PACS: 75.50.Cc; 78.20.Ls; 79.60.Cn
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
Abstract. 4 f Photoemission (PE) spectra from magnetically ordered rare-earth materials using circularly polarized X-rays exhibit strong Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD), i.e., the intensities of the individual multiplet lines depend on the relative orientation of sample magnetization and photon spin. On the example of the well- resolved Tb 4 f PE multiplet, it is shown that in relevant cases 4 f PE lines are esse ntially only observed for one magnetization direction, either parallel or antiparallel to the photon spin. These large MCD effects in 4 f PE open new perspectives in the analysis of surface and thin-film magnetism and provide a sensor for the degree of circular polarization of soft X-rays over a wide photon-energy range. To demonstrate the potential of MCD in 4 f PE as a magnetometer, we studied Gd(0001) and Tb(0001), where the magnetization of the topmost atomic (0001) layer can be easily separated from the bulk magnetization via the surface core-level shift. In multicomponent magnetic thin films containing different rare-earth elements, 4 f PE allows to monitor magnetization in an element-specific way, e.g., in case of the hetero-magnetic interface 1ML Eu/Gd(0001).
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