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  • 1
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-09-13
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: Die Ausweitung der kommunalen Wirtschaftstätigkeit in der Energieversorgung wird oftmals kritisch betrachtet. Es wird vermutet, dass öffentliche Unternehmen im Vergleich zu privaten Unternehmen geringeren Anreizen zu effizienter Leistungserstellung unterliegen. Das könnte überhöhte Kosten und Endkundenpreise zur Folge haben. Neue Mikrodaten deutscher Energieversorgungsunternehmen erlauben erstmals eine deutschlandweite empirische Untersuchung. Die Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass es keine Effizienzunterschiede zwischen öffentlichen und privaten Unternehmen gibt. Das gilt sowohl für den wettbewerblich organisierten Stromvertrieb als auch für den regulierten Verteilnetzbetrieb. Allgemeine Umstrukturierungen im Energiesektor wie der erhöhte Wettbewerbsdruck oder verstärkte Regulierungsvorschriften haben zu Effizienzänderungen aller Energieversorgungsunternehmen geführt. Die Dichotomie zwischen öffentlichen und privaten Unternehmen, die in der (Re-)Kommunalisierungsdebatte suggeriert wird, scheint daher übertrieben.
    Description: The increase in municipal economic activity in the utilities sector frequently comes under scrutiny. It is presumed that public utilities have less incentive to provide efficient service than private companies. This could result in excessive costs and prices for end users. New microdata on German energy supply companies allow to conduct an empirical analysis for the whole of Germany for the first time. The findings indicate that there is no difference in efficiency between public and private utilities. This applies to both the competitively structured electricity retail sector and regulated electricity distribution sector. General restructuring in the energy sector such as the increased competitive pressure or the introduction of a more stringent regulatory regime have led to changes in the efficiency of all energy supply companies. The dichotomy between public and private utilities that has been suggested in the (re)municipalization debate therefore appears to be exaggerated.
    Keywords: L94 ; L51 ; L98 ; ddc:330 ; public utilities ; local government ; energy ; efficiency analysis
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 4
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: [Editorial] Eine moderne Infrastruktur ist die Grundlage für Deutschlands Wohlstand und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit. Die öffentlichen und privaten Unternehmen in der Energie- und Trinkwasserversorgung tragen dazu entscheidend bei. Ihr Auftrag, eine flächendeckende, qualitativ hochwertige und bezahlbare Versorgung mit Energie und Wasser sicherzustellen, berührt zentrale Lebensbereiche der BürgerInnen genauso wie die Produktionsbedingungen der Wirtschaft. Daher sind die Versorger ein wesentlicher Bestandteil des Gemeinwesens und der wirtschaftlichen Infrastruktur. In den 90er Jahren haben viele öffentliche Eigentümer, in der Regel Kommunen, versucht, durch Privatisierungen den veränderten Anforderungen an die kommunale Versorgung mit Energie und Wasser - wie einem erhöhten Kostensenkungsdruck und verschärften Wettbewerbsund Regulierungsvorschriften - gerecht zu werden. Die erwarteten Effizienzsteigerungen sowie Kosten- und Preissenkungen sind jedoch vielfach ausgeblieben. Hinzu kam zuletzt, dass BürgerInnen die lokale Politik offensichtlich wieder intensiver mitgestalten und Infrastrukturleistungen aus kommunaler Hand beziehen wollen. Sie trauen öffentlichen Unternehmen offenbar eher als privaten zu, langfristig richtige Entscheidungen zu treffen, die sich am Gemeinwohl orientieren. Vor dem Hintergrund auslaufender Konzessionsverträge sind in diesem Zusammenhang in jüngerer Zeit vermehrt (Re-)Kommunalisierungen zu beobachten; oft ist mittlerweile von einem Paradigmenwechsel die Rede. Städte und Gemeinden ziehen demnach in Betracht, die Energieversorgung wieder in die Hände öffentlicher Unternehmen zu legen. Die Städte Berlin und Hamburg sind zwei prominente Beispiele dafür. Doch gibt es einen bundesweiten Trend, oder handelt es sich um Einzelfälle? Und wie sollte man (Re-)Kommunalisierungen grundsätzlich beurteilen? Diesen Fragen geht die vorliegende Ausgabe des DIW Wochenberichts nach. Im Vergleich zum Energiesektor sind in der Wasserversorgung bislang nur wenige private Unternehmen tätig, daher ist die (Re-)Kommunalisierungsdebatte in diesem Bereich - abgesehen von einzelnen Beispielen wie Berlin - weniger stark ausgeprägt. Hier stellt sich vor allem die Frage nach Konsolidierungen des gesamten Sektors und speziell nach Kosteneinsparungen durch Fusionen von Wasserversorgungsunternehmen. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: Nachdem in den 90er Jahren viele Kommunen ihre Energieversorgungsunternehmen privatisiert hatten, ist mittlerweile oft von einem Paradigmenwechsel die Rede. Städte und Gemeinden ziehen demnach in Betracht, die Versorgung mit Strom, Wasser, Gas und Wärme wieder in die Hände öffentlicher Unternehmen zu legen. Die Städte Berlin und Hamburg sind zwei prominente Beispiele dafür. Doch gibt es einen allgemeinen (Re-)Kommunalisierungstrend? Die vorliegende Studie wertet erstmalig verfügbare Mikrodaten der amtlichen Statistik aus und kommt zu dem Schluss: Anhaltspunkte für einen umfassenden (Re-)Kommunalisierungstrend gibt es nicht. Die Zunahme öffentlicher Unternehmen scheint vielmehr auf generelle Umstrukturierungen im Energiesektor zurückzugehen und fällt relativ zum Zuwachs der Privaten geringer aus.
    Description: In the 1990s, a number of municipalities started privatizing their energy utilities; in recent years, there has been an intensive debate about whether a paradigm shift has taken place since then. Cities and municipalities have considered putting the energy, water, gas and heat supply networks back into the hands of public companies; Berlin and Hamburg are two prominent examples. But is there really an overarching trend toward (re)municipalization? According to the present study, which evaluates newly available microdata from official statistics, there is no evidence of a comprehensive (re)municipalization. The increase in public enterprises appears to have more to do with general restructuring in the energy sector, and has in fact been less pronounced than has growth in the private sector.
    Keywords: L32 ; L22 ; L98 ; ddc:330 ; public utilities ; local government ; energy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 6
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: The increase in municipal economic activity in the utilities sector frequently comes under scrutiny. It is presumed that public utilities have less incentive to provide efficient service than private companies. This could result in excessive costs and prices for end users. New microdata on German energy supply companies allow to conduct an empirical analysis for the whole of Germany for the first time. The findings indicate that there is no difference in efficiency between public and private utilities. This applies to both the competitively structured electricity retail sector and regulated electricity distribution sector. General restructuring in the energy sector such as the increased competitive pressure or the introduction of a more stringent regulatory regime have led to changes in the efficiency of all energy supply companies. The dichotomy between public and private utilities that has been suggested in the (re)municipalization debate therefore appears to be exaggerated.
    Keywords: L94 ; L51 ; L98 ; ddc:330 ; public utilities ; local government ; energy ; efficiency analysis
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 7
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    Unknown
    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: In the 1990s, a number of municipalities started privatizing their energy utilities; in recent years, there has been an intensive debate about whether a paradigm shift has taken place since then. Cities and municipalities have considered putting the energy, water, gas and heat supply back into the hands of public companies; Berlin and Hamburg are two prominent examples. But is there really an overarching trend toward (re)municipalization? According to the present study, which evaluates newly available microdata from official statistics, there is no evidence of a comprehensive (re)municipalization. The increase in public enterprises appears to have more to do with general restructuring in the energy sector, and has in fact been less pronounced than has growth in the private sector.
    Keywords: L32 ; L22 ; L98 ; ddc:330 ; public utilities ; local government ; energy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2016-01-29
    Description: This paper examines firm-level productivity for German electricity retailers using a structural production function approach. The sector was subject to fundamental changes in market structure after retail liberalization in 1998. Competition was supposed to increase productivity and reduce retail prices. Despite increased competition, public firms are still accused of being less productive than private firms, although empirical evidence is missing. Based on a theory-driven robust empirical model we test the hypothesis whether ownership has a significant impact on the retailers' productivity. We derive an innovative production function for the retail sector using labour and external services as main inputs. Our econometric model builds on the recently developed control function approach which allows us to correct for the bias which arises when unobserved factors (such as the firm level productivity) are correlated with input choice. We use a proxy function for productivity which relies on deflated expenditure for external services and control for the effect of ownership in the law of motion for productivity. We use a new and unique dataset on German utilities provided by the German Federal Statistical Office which covers the years 2003 to 2012. Empirical results show that firm-level productivity increased during 2004 and 2008 but fell after 2009. We do not find any evidence for ownership having an impact on productivity.
    Keywords: D24 ; C23 ; L94 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 9
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: A considerable share of public investment comes not only from public budgets but also from public utility companies. One major area of investment is energy and water supply, where the utility companies have substantial fixed assets in the form of distribution infrastructure. Using new microdata which has not been analyzed before, the present report shows that-unlike with the core public budgets-public energy and water supply companies show no signs of insufficient investment. On the contrary, gross investment into distribution networks over the past ten years has shown an upward trend comparable to that of private energy and water supply companies-if investment related to the expansion of infrastructure resulting from the energy transition is not taken into account. In addition, no clear correlation was found between the investment expenditure of energy and water supply companies and the financial strength or demographic trends within a given region. However, this does not rule out the possibility of diverging investment trends in the near future in response to demographic changes.
    Keywords: R53 ; L33 ; L97 ; ddc:330 ; Investments ; Public Utilities
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Einen beachtlichen Anteil öffentlicher Investitionen tätigen - außerhalb der öffentlichen Haushalte - kommunale Unternehmen, beispielsweise Stadtwerke. Ein bedeutender Investitionsbereich ist die Energie- und Wasserversorgung, da die Unternehmen über beträchtliche Sachanlagen in der leitungsgebundenen Infrastruktur verfügen. Der vorliegende Bericht zeigt auf Basis erstmalig verfügbarer Mikrodaten, dass es in der ausgelagerten Energie- und Wasserversorgung - im Gegensatz zu den kommunalen Kernhaushalten - keine Anhaltspunkte für unzureichende Investitionen gibt. Vielmehr folgten die Bruttoinvestitionen in Leitungsanlagen während der vergangenen zehn Jahre einem steigenden Trend, der mit dem der privaten Energie- und Wasserversorgungsunternehmen - sieht man von Erweiterungsinvestitionen im Rahmen der Energiewende ab - vergleichbar ist. Darüber hinaus lässt sich kein eindeutiger Zusammenhang zwischen dem Investitionsverhalten eines kommunalen Energie- und Wasserversorgers und der regionalen Finanzkraft beziehungsweise Bevölkerungsentwicklung finden. Dies schließt jedoch nicht aus, dass insbesondere der demographische Wandel in Zukunft zu regionalen Unterschieden beim Investitionsbedarf führen kann.
    Description: A considerable share of public investment comes not only from public budgets but also from public utility companies. One major area of investment is energy and water supply, where the utility companies have substantial fixed assets in the form of distribution infrastructure. Using new microdata which has not been analyzed before, the present report shows that-unlike with the core public budgets-public energy and water supply companies show no signs of insufficient investment. On the contrary, gross investment into distribution networks over the past ten years has shown an upward trend comparable to that of private energy and water supply companies-if investment related to the expansion of infrastructure resulting from the energy transition is not taken into account. In addition, no clear correlation was found between the investment expenditure of energy and water supply companies and the financial strength or demographic trends within a given region. However, this does not rule out the possibility of diverging investment trends in the near future in response to demographic changes.
    Keywords: R53 ; L33 ; L97 ; ddc:330 ; Investments ; Public Utilities
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:article
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