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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The co-localization of various antigens in rat chromaffin granules was investigated by the immunogold staining procedure. In ultrathin serial sections staining of chromaffin granules was obtained with antisera against chromogranin A, chromogranin B, secretogranin II and neuropeptide Y. These results indicated that these antigens are costored within chromaffin granules. To further corroborate this point a double immunogold staining procedure was used. This method unequivocally established that chromogranin A, chromogranin B, secretogranin II and neuropeptide Y are co-localized in the same chromaffin granules. These results are relevant for studies demonstrating changes in the level of these peptides in adrenal medulla. The co-localization makes it likely that such changes lead to a different relative composition of the secretory quanta of chromaffin granules.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Analysis of human and bovine serum by immunoblotting revealed the presence of the proprotein chromogranin A. By the same method chromogranin A was also found in rat, bovine and human kidney. However this organ did not contain any chromogranin A mRNA arguing against a synthesis within this organ. By immun-electron microscopy chromogranin A immunoreactivity was found in proximal tubule cells of rat kidney. Positive immunostaining was present in small vesicles within and in close proximity to the brush border and closer to the nucleus in typical lysosomal structures. These results make it likely that chromogranin A from serum reaches kidney tubule cells by glomerular filtration and is taken up into the endocytotic lysosomal pathway.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Dilithium manganese tetrabromide, Li2MnBr4 ; crystal structure ; neutron diffraction data ; MAPLE calculations ; Raman spectra ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Li2MnBr4(o-rh.) - an Ordered NaCl Defect Structure of the SnMn2S4 TypeNeutron diffraction data of Li2MnBr4 at 25°C are presented. The orthorhombic room-temperature polymorph of Li2MnBr4 (space group Cmmm, Z = 2, a = 777.78(4), b = 1106.58(5), and c = 388.18(2) pm, RI = 6.7%) crystallizes in an ordered NaCl defect structure (SnMn2S4 type). The tetragonally distorted MBr6 octahedra are elongated in the case of LiBr6 and compressed for MnBr6 owing to the different sharing of these units. The crystal structure of Li2MnBr4 oC14 (and those of alternative structure models with a larger pseudotetragonal cell) are discussed with respect to X-ray intensities, Madelung part of lattice energy (MAPLE), and the Raman spectra. The symmetry coordinates and vibrational modes of the \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$ (\mathop {\rm k}\limits^ \to = 0) $\end{document} phonons of Li2MnBr4 oC14 are given.
    Notes: Die Kristallstruktur der Raumtemperaturmodifikation von Li2MnBr4 wurde mit Hilfe von Neutronenpulvermessungen bestimmt. Li2MnBr4(o-rh.) (Raumgruppe Cmmm, Z = 2, a = 777,78(4), b = 1106,58(5) und c = 388,18(2) pm, RI = 6,7%) kristallisiert in einer geordneten NaCl-Defekt-(bzw. Über-)struktur (SnMn2S4-Typ). Die MBr6-Oktaeder sind (mit unterschiedlicher Verknüpfung) tetragonal gestaucht (Mn) bzw. gestreckt (Li). Die Kristallstruktur von Li2MnBr4 oC14 (sowie von alternativen Strukturmodellen einer größeren pseudotetragonalen Zelle) wird unter Einbeziehung der Röntgenintensitäten, von Madelungenergien (MAPLE) sowie der Ramanspektren diskutiert. Die Symmetriekoordinaten und Schwingungsformen der Gitterschwingungen \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$ (\mathop {\rm k}\limits^ \to = 0) $\end{document} des Li2MnBr4 oC14 werden mitgeteilt.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Lithium cadmium chloride ; phase diagram ; fast ionic conductivity ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Phase Diagram Lithium Chloride  -  Cadmium ChlorideThe phase diagram LiCl—CdCl2 was studied by thermal analyses (DSC), Raman spectroscopic, and X-ray methods (high-temperature Raman and X-ray measurements). The following compounds have been established: 〈 570 K Li2CdCl4 (spinel type, inverse), 500-710 K Li2-2yCd1+yCl4 (y = 0-0.5) (ordered NaCl defect structure of Li2MnBr4 cF56 (Zr3S4) type), 640-820 K a hitherto unknown compound of the approximate composition „LiCd2Cl5“ (55-85 mol% CdCl2). Whereas below 500 K mutual solubilities and phase width of Li2CdCl4 are only small, large regions of solid solutions are formed at higher temperatures. The high temperature polymorphs (Li2MnBr4 type and Nacl-type solid solutions, „LiCd2Cl5“) cannot be quenched to ambient temperature. The phase transitions inverse spinel ↔ ordered NaCl defect structure ↔ disordered NaCl-type solid solutions are „klassengleiche“ order-disorder transitions of Landau type. The ternary lithium cadmium chlorides exhibit high lithium ion conduction, especially the 3D conductors (spinel and Li2MnBr4 type, „LiCd2Cl5“, and the NaCl-type solid solutions).
    Notes: Das Phasensystem LiCl—CdCl2 wurde mit thermoanalytischen (DSC), schwingungsspektroskopischen (Ramanheizaufnahmen) und röntgenographischen Methoden (Röntgenheizaufnahmen) untersucht. Es werden folgende Verbindungen gebildet: 〈 570 K Li2CdCl4 (inverser Spinelltyp), 500-710 K Li2-2yCd1+yCl4 (y = 0-0,5) (geordnete NaCl - Defektstruktur des Li2MnBr4cF56 (Zr3S4)-Typs), 640-820 K eine bisher noch nicht beschriebene phase der ungefähren Zusammensetzung „LiCd2Cl5“ (55-85 Mol.-% CdCl2). Während Randlöslichkeiten und Homogenitätsbereich von Li2CdCl4 unterhalb von 500 K relativ klein sind, werden bei höheren Temperaturen ausgedehnte Mischkristallbereiche gebildet. Die Hochtemperaturformen („LiCd2Cl5“, Li2MnBr4-Typ und NaCl-Typ-Mischkristalle) können nicht auf Raumtemperatur abgeschreckt werden. Die Phasenübergänge inverser Spinell ↔ geordnete NaCl-Defektphase ↔ ungeordnete NaCl-Typ-Mischkristalle sind klassengleiche Ordnungs-Unordnungs-Übergänge vom Landautyp. Alle ternären Lithiumcadmiumchloride zeigen eine sehr hohe Lithiumionenleitfähigkeit, insbesondere die 3D-Ionenleiter (Spinell- und Li2MnBr4-Typ, „LiCd2Cl5“ und die NaCl-Typ-Mischkristalle).
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chlorometallates ; fast ionic conductivity ; phase transitions ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Novel Fast Ion Conductors of the Type MI3MIIICl6 (MI = Li, Na, Ag; MIII = In, Y)The ternary chlorides Li3InCl6, Na3InCl6, Ag3InCl6, and Li3YCl6 have been studied by difference scanning calorimetry, high-temperature X-ray, infrared, and high-temperature Raman methods. Impedance spectroscopic measurements exhibit fast ionic conductivity increasing in the sequence Na3InCl6 〈 Li3YCl6 〈 Ag3InCl6 〈 Li3InCl6. In the range of 300°C, Li3InCl6 is the best lithium ion conductor known so far (σ = 0,2 Ω-1 cm-1 at 300°C). With the exception of Na3InCl6, the chlorides exhibit complicated order-disorder phase transitions.
    Notes: Li3InCl6 Na3InCl6, Ag3InCl6 und Li3YCl6 wurden mittels thermoanalytischer (DSC), röntgenographischer, IR- und Raman-spektroskopischer Methoden (einschließlich Röntgen- und Ramanheizaufnahmen) charakterisiert. Impedanzspektroskopische Messungen ergaben eine sehr hohe Ionenleitfähigkeit (Na3InCl6 〈 Li3YCl6 〈 Ag3InCl6 〈 Li3InCl6). Li3InCl6 ist im Bereich von 300°C der bisher beste Lithiumionenleiter (σ = 0,2 Ω-1 cm-1). Mit Ausnahme von Na3InCl6 sind die hier untersuchten ternären Chloride polymorph mit komplizierten Ordnungs-Unordnungs-Phasenumwandlungen.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0040-6031
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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