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  • 1
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Ion chromatography ; Chloride ; Chlorate ; Perchlorate ; Sulfate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The determination of chloride and perchlorate by non-suppressed ion chromatography in aqueous process solutions containing a high sulfate background is described. The method is reliable and fast. The sensitivity for perchlorate is lower than for other anions like nitrate, nitrite and chlorate. The detection limits are about 0.3 μg/ml with linear calibration curves within a concentration range from 1 to 50 μg/ml.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 34 (1973), S. 1737-1748 
    ISSN: 0022-3697
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-510X
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford [u.a.] : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 53 (1997), S. 0-0 
    ISSN: 1600-5759
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Chromatography A 686 (1994), S. 143-148 
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Corrosion and corrosion protection in the food industriesThe corrosion of equipment and packaging materials being contacted with food products can result in undesirable alterations of aspect and flavour and in serious cases may give rise to intoxication. Corrosion protection must therefore consider the material to be processed as well as the material of construction. Machinery for processing food products are mostly made of stainless steel which should have a certain molybdenum content to possess sufficient pitting resistance in salt solutions. Aluminium can be used in many instances, provided the particular medium contains neither halides nor bases. Plastic coatings are used increasingly in recent time. In such cases, however, one has to consider, in addition to the corrosion resistance of the materials, the danger of migration of certain ingredients such as plastifier or stabilizers. On the product side one may rely on the inhibiting efficiency of certain constituents, e. g. gelatine.
    Notes: Die Korrosion der Anlagen und Verpackungen, die mit Lebensmitteln in Berührung kommen, kann zu unerwünschten Veränderungen des Aussehens und des Geschmacks und in ernsten Fällen sogar zu Vergiftungen führen. Beim Korrosionsschutz muß man daher sowohl vom Material als auch won den Lebensmitteln her ausgehen. Die Maschinen, die mit Lebensmitteln in Berührung kommen, werden meist aus nichtrostendem Stahl gefertigt, vorzugsweise mit einem gewissen Molybdängehalt, um ausreichende Beständigkeit gegen Lochfraß in Salzlösungen zu gewährleisten. Aluminium kann in zahlreichen Fällen verwendet werden, sofern das jeweilige Medium weder Halogenide noch Basen enthält. In neuerer Zeit verwendet man zunehmend Kunststoffüberzüge. Dabei ist jedoch nicht nur die Korrosionsbeständigkeit dieser Materialien zu berücksichtigen, sondern ebenso die Gefahr der Migration von Bestandteilen (z. B. Weichmacher, Stabilisatoren) aus dem Kunststoff. Produktseitig kann man berücksichtigen, daß manche Bestandteile (z. B. Gelatine) inhibierend wirken.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 623 (1997), S. 1273-1276 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Strontium tetrahydroxozincate monohydrate ; crystal structure refinement ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Crystal Structure of SrZn(OH)4 · H2OColorless crystals of SrZn(OH)4 · H2O are obtained by electrochemical oxidation of Zn in a zinc/iron pair in an aqueous ammonia solution saturated with strontium hydroxide. The X-ray crystal structure determination was now successful including all hydrogen positions: P1, Z = 2, a = 6.244(1) Å, b = 6.3000(8) Å, c = 7.701(1) Å, α = 90.59(1)°, β = 112.56(2)°, γ = 108.66(2)°, N(F2o ≥ 3σF2o) = 1967, N(Var.) = 84, R/Rw = 0.020/0.024.In SrZn(OH)4 · H2O Zn2+ is tetrahedrally coordinated by four OH- -ions while Sr2+ has 6 OH- and one H2O as neighbours. The polyhedra around Sr2+ are connected to chains which are linked three-dimensionally by isolated tetrahedra [Zn(OH)4]. Hydrogen bonds between H2O as donor and OH- are characterized by raman spectroscopy.
    Notes: Die elektrochemische Oxidation von Zink in einem Zink/Eisen Paar führt in einer wäßrigen ammoniakalischen Lösung von Strontiumhydroxid zu farblosen Kristallen von SrZn(OH)4 · H2O. An ihnen wurde röntgenographisch die Struktur jetzt einschließlich aller H-Lagen bestimmt: P1, Z = 2, a = 6,244(1) Å, b = 6,3000(8) Å, c = 7,701(1) Å, α = 90,59(1)°, β = 112,56(2)°, γ = 108,66(2)°, Z(F2o ≥ 3σF2o) = 1967, Z(Var.) = 84, R/Rw = 0,020/0,024.In SrZn(OH)4 · H2O ist Zn2+ tetraedrisch von OH- und Sr2+ von 6 OH- und einem H2O umgeben. Die Polyeder um Sr2+ bilden Ketten. Sie sind über isolierte Tetraeder [Zn(OH)4] dreidimensional verknüpft. Wasserstoffbrückenbindungen von H2O als Donator zu OH- sind durch Ramanspektroskopische Daten belegt.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 623 (1997), S. 1287-1289 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Calcium hexahydroxodizincate dihydrate ; synthesis ; crystal structure ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Crystal Structure of CaZn2(OH)6 · 2 H2OThe electrochemical oxidation of zinc in a zinc/iron-pair leads in an aqueous NH3 solution of calciumhydroxide at room temperature to colourless crystals of CaZn2(OH)6 · 2 H2O. The X-ray structure determination was now successful including all hydrogen positions.P21/c, Z = 2, a = 6.372(1) Å, b = 10.940(2) Å, c = 5.749(2) Å, β = 101.94(2)° N(F2o ≥ 3σF2o) = 809, N(Var.) = 69, R/RW = 0.011/0.012The compound CaZn2(OH)6 · 2H2O contains Zn2+ in tetrahedral coordination by OH- and Ca2+ in octahedral coordination by four OH- and two H2O. The tetrahedra around Zn2+ form corner sharing chains, three-dimensionally linked by isolated polyhedra around Ca2+. Weak hydrogen bridge bonds result between H2O as donor and OH-.
    Notes: Die elektrochemische Oxidation von Zink in einem Zink/Eisen-Paar führt in einer wäßrigen NH3-Lösung von Calciumhydroxid bei Raumtemperatur zu farblosen Kristallen von CaZn2(OH)6 · 2 H2O. An ihnen wurde röntgenographisch die Struktur jetzt einschließlich aller H-Lagen bestimmt.P21/c, Z = 2, a = 6,372(1) Å, b = 10,940(2) Å, c = 5,749(2) Å, β = 101,94(2)° Z(F2o ≥ 3σF2o) = 809, Z(Var.) = 69, R/RW = 0,011/0,012In CaZn2(OH)6 · 2 H2O ist Zn2+ tetraedrisch von OH- und Ca2+ oktaedrisch von vier OH- und zwei H2O umgeben. Die Tetraeder um Zn2+ bilden Ketten über gemeinsame Ecken, die durch voneinander isolierten Oktaedern um Ca2+ dreidimensional verknüpft werden. Es liegen schwache H-Brückenbindungen von H2O als Donator zu OH- vor.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 623 (1997), S. 423-428 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Barium hexahydroxodizincate pentahydrate ; synthesis ; crystal structure ; hydroxozincate ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Synthesis and Crystal Structure of BaZn2(OH)6 · 5 H2OThe electrochemical corrosion of zinc in a zinc/iron pair leads in an ammonia containing solution of barium hydroxide at room temperature to colourless platelets of crystals of BaZn2(OH)6 · 5H2O. The X-ray structure determination on these crystals was successful including all hydrogen positions: P21/c, Z = 4, a = 6.181(2) Å, b = 16.126(3) Å, c = 11.121(2) Å, β = 99.69(2)° Z(Fo2 ≥ 3 σ Fo2) = 3281, Z(Var.) = 178, R/Rw = 0.020/0.021 BaZn2(OH)6 · 5 H2O crystallizes in a layer structure. The layers contain Zn2+ in tetrahedral coordination by OH- and Ba2+ in an onefold capped tetragonal antiprism of 6 H2O and 3 OH-. Hydrogen bridge bonds of a further H2O molecule between the layers to OH- and H2O connect these three-dimensionally.
    Notes: Die elektrochemische Korrosion von Zink in einem Zink/Eisen-Paar führt in einer ammoniakalischen wäßrigen Lösung von Bariumhydroxid bei Raumtemperatur zu plättchenförmigen farblosen Kristallen von BaZn2(OH)6 · 5H2O. An ihnen wurde röntgenographisch die Struktur einschließlich aller H-Lagen bestimmt: P21/c, Z = 4, a = 6,181(2) Å, b = 16,126(3) Å, c = 11,121(2) Å, β = 99,69(2)° Z(Fo2 ≥ 3 σ Fo2) = 3281, Z(Var.) = 178, R/Rw = 0,020/0,021 BaZn2(OH)6 · 5H2O kristallisiert in einer Schichtstruktur. Innerhalb der Schichten ist Zn2+ tetraedrisch von OH- und Ba2+ einfach überkappt tetragonal antiprismatisch von 6H2O und 3OH- umgeben. Über Wasserstoffbrückenbindungen eines weiteren Moleküls H2Q zu OH- und H2O sind die Schichten dreidimensional verknüpft.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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