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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A semi-open circuit system for measuring changes in net CO2 exchange (NCE) in single leaves of intact grasses following herbicide treatment is described and evaluated. There were significant differences in levels of inhibition and subsequent recovery of NCE in maize and eight weedy panicoid grasses following limited root uptake of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethyl-amino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine). cyanazine [2-chloro-4-(1-cyano-1-methylethylamino)-6-ethylamino-1,3,5-triazine] and cyprazine (2-chloro-4-cyclopropylamino-6-isopropyl-amino-1,3.5-triazine). Rate of NCE recovery was positively correlated (P = 0.05) with growth of seedlings in nutrient solution containing the herbicides. Rates of NCE recovery 〉0.9 mg CO2 per dm2 per h/h reflected rapid rates of herbicide detoxification in the leaves and a significant tolerance to preplant incorporated and postemergence applications of atra-zine, cyanazine and cyprazine. In contrast, some species, e.g. large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.] and proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) treated with cyanazine demonstrated considerable tolerance to these treatments in spite of low NCE recovery rates indicating that factors other than foliar detoxification may play an important role in the tolerance of some grasses to 2-chloro- 1,3,5-triazine herbicides.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylaminol-6-(isopropyl-amino)-s-triazine] resistant biotypes of lamb's quarters (Chenopodium athum L) were reported in the maize growing areas of Ontario, where the herbicide had been used fur a number of years. Field samples from four locations proved tolerant to higber than recommended rates of atrazine in controlled environment screening trials. A resistant biotype was not killed with up to 40 kg/ha atrazine. Diuron at 5 x10-5 M inhibited the Hill reaction with isolated chloroplasts of resisiant and susceptible biotypes of lamb's-quarters. However, with 10-4 M atrazine, the photochemical activity was inhibited in chloroplasts isolated from the susceptible biotype but not in chloroplasts from the resisiant biotype. With maize chloroplasts, inhibition with 10-4 M atrazine was the same as with the susceptible biotype of lamb's-quarters. These studies suggested that a new mechanism of intraspecific resistance in lamb's quarters to atrazine was involved, other than differences in uptake, translocation and metabolism reported with interspecific comparisons involving the s-triazines and other herbicides, It was also concluded that atrazine and diuron did not have precisely the same mechanism of action as photosynthetic inhibitors with lamb's-quarters, and that external and or internal structure or function of chloroplasts in relation to atrazine inhibition can vary significantly even in biotypes of the same species.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Weed research 14 (1974), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The anatomy of the shoot system of red maple and white ash was examined at various times after treatment with picloram. Xylem blockage, enlargement of cortical and pith cells and eventual necrosis of the shoot apex, parenchymatous and phloem tissues of red maple plants were features shown by picloram treatment. Red maple shoots were desiccated and dead by 22 days after treatment commenced. White ash shoots showed some increased mitotic activity but at the end of 22 days of picloram treatment, the leaves were still turgid and the internal anatomy of the shoot system scarcely altered. It is suggested that the susceptibility of red maple plants can be explained in part by the effects picloram has on xylem blockage and necrosis of parenchymatous tissues in the shoot system of this species.Effects du piclorame sur l'analomie de la partie aérienne de l'erable rouge et du frêne blancL'anatomie de la partie aérienne de l'érable rouge et du frêne blanc a été examinee i diverses dpoques aprés un traitement au piclorame. Le blocage du xyléme, le grossissement des cellules corticales et médullaires, ainsi qu'une Éventuelle nécrose des apex des tiges, des tissus parenchymateux et du phloéme des Arables rouges furent les effects consécutifs au traitement par le piclorame. La partie aérienne des Arables rouges se déssécha et mourut 22 jours aprés le déA but du traitement. La partie aérienne du Fréne blanc manifesta un accrolssement d'activité mitotique. mais, 22 jours aprés le traitement au piclorame, les feuilles étaient encore turgesccntes et l'anatomie interne des organes aériens k peine altérte. II est suggéré que la sensibility de rérable rouge peut être expliquée en partie par les effets du piclorame sur le blocage du xyléme et les necroses des tissus parenchymateux dans les organes adriens de cette espèce.Die Wirkung von Picloram auf die Anatomic des Sprosses von Acer rubrum L. und Fraxinus americana L.Es wurde die Anatomie des Sprosssystems von Acer rubrum L. und von Fraxinus americana L. zu verschiedencn Zeiten nach einer PJilorambehandlung untersucht. Bei Acer rubrum traten als Sympiome auf: Verstopfen des Xylems, VergröBerung der Rinden-und Markzellen und schliesslich Absterben der Sprossspitze, des parenchymatischen und des Phloemgewebcs. 22 Tage nach der Behandlung waren dis Sprosse ausgelrocknet und tot. Bei Fraxinus americana zeigten die Sprosse erhohte mitotische AktivitSt, aber 22 Tage nach der Piclorambehandlung waren die Blotter noch turgeszent und der innere Auf bau des Sprols systems war kaum verSndert. Die Befunde deuten darauf hin, daβ die Empfindlichkeit von Acer rubrum gegenuber Pictoram zum Teil mit seiner Wirkung auf das Xylem und das parenchymatische Gewebe im Sproβsystem erklärt werden kann.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Weed research 13 (1973), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary. The efficacy of NN-diallyl-αα-dichloroacetamide (R-25788) as an antidote for reducing the injury of various herbicides in corn (Zea mays L.) was tested under controlled conditions in growth rooms. The application of R-25788 to the soil as a pre-plant incorporated treatment to corn significantly reduced the toxicity often out of twenty-two herbicides tested. These ten herbicides were, in order of decreasing effectiveness of the antidote, EPTC, barban, sulfallate, vernolate, molinate, butylate, alachlor, pebulate, linuron and di-allate. In quartz sand nutrient culture, R-25788 was more effective as an antidote for barban applied to the foliage of corn than it was for barban applied to the roots. Le NN-diallyl-αα-dichloroacétamide comme antidote de I'EPTC et autres herbicides dans le mais.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Classical Mendelian experiments were conducted to determine the genetics and inheritance of quinclorac and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor resistance in a biotype of Galium spurium. Plants were screened with the formulated product of either quinclorac or the ALS-inhibitor, thifensulfuron, at the field dose of 125 or 6 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha−1 respectively. Segregation in the F2 generation indicated that quinclorac resistance was a single, recessive nuclear trait, based on a 1 : 3 segregation ratio [resistant : susceptible (R : S)]. Resistance to ALS inhibitors was due to a single, dominant nuclear trait, segregating in the F2 generation in a 3 : 1 ratio (R : S). The genetic models were confirmed by herbicide screens of F1 and backcrosses between the F1 and the S parent. F2 plants that survived quinclorac treatment set seed and the resulting F3 progeny were screened with either herbicide. Quinclorac-treated F3 plants segregated in a 1 : 0 ratio (R : S), hence F2 progenitors were homozygous for quinclorac resistance. In contrast, F3 progeny segregated into three ratios: 1 : 0, 3 : 1 and 0 : 1 (R : S) in response to ALS-inhibitor treatment. This segregation pattern indicates that their F2 parents were either homozygous or heterozygous for ALS-inhibitor resistance. Therefore, there were clearly two distinct resistance mechanisms encoded by two genes that were not tightly linked as demonstrated by segregation patterns of the F3.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Weed research 7 (1967), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary. Pyrazon (5-amino-4-chIoro-2-phenyl-3(2H)-pyridazinonc) labelled with tritium in the phenyl ring, was applied to both the root and shoot of seedlings of red beet (Beta vulgaris L., cultivar Detroit Dark Red I, German millet (Setatra italica J.), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cultivar Heinz 1350). Of these species, red best is tolerant, millet is moderately tolerant, and tomato is susceptible to pyrazon.When the roots were exposed to 1–325 ppm 3H-pyrazon in the nutrient solution, the greatest root absorption and transiocation to the shoot was observed in tomato and the least in red beet, while millet was intermediate.Applications to the first true leaf indicated that pyrazon was absorbed by the foliage of all three but that it was not transported basipetally. The absorption and translocation studies indicated that pyrazon mi transported primarily in the xylem.A radioactive metabolite of 3H-pyrazon was detected in the shoots of red beet, but there was no evidence for its presence in the shoots of the other two species. Since this metabolite is radioactive, its structure must contain at least some altered form of the phenyl ring which contained the tritium in the parent molecule. This differentiates it from 5-amino-4-chloro-pyridazinone, the previously proposed degradation product of pyrazon, since this compound lacks the phenyl ring.On the bash of these results, it is hypothesized that pyrazon will be phytotoxic if a suffic inn mm entration of the unaltered chemical reaches the site of herbicidal action in the shoot.Migration et métabolisme de la pyrazone dans les espéces rislstantes et sensibles
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The effect of five herbicide safeners on preventing maize (Zea mays L.) injury by acetochlor [N-(2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl)-N-(ethoxymethyl)-chloroacetamide], their influence on herbicide uptake and metabolism to a glutathione (GSH) conjugate as well as on GSH content and glutathione S-transferase activity (GST) in untreated and herbicide with/without safener-pre-treated 4-day-old seedlings were determined. The safeners studied were: AD-67 (N-di-chloroacetyl-1-oxa-4-azaspiro-4-5-decane), BAS-145138 [1-dichloroacetyl-hexahydro-3,3,8a-trimethyl-pyrrolo(l,2-a)pyrimidin-6(2H)-one], dichlormid (N, A,-diallyl-2,2-dichlo-roacetamide), DKA-24 (N, N2-diallyl-N2dichloroacetylglycineamide) and MG-191 (2-dichloromethyl-2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane). All safeners significantly increased [14C]acetochlor uptake and metabolism rate, maize GSH content and GST activity. Seedlings receiving BAS-145138 pre-treatment metabolized almost 70% of the absorbed [14C]acetochlor within 10 min.Safener-enhanced GST activity was always found to be higher when [14C]acetochlor was used as the substrate compared with CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene). Although DKA-24 had a significantly lower influence on both herbicide metabolism and GST activity, it was nearly as effective a safener as BAS-145138, while the others provided no or poor protection to maize from acetochlor injury when they were not incorporated in the soil. Effets d'antidotes sur la toxicité, la pénétration et le métabolisme de I'acétochlore chez le mats etsur l'activité glutathion S-transférase Cinq antidotes d'herbicides diminuaient la toxicité de 1'acétochlore [N-(2-éthyl-6-méthyl-phényl)-N-(éthoxyméthyl)-chloroacétamide] à I'égard du maïs (Zea mays L.). Lew effet sur l'absorption de l'herbicide et sur son métabolisme en un conjugué avec le glutathion (GSH), de même que leur effet sur la teneur en GSH et 1'activité glutathion 5-transférase (GST) ont étéétudiés sur des maïs âgés de 4 jours. Les antidotes étaient: l'AD-67 (N-dichloroacétyl-1-oxa-4-azaspiro-4,5-décane), le BAS-145138 [1 -dichloroacétyl-hexahydro-3,3,8a-triméthyl-pyrrolo(l,2-a) pyrimidine-6(2H)-one], le di-chlormide (N, N-diallyl-2,2-dichloracétamide), le DKA-24 (N, N2-diallyl-N2-dichloracétylgly-cineamide] et le MG-191 (2-dichlorométhyl-2-méthyl-l,3-dioxolane). Tous les antidotes augmentaient de manière significative 1'absorption et le métabolisme de I'acétochlore 14C, ainsi que la teneur du maïs en GSH et son activité GST. Les jeunes plantes prétraitées avec le BAS-145138 métabolisaient en 10 min près de 70% de I'acétochlore 14C absorbé. L'activité GST stimulée par 1'antidote était toujours plus élevée avec I'acétochlore 14C comme substrat qu'avec le CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzène).Le DKA-24 avait un effet significativement plus faible que le BAS-145138 sur le métabolisme de l'herbicide et sur l'activité GSH, mais son action antidote était presque aussi importante. Les autres produits n'apportaient au maïs qu'une protection faible ou nulle contre l'acétochlore quand ils n'étaient pas incorporés au sol. Wirkung von Safenern auf die Phytotoxizität, Aufnahme und Metabolismus von Acetochlor und die Glutathion-S-Transferase-Aktivität in Mais Die Wirkung von 5 Safenern (AD-67, BAS-145138, Dichlormid, DKA-24 und MG-191; chemische Bezeichnungen s.o.) auf die Phytotoxizität von Acetochlor für Mais (Zea mays L.) und ihr Einfluß auf die Aufnahme des Herbizids und Metabolismus zu einem Glutathion-(GSH-) Konjugat und auf die Glutathion-S-Transferase-(GST-)Aktivität wurde an 4 Tage alten Keimpflanzen untersucht. Durch die Vorbehandlung mit den Safenern wurden die [14C]-Acetochlor-Aufnahme- und -Metabolierungsrate, der GSH-Gehalt und die GST-Ak-tivität signifikant erhöht. Mit BAS-145138 vorbehandelte Keimpflanzen metabolisierten fast 70% des absorbierten [14C]-Acetochlor innerhalb von 10 min. Die durch die Safener erhöhte GST-Aktivität bei [14C]-Acetochlor als Substrat war im Vergleich zu Chlordinitroben-zen immer höher. Obwohl DKA-24 einen signifikant geringeren Einfluß sowohl auf den Herbizidmetabolismus als auch auf die GST-Aktivität hatte, war es fast so wirkungsvoll wie BAS-145138, während die anderen ohne Einarbeitung in den Boden für den Mais keinen oder geringen Schutz gegen Schäden durch Acetochlor boten.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Weed research 29 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The ability of the herbicide safeners, BAS-145138 (1-dichloroacetyl-hexahydro-3,3,8a-trimethyl-pyrrolo(1,2a)pyrimidin-6(2H)-one), dichlormid (N,N-diallyl-2,2-dichloroacetamide), flurazole (phenylmethyl ester), and MG-191 (2-dichloromelhyl-2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane) for preventing metazachlor injury to maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) seedlings were compared with their effects on 14C-metazachlor metabolism to a glutathione (GSH) conjugate, effects on non-protein thiol contents (mainly GSH) and effects on Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in these two species.Sorghum shoot growth was reduced by 41% and maize shoot growth was reduced by 54%, by metazachlor concentrations in vermiculite nutrient culture of 0·6 μM and 7·5μM, respectively. In this system, all four compounds had significant activity as safeners for metazachlor in both sorghum and maize seedlings. BAS-145138 and flurazole were the most effective safeners in maize and sorghum, respectively. In the absence of safeners, the rate of non-enzymatic conjugation of metazachlor and GSH was much greater than the enzymatic rate. However, the rate of enzymatic conjugation of metazachlor with GSH was increased by safener treatment in both maize and sorghum. Safener effectiveness was highly correlated with increases in 14C-metazachlor uptake and metabolism in both species. Safener effectiveness was more highly correlated with safener effects on GST activity in maize or sorghum when 14C-metazachlor was used as the substrate than when the non-specific CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) was used as the substrate. Safener effectiveness was also strongly correlated with safener effects on GSH levels in sorghum, but not in maize, possibly because of the greater importance of non-enzymatic conjugation of metazachlor with GSH in sorghum as compared to maize.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Laboratory studies have shown that the amounts of glutathione (GSH) and cysteine are higher in grass species that are moderately tolerant, such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Fredrick), and moderately susceptible, such as barley (Hor deum vitlgare L., cv. Legér) and triticale (cv. OAC Trillium), to fenoxaprop-ethyl (FE) than in species that are very susceptible to the her bicide, such as oat (Avena saliva L., cv. OAC Woodstock), wild oat (Avena fatua L.), yellow foxtail (Setaria glanca (L.) Bcauv.), large crab grass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.) and bar nyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P.B.). The safener, fenchlorazole-ethyl (FCE) was found to increase and decrease, respectively, the amounts of GSH and cysteine in the moderately tolerant and moderately susceptible species but had no effect on the susceptible species. It is sug gested that in the moderately tolerant and moderately susceptible species, especially following FCE treatment, more GSH is available to detoxify the herbicide. Glutathione-S-tranferase activity (GST) for FE was found to be very low in all of the species tested. In vitro experiments at physio-logical pH. demonstrated that FE may conjugate with GSH nonenzymatically. Therefore, it is suggested that nonenzymatic conjugation of fenoxaprop-ethyl with glutathione may be an important mechanism for tolerance of some grasses to this herbicide.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Weed research 13 (1973), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary. White ash (Fraxinus americana L.) trees, 2 years of age, treated continuously with 10 ppm picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) in nutrient culture were only slightly injured after 4 weeks whereas red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees were killed after only 2 weeks treatment.When the roots were exposed to 10 ppm 14C-picloram, the rate of root uptake, acropetal translocation in the stem, and accumulation in the leaves was much lower in the susceptible red maple than in the tolerant white ash. The foliar penetration and translocation of 14C-picloram applied to the leaves was very slight but similar in both species. Although a radiolabelled picloram metabolite was isolated from plant extracts, it was formed at equal rates in both species.It was concluded that the tolerance of white ash was not related to lower rates of picloram uptake or faster rates of picloram detoxication. It was postulated that the high susceptibility of red maple was due to a blockage of the xylem by picloram which caused death by a dessication of the leaves and upper stems. Action sélective du piclorame sur Fraxinus amerieana L. et Acer rubrum L.
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