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  • 1
    In: CRREL Report, 93-11
    Description / Table of Contents: A laboratory study of the behavior of snow under shock wave loading and unloading conditions was conducted using a 200-mm-diameter gas gun to generate loading waves in snow samples with initial densities of 100 to 520 kg m-3 at temperatures of -2 to -23 deg C. Stress levels were 2 to 40 MPa. The response of snow to shock wave loading was measured as a function of distance from the impact plane using embedded stress gauges. Large impedance differences between snow and the stress gauges produced complex stress histories. A finite element model, along with a simple analytical model of the experiment, was used to interpret the stress histories. Snow deformation was not affected by initial temperature, but was found to be rate dependent. The initial density of the snow determined its pressure-deformation path. The pressure needed to compact snow to a specific final density increases with decreasing initial density. The release moduli increased nonlinearly from 50 MPa at a snow pressure of about 15 MPa to 2700 MPa at a snow pressure of about 40 MPa.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iii, 150 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 93-11
    Language: English
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 411 (2001), S. 546-547 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The warming of the Alaskan Arctic during the past 150 years has accelerated over the last three decades and is expected to increase vegetation productivity in tundra if shrubs become more abundant; indeed, this transition may already be under way according to local plot studies and remote ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-27
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 140 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-27
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 51 data points
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: In arctic tundra, shrubs can significantly modify the distribution and physical characteristics of snow, influencing the exchanges of energy and moisture between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere from winter into the growing season. These interactions were studied using a spatially distributed, physically based modelling system that represents key components of the land–atmosphere system. Simulations were run for 4 years, over a 4-km2 tundra domain located in arctic Alaska. A shrub increase was simulated by replacing the observed moist-tundra and wet-tundra vegetation classes with shrub-tundra; a procedure that modified 77% of the simulation domain. The remaining 23% of the domain, primarily ridge tops, was left as the observed dry-tundra vegetation class. The shrub enhancement increased the averaged snow depth of the domain by 14%, decreased blowing-snow sublimation fluxes by 68%, and increased the snowcover's thermal resistance by 15%. The shrub increase also caused significant changes in snow-depth distribution patterns; the shrub-enhanced areas had deeper snow, and the non-modified areas had less snow. This snow-distribution change influenced the timing and magnitude of all surface energy-balance components during snowmelt. The modified snow distributions also affected meltwater fluxes, leading to greater meltwater production late in the melt season. For a region with an annual snow-free period of approximately 90 days, the snow-covered period decreased by 11 days on the ridges and increased by 5 days in the shrub-enhanced areas. Arctic shrub increases impact the spatial coupling of climatically important snow, energy and moisture interactions by producing changes in both shrub-enhanced and non-modified areas. In addition, the temporal coupling of the climate system was modified when additional moisture held within the snowcover, because of less winter sublimation, was released as snowmelt in the spring.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: An overview of the March 2003 coordinated sea ice field campaign in the Alaskan Arctic is presented with reference to the papers in this special section. This campaign is part of the program to validate the Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sea ice products. Standard AMSR-E sea ice products include sea ice concentration, sea ice temperature, and snow depth on sea ice. The validation program consists of three elements, namely: 1) satellite data comparisons; 2) coordinated satellite/aircraft surface measurements; and 3) modeling and sensitivity analyses. Landsat-7 and RADARSAT observations were used in comparative studies with the retrieved AMSR-E sea ice concentrations. The aircraft sensors provided high-resolution microwave imagery of the surface, atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity, and digital records of sea ice conditions. When combined with in situ measurements, aircraft data were used to validate the AMSR-E sea ice temperature and snow-depth products. The modeling studies helped interpret the field-data comparisons, provided insight on the limitations of the AMSR-E sea ice algorithms, and suggested potential improvements to the AMSR-E retrieval algorithms.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing; Volume 44; No. 11; 2999-3001
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Part of the Earth Observing System Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) Arctic sea ice validation campaign in March 2003 was dedicated to the validation of snow depth on sea ice and ice temperature products. The difficulty with validating these two variables is that neither can currently be measured other than in situ. For this reason, two aircraft flights on March 13 and 19,2003, were dedicated to these products, and flight lines were coordinated with in situ measurements of snow and sea ice physical properties. One flight was in the vicinity of Barrow, AK, covering Elson Lagoon and the adjacent Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. The other flight was farther north in the Beaufort Sea (about 73 N, 147.5 W) and was coordinated with a Navy ice camp. The results confirm the AMSR-E snow depth algorithm and its coefficients for first-year ice when it is relatively smooth. For rough first-year ice and for multiyear ice, there is still a relationship between the spectral gradient ratio of 19 and 37 GHz, but a different set of algorithm coefficients is necessary. Comparisons using other AMSR-E channels did not provide a clear signature of sea ice characteristics and, hence, could not provide guidance for the choice of algorithm coefficients. The limited comparison of in situ snow-ice interface and surface temperatures with 6-GHz brightness temperatures, which are used for the retrieval of ice temperature, shows that the 6-GHz temperature is correlated with the snow-ice interface temperature to only a limited extent. For strong temperature gradients within the snow layer, it is clear that the 6-GHz temperature is a weighted average of the entire snow layer.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing; Volume 44; No. 11; 3081-3090
    Format: text
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  • 8
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Alvarez-Aviles, Laura; Simpson, William R; Douglas, Thomas A; Sturm, Matthew; Perovich, Donald K; Domine, Florent (2008): Frost flower chemical composition during growth and its implications for aerosol production and bromine activation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 113(D21), D21304, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010277
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: Frost flowers have been proposed to be the major source of sea-salt aerosol to the atmosphere during polar winter and a source of reactive bromine during polar springtime. However little is known about their bulk chemical composition or microstructure, two important factors that may affect their ability to produce aerosols and provide chemically reactive surfaces for exchange with the atmosphere. Therefore, we chemically analyzed 28 samples of frost flowers and parts of frost flowers collected from sea ice off of northern Alaska. Our results support the proposed mechanism for frost flower growth that suggests water vapor deposition forms an ice skeleton that wicks brine present on newly grown sea ice. We measured a high variability in sulfate enrichment factors (with respect to chloride) in frost flowers and seawater from the vicinity of freezing sea ice. The variability in sulfate indicates that mirabilite precipitation (Na2SO4 x 10 H2O) occurs during frost flower growth. Brine wicked up by frost flowers is typically sulfate depleted, in agreement with the theory that frost flowers are related to sulfate-depleted aerosol observed in Antarctica. The bromide enrichment factors we measured in frost flowers are within error of seawater composition, constraining the direct reactive losses of bromide from frost flowers. We combined the chemical composition measurements with temperature observations to create a conceptual model of possible scenarios for frost flower microstructure development.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The location of snow dunes over the course of the ice-growth season 2007/08 was mapped on level landfast first-year sea ice near Barrow, Alaska. Landfast ice formed in mid-December and exhibited essentially homogeneous snow depths of 4-6 cm in mid-January; by early February distinct snow dunes were observed. Despite additional snowfall and wind redistribution throughout the season, the location of the dunes was fixed by March, and these locations were highly correlated with the distribution of meltwater ponds at the beginning of June. Our observations, including ground-based light detection and ranging system (lidar) measurements, show that melt ponds initially form in the interstices between snow dunes, and that the outline of the melt ponds is controlled by snow depth contours. The resulting preferential surface ablation of ponded ice creates the surface topography that later determines the melt pond evolution.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN9285 , Journal of Geophysical Research; 117; C9; C09029
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This paper examines the sensitivity of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) brightness temperatures (Tbs) to surface roughness by a using radiative transfer model to simulate AMSR-E Tbs as a function of incidence angle at which the surface is viewed. The simulated Tbs are then used to examine the influence that surface roughness has on two operational sea ice algorithms, namely: 1) the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Team (NT) algorithm and 2) the enhanced NT algorithm, as well as the impact of roughness on the AMSR-E snow depth algorithm. Surface snow and ice data collected during the AMSR-Ice03 field campaign held in March 2003 near Barrow, AK, were used to force the radiative transfer model, and resultant modeled Tbs are compared with airborne passive microwave observations from the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer. Results indicate that passive microwave Tbs are very sensitive even to small variations in incidence angle, which can cause either an over or underestimation of the true amount of sea ice in the pixel area viewed. For example, this paper showed that if the sea ice areas modeled in this paper mere assumed to be completely smooth, sea ice concentrations were underestimated by nearly 14% using the NT sea ice algorithm and by 7% using the enhanced NT algorithm. A comparison of polarization ratios (PRs) at 10.7,18.7, and 37 GHz indicates that each channel responds to different degrees of surface roughness and suggests that the PR at 10.7 GHz can be useful for identifying locations of heavily ridged or rubbled ice. Using the PR at 10.7 GHz to derive an "effective" viewing angle, which is used as a proxy for surface roughness, resulted in more accurate retrievals of sea ice concentration for both algorithms. The AMSR-E snow depth algorithm was found to be extremely sensitive to instrument calibration and sensor viewing angle, and it is concluded that more work is needed to investigate the sensitivity of the gradient ratio at 37 and 18.7 GHz to these factors to improve snow depth retrievals from spaceborne passive microwave sensors.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing; 44; 11; 3103-3117
    Format: text
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