric mixed layer model by Seager et al. (1995) with the time-varying air temperature and specific humidity from the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis (Kalnay et al. 1996). The radiation is based on climatological shortwave radiation from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) [Harrison et al. 1993] and the daily GEWEX SRB data. The ocean model domain is restricted to the Pacific Ocean with realistic land boundaries. At the southern boundary the model temperature and salinity are relaxed to the Levitus (1994) climatology. The time-mean SST distribution from MM is close to the observed SST climatology while the mean SST field from DD is about 1.5 C cooler. To identify the responsible processes, we examined the mean heat budgets and the heat balance during the first year (when the difference developed) in the two experiments. The analysis reveals that this is contributed by two factors. One is the difference in latent heat flux. The other is the difference in mixing processes. To further evaluate the responsible processes, we repeated the DD experiment by reducing the based vertical diffusion from 1e-4 to 0.5e-5. The resultant SST field becomes quite closer to the observed SST field. SST variability from the two experiments is generally similar, but the equatorial SST differences between the two experiments show interannual variations. We are investigating the possible mechanisms responsible for the different responses.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: AMS Conference; 14-18 May 2001; San Diego, CA; United States
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  • 7
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 95 (2). pp. 293-296.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Highlights: • Mean circulation patterns are assessed and Kuroshio transport is underestimated. • Water mass distribution is compared and analyzed within COREII models. • Main biases of deep MLDs result from the inaccurate Kuroshio separation. • Reasonable modeled tropical dynamics but a discrepancy from the surface wind. Abstract: We evaluate the mean circulation patterns, water mass distributions, and tropical dynamics of the North and Equatorial Pacific Ocean based on a suite of global ocean-sea ice simulations driven by the CORE-II atmospheric forcing from 1963-2007. The first three moments (mean, standard deviation and skewness) of sea surface height and surface temperature variability are assessed against observations. Large discrepancies are found in the variance and skewness of sea surface height and in the skewness of sea surface temperature. Comparing with the observation, most models underestimate the Kuroshio transport in the Asian Marginal seas due to the missing influence of the unresolved western boundary current and meso-scale eddies. In terms of the Mixed Layer Depths (MLDs) in the North Pacific, the two observed maxima associated with Subtropical Mode Water and Central Mode Water formation coalesce into a large pool of deep MLDs in all participating models, but another local maximum associated with the formation of Eastern Subtropical Mode Water can be found in all models with different magnitudes. The main model bias of deep MLDs results from excessive Subtropical Mode Water formation due to inaccurate representation of the Kuroshio separation and of the associated excessively warm and salty Kuroshio water. Further water mass analysis shows that the North Pacific Intermediate Water can penetrate southward in most models, but its distribution greatly varies among models depending not only on grid resolution and vertical coordinate but also on the model dynamics. All simulations show overall similar large scale tropical current system, but with differences in the structures of the Equatorial Undercurrent. We also confirm the key role of the meridional gradient of the wind stress curl in driving the equatorial transport, leading to a generally weak North Equatorial Counter Current in all models due to inaccurate CORE-II equatorial wind fields. Most models show a larger interior transport of Pacific subtropical cells than the observation due to the overestimated transport in the Northern Hemisphere likely resulting from the deep pycnocline
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1989-06-01
    Print ISSN: 0022-4928
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0469
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
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