Life and Medical Sciences
Cell & Developmental Biology
Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Cyclosporin A (CsA) induces osteoporosis but not through direct activation of osteoclasts. CsA also inhibits cell-mediated mineralization in marrow stromal cell culture, whereas the tyrphostin AG-1478 increases mineralization. These antagonistic effects on mineralization were used to discern molecules that underwent phosphorylation changes in association with their opposing effects on mineralization. In parallel, quantitative changes in Src protein were followed. Multiple dexamethasone (DEX)-stimulated stromal cell cultures were grown with and without a mineralization-inhibiting dose (0.1 μM) of CsA and were harvested on different days of DEX stimulation. Immunoblots of gel-fractionated cell extracts showed that the most noticeable changes in tyrosine phosphorylated proteins (TPP) were seen on day 8 of DEX stimulation. At least 15 TPP bands, mostly smaller than 53 kDa, were more prominent in CsA-treated cultures on day 8. Under CsA, Src protein quantity decreased on day 8, but its cleavage product (52/54 kDa) was sixfold more abundant then on day 7. Day 8 was chosen to test the effect of AG-1478 on the CsA-induced TPP changes. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) alone, the solvent of AG-1478, increased mineralization in CsA-treated versus CsA-untreated cultures and slightly decreased Src and its cleavage product. AG-1478 at 5 μM, in CsA cultures increased the specific alkaline phosphatase activity threefold, with a slight change in mineralization relative to controls grown with DMSO alone. This was accompanied by decreased intensity of several TPP bands smaller than 36 kDa. In contrast, treatment with 50 μM of AG-1478 increased the intensity of TPP bands at the same molecular size range. This high AG-1478 dose decreased cell counts selecting mineralizing cells. The results indicate that increased Src protein cleavage product on day 8 by CsA is associated with mineralization inhibition, which is opposed by DMSO and 50-μM AG-1478, thus antagonizing the effect of CsA on mineralization. Direct or indirect interaction between Src and TPP, antagonistically affected by CsA and AG-1478, is likely to underlay cellular control of mineralization. Changes in p19 and p29 intensity showed association with mineralization that was reflected by a significant direct and inverse correlation, respectively, with calcium precipitation per cell. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:116-126, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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