PIK N 076-02-0063
Description / Table of Contents:
Now in its updated and expanded third edition, Aquatic chemistry remains the classic resource on the essential concepts of natural water chemistry. Designed for both self-study and classroom use, this book builds a solid foundation in the general principles of natural water chemistry and then proceeds to a thorough treatment of more advanced topics. Key principles are illustrated with a wide range of quantitative models, examples, and problem-solving methods. Major subjects covered include: chemical thermodynamics and kinetics; acids and bases; dissolved carbon dioxide; atmosphere-water interactions; metal ions in aqueous solution; precipitation and dissolution; oxidation and reduction; equilibria and microbial mediation; solid-solution interface; trace metals; kinetics of redox processes; photochemical processes; kinetics at the solid-water interface; particle-particle interaction; regulation of the chemical composition of natural waters.
Type of Medium:
Monograph available for loan
XVI, 1022 S. : graph. Darst.
Environmental Science and Technology
CONTENTS: 1. Introduction. - 1.1 Scope of Aquatic Chemistry. - 1.2 The Solvent Water. - 1.3 Solute Species. - Suggested Readings. - Appendix 1.1: Some Useful Quantities, Units, Conversion Factors, Constants, and Relationships. - 2. Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics. - 2.1 Introduction. - 2.2 Chemical Thermodynamic Principles. - 2.3 Systems of Variable Composition: Chemical Thermodynamics. - 2.4 Gibbs Energy and Systems of Variable Chemical Composition. - 2.5 Chemical Potentials of Pure Phases and Solutions. - 2.6 Chemical Potentials of Aqueous Electrolytes. - 2.7 The Equilibrium Constant. - 2.8 The Gibbs Energy of a System. - 2.9 Driving Force for Chemical Reactions. - 2.10 Temperature and Pressure Effects on Equilibrium. - 2.11 Equilibrium Tools. - 2.12 Kinetics and Thermodynamics: Time and Reaction Advancement. - 2.13 Rate and Mechanism. - 2.14 Concentration Versus Time. - 2.15 Theory of Elementary Processes. - 2.16 Elementary Reactions and ACT. - 2.17 Equilibrium Versus Steady State in Flow Systems. - Suggested Readings. - Problems. - Answers to Problems. - 3. Acids and Bases. - 3.1 Introduction. - 3.2 The Nature of Acids and Bases. - 3.3 The Strength of an Acid or Base. - 3.4 Activity and pH Scales. - 3.5 Equilibrium Calculations. - 3.6 pH as a Master Variable; Equilibrium Calculations Using a Graphical Approach. - 3.7 Ionization Fractions of Acids, Bases, and Ampholytes. - 3.8 Titration of Acids and Bases. - 3.9 Buffer Intensity and Neutralizing Capacity. - 3.10 Organic Acids. - Suggested Readings. - Problems. - Answers to Problems. - 4. Dissolved Carbon Dioxide. - 4.1 Introduction. - 4.2 Dissolved Carbonate Equilibria (Closed System). - 4.3 Aqueous Carbonate System Open to the Atmosphere. - 4.4 Alkalinity and Acidity, Neutralizing Capacities. - 4.5 Alkalinity Changes. - 4.6 Analytical Considerations: Gran Plots. - 4.7 Equilibrium with Solid Carbonates. - 4.8 Kinetic Considerations. - 4.9 Carbon Isotopes and Isotope Fractionation. - Suggested Readings. - Problems. - Answers to Problems. - 5. Atmosphere-Water Interactions. - 5.1 Introduction. - 5.2 Anthropogenic Generation of Acidity in the Atmosphere. - 5.3 Gas-Water Partitioning: Henry's Law. - 5.4 Gas-Water Equilibria in Closed and Open Systems. - 5.5 Washout of Pollutants from the Atmosphere. - 5.6 Fog. - 5.7 Aerosols . - 5.8 Acid Rain - Acid Lakes. - 5.9 The Volatility of Organic Substances. - 5.10 Gas Transfer Across Water-Gas Interface. - Suggested Readings. - Problems. - Answers to Problems. - 6. Metal Ions in Aqueous Solution: Aspects of Coordination Chemistry. - 6.1 Introduction. - 6.2 Protons and Metal Ions. - 6.3 Hydrolysis of Metal Ions. - 6.4 Solubility and Hydrolysis: Solid Hydroxides and Metal Oxides. - 6.5 Chelates. - 6.6 Metal Ions and Ligands: Classification of Metals. - 6.7 Speciation in Fresh Waters. - 6.8 Seawater Speciation. - 6.9 Kinetics of Complex Formation. - Suggested Readings. - Problems. - Answers to Problems. - Appendix 6.1: Stability Constants. - Appendix 6.2: The Various Scales for Equilibrium Constants, Activity Coefficients, and pH. - 7. Precipitation and Dissolution. - 7.1 Introduction. - 7.2 The Solubility of Oxides and Hydroxides. - 7.3 Complex Formation and Solubility of (Hydr)oxides. - 7.4 Carbonates. - 7.5 The Stability of Hydroxides, Carbonates, and Hydroxide Carbonates. - 7.6 Sulfides and Phosphates. - 7.7 The Phase Rule: Components, Phases, and Degrees of Freedom. - 7.8 Solubility of Fine Particles. - 7.9 Solid Solutions. - Suggested Readings. - Problems. - Answers to Problems. - 8. Oxidation and Reduction; Equilibria and Microbial Mediation. - 8.1 Introduction. - 8.2 Redox Equilibria and the Electron Activity. - 8.3 The Electrode Potential: The Nernst Equation and the Electrochemical Cell. - 8.4 p[Epsilon]-pH, Potential-pH Diagrams. - 8.5 Redox Conditions in Natural Waters. - 8.6 Effect of Complex Formers on the Redox Potential. - 8.7 Measuring the Redox Potential in Natural Waters. - 8.8 The Potentiometric Determination of Individual Solutes. - Suggested Readings. - Problems. - Answers to Problems. - Appendix 8.1: Activity Ratio Diagrams for Redox Systems. - 9. The Solid-Solution Interface. - 9.1 Introduction. - 9.2 Adsorption. - 9.3 Adsorption Isotherms. - 9.4 Hydrous Oxide Surfaces; Reactions with H+, OH-, Metal Ions, and Ligands. - 9.5 Surface Charge and the Electric Double Layer. - 9.6 Correcting Surface Complex Formation Constants for Surface Charge. - 9.7 Sorption of Hydrophobic Substances on Organic Carbon-Bearing Particles. - 9.8 Ion Exchange. - 9.9 Transport of (Ad)sorbable Constituents in Groundwater and Soil Systems. - Suggested Readings. - Problems. - Appendix 9.1: The Gouy-Chapman Theory. - Appendix 9.2: Contact Angle, Adhesion and Cohesion, the Oil-Water Interface. - 10. Trace Metals: Cycling, Regulation, and Biological Role. - 10.1 Introduction: Global Cycling of Metals. - 10.2 Analytical Approaches to Chemical Speciation. - 10.3 Classification of Metal Ions and the Inorganic Chemistry of Life. - 10.4 Organometallic and Organometalloidal Compounds. - 10.5 Bioavailability and Toxicity. - 10.6 Metal Ions as Micronutrients. - 10.7 The Interaction of Trace Metals with Phytoplankton at the Molecular Level. - 10.8 Regulation of Trace Elements by the Solid-Water Interface in Surface Waters. - 10.9 Regulation of Dissolved Heavy Metals in Rivers, Lakes, and Oceans. - 10.10 Quality Criteria in Fresh Waters: Some Aspects. - Suggested Readings. - 11. Kinetics of Redox Processes. - 11 1 Introduction. - 11.2 How Good an Oxidant Is O2?. - 11.3 Can p[Epsilon] Be Defined for a Nonequilibrium System?. - 11.4 Kinetics of Redox Processes: Case Studies. - 11.5 Oxidants Used in Water and Waste Technology: A Few Case Studies. - 11.6 Linear Free Energy Relations (LFERs). - 11.7 The Marcus Theory of Outer-Sphere Electron Transfer: An Introduction. - 11.8 Nucleophile-Electrophile Interactions and Redox Reactions Involving Organic Substances. - 11.9 Corrosion of Metals as an Electrochemical Process. - Suggested Readings. - 12. Photochemical Processes. - 12.1 Introduction. - 12.2 Absorption of Light. - 12.3 Photoreactants. - 12.4 Photoredox Reactions: Photolysis of Transition Metal Complexes. - 12.5 Photochemical Reactions in Atmospheric Waters: Role of Dissolved Iron Species. - 12.6 Heterogeneous Photochemistry. - 12.7 Semiconducting Minerals. - Suggested Readings. - 13. Kinetics at the Solid-Water Interface: Adsorption, Dissolution of Minerals, Nucleation, and Crystal Growth. - 13.1 Introduction. - 13.2 Kinetics of Adsorption. - 13.3 Surface-Controlled Dissolution of Oxide Minerals: An Introduction to Weathering. - 13.4 Simple Rate Laws in Dissolution. - 13.5 Rates of CaCO3 Dissolution (and of CaCO3 Crystal Growth). - 13.6 Inhibition of Dissolution. - 13.7 Nucleation and Crystal Growth. - Suggested Readings. - 14. Particle-Particle Interaction: Colloids, Coagulation, and Filtration. - 14.1 Colloids. - 14.2 Particle Size Distribution. - 14.3 Surface Charge of Colloids. - 14.4 Colloid Stability: Qualitative Considerations. - 14.5 Effects of Surface Speciation on Colloid Stability. - 14.6 Some Water-Technological Considerations in Coagulation, Filtration, and Flotation. - 14.7 Filtration Compared with Coagulation. - 14.8 Transport in Aggregation and Deposition. - Suggested Readings. - Appendix 14.1: A Physical Model (DLVO) for Colloid Stability. - 15. Regulation of the Chemical Composition of Natural Waters. - 15.1 Introduction. - 15.2 Weathering and the Proton Balance. - 15.3 Isothermal Evaporation. - 15.4 Buffering. - 15.5 Interactions Between Organisms and Abiotic Environment: Redfield Stoichiometry. - 15.6 The Oceans: Relative Constancy of the Composition and Chemical Equilibria. - 15.7 Constancy of Composition: Steady State. - 15.8 Hydrothermal Vents. - 15.9 The Sediment-Water Interface. - 15.10 Biological Regulation of the Composition. - 15.11 Global Cycling: The Interdependence of Biogeochemical Cycles. - 15.12 The Carbon Cycle. - 15.13 Nitrogen Cycles:
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