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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A summary of the key issues and studies conducted for the Pioneer Venus spacecraft and the resulting probe designs are presented. The key deceleration module issues are aerodynamic configuration and heat shield material selection. The design and development of the pressure vessel module are explained. Thermal control and science integration of the pressure vessel module are explained. The deceleration module heat shield, parachute and separation/despin are reported. The Thor/Delta and Atlas/Centaur baseline descriptions are provided.
    Keywords: SPACE VEHICLES
    Type: NASA-CR-137492
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 223: 195-218.
    Publication Date: 2007-10-08
    Description: Extensional tectonics to the north of the Variscan Front during the Early Carboniferous generated fault-controlled basins across the British Isles, with accompanying basaltic magmatism. In Scotland Dinantian magmatism was dominantly mildly alkaline-transitional in composition. Tournaisian activity was followed by widespread Visean eruptions largely concentrated within the Scottish Midland Valley where the lava successions, dominantly of basaltic-hawaiitic composition, attained thicknesses of up to 1000 m. Changing stress fields in the late Visean coincided with a change in the nature of the igneous activity; subsequently, wholly basic magmatism persisted into the Silesian. As sedimentary basin fills increased, sill intrusion tended to dominate over lava extrusion. In the Late Carboniferous (Stephanian) a major melting episode, producing large volumes of tholeiitic magma, gave rise to a major dyke swarm and sills across northern England and Scotland. Alkali basaltic magmatism persisted into the Permian, possibly until as late as 250 Ma in Orkney. Geochemical data suggest that the Carboniferous-Permian magmas were dominantly of asthenospheric origin, derived from variable degrees of partial melting of a heterogeneous mantle source; varying degrees of interaction with the lithosphere are indicated. Peridotite, pyroxenite and granulite-facies basic meta-igneous rocks entrained as xenoliths within the most primitive magmas provide evidence for metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle and high-pressure crystal fractionation.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2009-11-16
    Description: A laboratory investigation has been conducted to evaluate the detection and identification capabilities of laser induced fluorescence as a remote sensing technique for the marine environment. The relative merits of fluorescence parameters including emission and excitation profiles, intensity and lifetime measurements are discussed in relation to the identification of specific targets of the marine environment including crude oils, refined petroleum products, fish oils and algae. Temporal profiles displaying the variation of lifetime with emission wavelength have proven to add a new dimension of specificity and simplicity to the technique.
    Keywords: LASERS AND MASERS
    Type: NASA. Wallops Station The Use of Lasers for Hydrographic Studies; p 153-169
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-11
    Description: Molecular beam electric resonance /MBER/ SPECTROMETER for hyperfine structure of rubidium fluoride
    Keywords: PHYSICS, ATOMIC, MOLECULAR, AND NUCLEAR
    Type: JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: An array of microstrip antenna panels was designed for use on a small instrumented satellite as part of a 400-MHz telemetry link between that satellite and NASA's shuttle spacecraft. A roughly omnidirectional phi-plane pattern was desired. The 1.4-wavelength diameter of the satellite and the various ports and structures on its surface presented strong constraints on the antenna array design. Eight antennas, each one a quarter-wavelength panel with one radiating and one shorted edge, were chosen. A phi-plane pattern ripple of 4.4 dB and a gain of at least 0.1 dB relative to a half-wavelength dipole were realized. The design technique used for the individual antenna panels included the study of feed-point location for impedance matching and the effect of losses in the dielectric. A superposition method was used to synthesize the radiation patterns for different numbers and different excitations of antennas on the satellite.
    Keywords: SPACE COMMUNICATIONS, SPACECRAFT COMMUNICATIONS, COMMAND AND TRACKING
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation; AP-29; Jan. 198
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: It is shown that the effects of radiative heating or cooling can have a substantial influence on the mass budget of a cloud droplet and thus on the microphysical properties of a cloud as a whole. The radiative transfer equation, including all orders of multiple scattering, is solved for spectral windows of earth's atmosphere by adopting the Eddington approximation and assuming that the cloud is isothermal and illuminated by fluxes from both the ground and the sky. The results obtained for the 8-12-micron window indicate that radiative cooling can increase a droplet's growth rate and may also make the droplet cooler than the surrounding gas while water vapor is diffusing in, which would cause diffusiophoreisis and thermophoreisis to combine and increase the efficiency with which droplets would scavenge aerosols.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: In: Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants; November 6-11, 1977; New Orleans, LA
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2008-05-01
    Print ISSN: 0894-8755
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0442
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2008-08-01
    Print ISSN: 0882-8156
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0434
    Topics: Geography , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1994-06-01
    Description: Several formations within the lower part of the Dalradian Appin Group are characterised by calcareous and calc-silicate lithologies. Amphibole occurs in these metasedimentary units in a variety of habits, from fine-grained disseminated crystals, through radiating aggregates permeating the whole rock, to dark green layers consisting of over 90% amphibole. Electron microprobe analyses of these amphiboles exhibit simple compositional trends from tremolite, through tremolitic hornblende to magnesio-hornblende. The only significant substitutions are from tremolite towards alumino-tschermakite [MgSi ⇌ AlviAliv] and from tremolite towards ferri-tschermakite [MgSi ⇌ FeviAliv]. This is in marked contrast to amphiboles from nearby suites of metavolcanic rocks and intrusive metadolerites which exhibit four coupled substitutions, leading from tremolite towards the ferro-actinolite, edenite, alumino-tschermakite and ferritschermakite end-members. These distinctive compositional trends may aid the distinction between para- and ortho-amphibolites elsewhere. Tremolitic amphibole commonly constitutes a high proportion of the calc-silicate rocks, the only other phases present being quartz ± phlogopite. Carbonate minerals are notably absent. This suggests that the sedimentary protolith was high in Mg, such as a dolomitic marl, possibly containing some magnesite. Sedimentological considerations suggest deposition in tropical latitudes in restricted coastal lagoons forming part of an extensive stable shelf bordering a mature landscape.ZusammenfassungMehrere Formationen im unteren Teil der Appin Gruppe der Dalradians sind durch karbonatische und kalk-silikatische Lithologien gekennzeichnet. Amphibole treten in diesen metasedimentären Einheiten in verschiedener Ausbildung auf, als feinkörnige, disseminierte Kristalle, als radialstrahlige, die Gesteine durchwachsende Aggregate und in dunkelgrünen, zu mehr als 90% aus Amphibolen bestehenden Lagen. Elektronenstrahl-Mikrosondenuntersuchungen belegen einfache mineralchemische Zusammensetzungen, die Tremolite, tremolitische Hornblende und Magnesio-Hornblende umfassen. Die einzige bedeutende Substitution ist die zwischen Tremolit und Alumino-Tschermakit [MgSi ⇌ AlviAliv] und zwischen Tremolit und Ferri-Tschermakit [MgSi = FeviAliv]. Im Gegensatz dazu zeigen Amphibole aus den nahegelegenen Metavulkaniten und intrusiven Metadoleriten vier Substitutionstrends von Tremolit zu Ferro-Aktinolith, Edenit, Alumino-Tschermakit und Ferri-Tschermakit. Diese unterschiedlichen Trends könnten auch anderswo bei der Unterscheidung zwischen Para- und Orthoamphiboliten behilflich sein. Tremolitische Amphibole machen normalerweise einen Großteil der kalk-silikatischen Gesteine aus, in denen ansonsten nur Quarz ± Phlogopit auftritt. Karbonate fehlen bemerkenswerterweise. Dies weist auf Mg-reiche sedimentäre Protolithe, wie dolomitische Mergel mit möglicherweise etwas Magnesit, hin. Sedimentologische Überlegungen lassen die Ablagerung in abgeschnürten Küstenlagunen tropischer Breiten, die Teil eines weiträumigen stabilen Schelfes waren, vermuten. ©1994 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0930-0708
    Electronic ISSN: 1438-1168
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1993-03-01
    Description: Several formations within the lower part of the Dalradian Appin Group are characterised by calcareous and calc-silicate lithologies. Amphibole occurs in these metasedimentary units in a variety of habits, from fine-grained disseminated crystals, through radiating aggregates permeating the whole rock, to dark green layers consisting of over 90% amphibole. Electron microprobe analyses of these amphiboles exhibit simple compositional trends from tremolite, through tremolitic hornblende to magnesio-hornblende. The only significant substitutions are from tremolite towards alumino-tschermakite [MgSi ⇌ AlviAliv] and from tremolite towards ferri-tschermakite [MgSi ⇌ FeviAliv]. This is in marked contrast to amphiboles from nearby suites of metavolcanic rocks and intrusive metadolerites which exhibit four coupled substitutions, leading from tremolite towards the ferro-actinolite, edenite, alumino-tschermakite and ferritschermakite end-members. These distinctive compositional trends may aid the distinction between para- and ortho-amphibolites elsewhere. Tremolitic amphibole commonly constitutes a high proportion of the calc-silicate rocks, the only other phases present being quartz ± phlogopite. Carbonate minerals are notably absent. This suggests that the sedimentary protolith was high in Mg, such as a dolomitic marl, possibly containing some magnesite. Sedimentological considerations suggest deposition in tropical latitudes in restricted coastal lagoons forming part of an extensive stable shelf bordering a mature landscape.ZusammenfassungMehrere Formationen im unteren Teil der Appin Gruppe der Dalradians sind durch karbonatische und kalk-silikatische Lithologien gekennzeichnet. Amphibole treten in diesen metasedimentären Einheiten in verschiedener Ausbildung auf, als feinkörnige, disseminierte Kristalle, als radialstrahlige, die Gesteine durchwachsende Aggregate und in dunkelgrünen, zu mehr als 90% aus Amphibolen bestehenden Lagen. Elektronenstrahl-Mikrosondenuntersuchungen belegen einfache mineralchemische Zusammensetzungen, die Tremolite, tremolitische Hornblende und Magnesio-Hornblende umfaßt. Die einzige bedeutende Substitution ist die zwischen Tremolit und Alumino-Tschermakit [MgSi ⇌ AlviAliv] und zwischen Tremolit und Ferri-Tschermakit [MgSi ⇌ FeviAliv]. Im Gegensatz dazu zeigen Amphibole aus den nahegelegenen Metavulkaniten und intrusiven Metadoleriten vier Substitutionstrends von Tremolit zu Ferro-Akttinolith, Edenit, Alumino-Tschermakit und Ferri-Tschermakit. Diese unterschiedlichen Trends könnten auch anderswo bei der Unterscheidung zwischen Para- und Orthoamphiboliten behilflich sein. Tremolitische Amphibole machen normalerweise einen Großteil der kalk-silikatischen Gesteine aus, in denen ansonsten nur Quarz ± Phologpit auftritt. Karbonate fehlen bemerkenswerterweise. Dies weist auf Mg-reiche sedimentäre Protolithe, wie dolomitische Mergel mit möglicherweise etwas Magnesit, hin. Sedimentologische Überlegungen lassen die Ablagerung in abgeschnürten Küstenlagunen tropischer Breiten, die Teil eines weiträumigen stabilen Schelfes waren, vermuten. ©1993 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0930-0708
    Electronic ISSN: 1438-1168
    Topics: Geosciences
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