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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-02-20
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. The definitive version was published in Biogeosciences 16(2), (2019): 309-327, doi:10.5194/bg-16-309-2019.
    Description: The disequilibrium between 210Po activity and 210Pb activity in seawater samples was determined along the GEOTRACES GA01 transect in the North Atlantic during the GEOVIDE cruise (May–June 2014). A steady-state model was used to quantify vertical export of particulate 210Po. Vertical advection was incorporated into one version of the model using time-averaged vertical velocity, which had substantial variance. This resulted in large uncertainties for the 210Po export flux in this model, suggesting that those calculations of 210Po export fluxes should be used with great care. Despite the large uncertainties, there is no question that the deficits of 210Po in the Iberian Basin and at the Greenland Shelf have been strongly affected by vertical advection. Using the export flux of 210Po and the particulate organic carbon (POC) to 210Po ratio of total (〉 1 µm) particles, we determined the POC export fluxes along the transect. Both the magnitude and efficiency of the estimated POC export flux from the surface ocean varied spatially within our study region. Export fluxes of POC ranged from negligible to 10 mmol C m−2 d−1, with enhanced POC export in the Labrador Sea. The cruise track was characterized by overall low POC export relative to net primary production (export efficiency 〈 1 %–15 %), but relatively high export efficiencies were seen in the basins where diatoms dominated the phytoplankton community. The particularly low export efficiencies in the Iberian Basin, on the other hand, were explained by the dominance of smaller phytoplankton, such as cyanobacteria or coccolithophores. POC fluxes estimated from the 210Po∕210Pb and 234Th∕238U disequilibria agreed within a factor of 3 along the transect, with higher POC estimates generally derived from 234Th. The differences were attributed to integration timescales and the history of bloom events.
    Description: We thank the captain (Gilles Ferrand) and crew of the R/V Pourquoi Pas? and the chief scientists (Geráldine Sarthou and Pascale Lherminier) of the GEOVIDE cruise. We also thank Pierre Branellec, Floriane Desprez de Gésincourt, Michel Hamon, Catherine Kermabon, Philippe Le Bot, Stéphane Leizour, Olivier Ménage, Fabien Pérault, and Emmanuel de Saint-Léger for their technical support during the GEOVIDE expedition; Catherine Schmechtig for the GEOVIDE database management, and Phoebe Lam for providing two modified McLane in situ pumps; Frédéric Planchon, Virginie Sanial, and Catherine Jeandel for their assistance with pump deployments and particulate sample collection. The authors also thank Arnout Roukaerts, Debany Fonseca-Batista, Florian Deman, and Frank Dehairs for providing primary production data. Funding for the GEOVIDE cruise was provided by the French National Research Agency (ANR-13-BS06-0014, ANR-12-PDOC-0025-01), the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS-LEFE-CYBER), the LabexMER (anr-10-LABX-19), and Ifremer. Gillian Stewart and Yi Tang were supported by NSF award #OCE 1237108. The Generalitat de Catalunya also helped through its grant 2017 SGR-1588. This work is contributing to the ICTA “Unit of Excellence” (MinECo, MDM2015-0552). Maxi Castrillejo and Montserrat Roca-Marti were funded by an FPU PhD studentship (AP-2012-2901 and AP2010-2510, respectively) from the Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte of Spain. Maxi Castrillejo was also supported by the ETH Zurich Postdoctoral Fellowship Program (17-2 FEL-30), co-funded by the Marie Curie Actions for People COFUND Program. We also thank Gary Hemming (Queens College) and Troy Rasbury (Stony Brook University) for laboratory assistance with the ICP-MS analyses. Finally, we thank the associate editor and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on how to improve the manuscript.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-09
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Chemical Geology 493 (2018): 210-223, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2018.05.040.
    Description: The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical parameters as well as aerosol and rain data characterising atmospheric trace element and isotope (TEI) sources. The TEI data in the IDP2017 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at crossover stations. The IDP2017 consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 450 TEIs as well as standard hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing an on-line atlas that includes more than 590 section plots and 130 animated 3D scenes. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. Users can download the full data packages or make their own custom selections with a new on-line data extraction service. In addition to the actual data values, the IDP2017 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering and for statistical analysis. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2017 as section plots and rotating 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes combine data from many cruises and provide quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. These 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of tracer plumes near ocean margins or along ridges. The IDP2017 is the result of a truly international effort involving 326 researchers from 25 countries. This publication provides the critical reference for unpublished data, as well as for studies that make use of a large cross-section of data from the IDP2017. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Conway GEOTRACES - edited by Tim M. Conway, Tristan Horner, Yves Plancherel, and Aridane G. González.
    Description: We gratefully acknowledge financial support by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) through grants from the U.S. National Science Foundation, including grants OCE-0608600, OCE-0938349, OCE-1243377, and OCE-1546580. Financial support was also provided by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), the Ministry of Earth Science of India, the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, l'Université Paul Sabatier de Toulouse, the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées Toulouse, the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, the Kiel Excellence Cluster The Future Ocean, the Swedish Museum of Natural History, The University of Tokyo, The University of British Columbia, The Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, the GEOMAR-Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, and the Alfred Wegener Institute.
    Keywords: GEOTRACES ; Trace elements ; Isotopes ; Electronic atlas ; IDP2017
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-13
    Description: The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical parameters as well as aerosol and rain data characterising atmospheric trace element and isotope (TEI) sources. The TEI data in the IDP2017 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at crossover stations. The IDP2017 consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 450 TEIs as well as standard hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing an on-line atlas that includes more than 590 section plots and 130 animated 3D scenes. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. Users can download the full data packages or make their own custom selections with a new on-line data extraction service. In addition to the actual data values, the IDP2017 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering and for statistical analysis. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2017 as section plots and rotating 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes combine data from many cruises and provide quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. These 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of tracer plumes near ocean margins or along ridges. The IDP2017 is the result of a truly international effort involving 326 researchers from 25 countries. This publication provides the critical reference for unpublished data, as well as for studies that make use of a large cross-section of data from the IDP2017. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Conway GEOTRACES - edited by Tim M. Conway, Tristan Horner, Yves Plancherel, and Aridane G. González.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-05-22
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 32(12), (2019): 1738-1758, doi:10.1029/2018GB005994.
    Description: Sinking particles strongly regulate the distribution of reactive chemical substances in the ocean, including particulate organic carbon and other elements (e.g., P, Cd, Mn, Cu, Co, Fe, Al, and 232Th). Yet, the sinking fluxes of trace elements have not been well described in the global ocean. The U.S. GEOTRACES campaign in the North Atlantic (GA03) offers the first data set in which the sinking flux of carbon and trace elements can be derived using four different radionuclide pairs (238U:234Th ;210Pb:210Po; 228Ra:228Th; and 234U:230Th) at stations co‐located with sediment trap fluxes for comparison. Particulate organic carbon, particulate P, and particulate Cd fluxes all decrease sharply with depth below the euphotic zone. Particulate Mn, Cu, and Co flux profiles display mixed behavior, some cases reflecting biotic remineralization, and other cases showing increased flux with depth. The latter may be related to either lateral input of lithogenic material or increased scavenging onto particles. Lastly, particulate Fe fluxes resemble fluxes of Al and 232Th, which all have increasing flux with depth, indicating a dominance of lithogenic flux at depth by resuspended sediment transported laterally to the study site. In comparing flux estimates derived using different isotope pairs, differences result from different timescales of integration and particle size fractionation effects. The range in flux estimates produced by different methods provides a robust constraint on the true removal fluxes, taking into consideration the independent uncertainties associated with each method. These estimates will be valuable targets for biogeochemical modeling and may also offer insight into particle sinking processes.
    Description: This study grew out of a synthesis workshop at the Lamont‐Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University in August 2016. This workshop was sponsored by the U.S. GEOTRACES Project Office (NSF 1536294) and the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCP) Project Office (NSF 1558412 and NASA NNX17AB17G). The U.S. National Science Foundation supported all of the analytical work on GA03. Kuanbo Zhou measured 228Th in the large size class particles (NSF 0925158 to WHOI). NSF 1061128 to Stony Brook University supported the BaRFlux project, for which Chistina Heilbrun is acknowledged for laboratory and field work. The lead author acknowledges support from a start‐up grant from the University of Southern Mississippi. Two anonymous reviewers are thanked for their constructive comments. All GEOTRACES GA03 data used in this study are accessible through the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (http://data.bco‐dmo.org/jg/dir/BCO/GEOTRACES/NorthAtlanticTransect/), and derived parameters are reported in the supporting information.
    Description: 2019-05-22
    Keywords: biological carbon pump ; trace metals ; North Atlantic ; export ; GEOTRACES
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A new phenotype of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease termed new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD) was first described in March 1996. This differs from other forms of CJD in terms of its epidemiology, clinical features and neuropathology. To date 24 cases of this new form of CJD have been described, 23 within the UK. This article describes nvCJD discussing clinical and epidemiological features and discusses possible links with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy epidemic in cattle in the UK.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: The GEOVIDE cruise, a collaborative project within the framework of the international GEOTRACES programme, was conducted along the French-led section in the North Atlantic Ocean (Section GA01), between 15 May and 30 June 2014. In this Special Issue, results from GEOVIDE, including physical oceanography and trace element and isotope cyclings, are presented among seventeen articles. Here, the scientific context, project objectives and scientific strategy of GEOVIDE are provided, along with an overview of the main results from the articles published in the special issue.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-01-27
    Description: The quantitative relationship between organic carbon and mineral contents of particles sinking below 1800 m in the ocean indicates that organisms with mineral shells such as coccolithophores are of special importance for transporting carbon into the deep sea. Several hypotheses about the mechanism behind this relationship between minerals and organic matter have been raised, such as mineral protection of organic matter or enhanced sinking rates through ballast addition. We examined organic matter decomposition of calcifying and non-calcifying Emiliania huxleyi cultures in an experiment that allowed aggregation and settling in rotating tanks. Biogenic components such as particulate carbon, particulate nitrogen, particulate volume, pigments, transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), and particulate amino acids in suspended particles and aggregates were followed over a period of 30 d. The overall pattern of decrease in organic matter, the amount of recalcitrant organic matter left after 30 d, and the compositional changes within particulate organic matter indicated that cells without a shell are more subject to loss than calcified cells. It is suggested that biogenic calcite helps in the preservation of particulate organic matter (POM) by offering structural support for organic molecules. Over the course of the experiment, half the particulate organic carbon in both calcifying and non-calcifying cultures was partitioned into aggregates and remained so until the end of the experiment. The partial protection of particulate organic matter from solubilization by biominerals and by aggregation that was observed in our experiment may help explain the robustness of the relationship between organic and mineral matter fluxes in the deep ocean.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical parameters as well as aerosol and rain data characterising atmospheric trace element and isotope (TEI) sources. The TEI data in the IDP2017 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at crossover stations. The IDP2017 consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 450 TEIs as well as standard hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing an on-line atlas that includes more than 590 section plots and 130 animated 3D scenes. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. Users can download the full data packages or make their own custom selections with a new on-line data extraction service. In addition to the actual data values, the IDP2017 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering and for statistical analysis. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2017 as section plots and rotating 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes combine data from many cruises and provide quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. These 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of tracer plumes near ocean margins or along ridges. The IDP2017 is the result of a truly international effort involving 326 researchers from 22 countries. This publication provides the critical reference for unpublished data, as well as for studies that make use of a large cross-section of data from the IDP2017.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2008-06-01
    Print ISSN: 1539-607X
    Electronic ISSN: 1539-6088
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 10
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