ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

feed icon rss

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Spirit landed on the floor of Gusev Crater and conducted initial operations on soil covered, rock-strewn cratered plains underlain by olivine-bearing basalts. Plains surface rocks are covered by wind-blown dust and show evidence for surface enrichment of soluble species as vein and void-filling materials and coatings. The surface enrichment is the result of a minor amount of transport and deposition by aqueous processes. Layered granular deposits were discovered in the Columbia Hills, with outcrops that tend to dip conformably with the topography. The granular rocks are interpreted to be volcanic ash and/or impact ejecta deposits that have been modified by aqueous fluids during and/or after emplacement. Soils consist of basaltic deposits that are weakly cohesive, relatively poorly sorted, and covered by a veneer of wind blown dust. The soils have been homogenized by wind transport over at least the several kilometer length scale traversed by the rover. Mobilization of soluble species has occurred within at least two soil deposits examined. The presence of mono-layers of coarse sand on wind-blown bedforms, together with even spacing of granule-sized surface clasts, suggest that some of the soil surfaces encountered by Spirit have not been modified by wind for some time. On the other hand, dust deposits on the surface and rover deck have changed during the course of the mission. Detection of dust devils, monitoring of the dust opacity and lower boundary layer, and coordinated experiments with orbiters provided new insights into atmosphere-surface dynamics.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Multispectral imaging from the Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity has provided important new insights about the geology and geologic history of the rover landing sites and traverse locations in Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. Pancam observations from near-UV to near-IR wavelengths provide limited compositional and mineralogic constraints on the presence abundance, and physical properties of ferric- and ferrous-iron bearing minerals in rocks, soils, and dust at both sites. High resolution and stereo morphologic observations have also helped to infer some aspects of the composition of these materials at both sites. Perhaps most importantly, Pancam observations were often efficiently and effectively used to discover and select the relatively small number of places where in situ measurements were performed by the rover instruments, thus supporting and enabling the much more quantitative mineralogic discoveries made using elemental chemistry and mineralogy data. This chapter summarizes the major compositionally- and mineralogically-relevant results at Gusev and Meridiani derived from Pancam observations. Classes of materials encountered in Gusev crater include outcrop rocks, float rocks, cobbles, clasts, soils, dust, rock grindings, rock coatings, windblown drift deposits, and exhumed whitish/yellowish salty soils. Materials studied in Meridiani Planum include sedimentary outcrop rocks, rock rinds, fracture fills, hematite spherules, cobbles, rock fragments, meteorites, soils, and windblown drift deposits. This chapter also previews the results of a number of coordinated observations between Pancam and other rover-based and Mars-orbital instruments that were designed to provide complementary new information and constraints on the mineralogy and physical properties of martian surface materials.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The Mars Exploration Rovers each carry a set of Magnetic Properties Experiments designed to investigate the properties of the air-borne dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is a preferred interpretation of previous experiments (Viking 1 & 2, 1976 and Mars Pathfinder, 1997) that the airborne dust in the Martian atmosphere is primarily composed by composite silicate particles containing one or more highly magnetic minerals as a minor constituent, this minor constituent probably being dominated by the mineral maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3). The ultimate goal of the magnetic properties experiments on the Mars Exploration Rover mission is to provide some information/constraints on whether the dust is formed by volcanic, meteoritic, aqueous, or other processes. In detail, the objectives are: a) To identify the magnetic mineral(s) in the dust, soil and rocks on Mars. b) To establish if the magnetic material is present in the form of nanosized (d 〈 10 nm) superparamagnetic crystallites embedded in the micrometer sized airborne dust part icles. c) To establish if the magnets are culling a subset of strongly magnetic particles or if essentially all particles of the airborne dust are sufficiently magnetic to be attracted by the magnets. d) Detect compositional differences between the airborne dust and the soil and rock sites which are investigated at two landing sites. To accomplish these goals the Mars Exploration Rovers each carry a set of permanent magnets of several different strengths and sizes. Each magnet has its own specific objective.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Special Session: Mars Missions; LPI-Contrib-1197
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The importance of the study of comets has led NASA to plan a mission to rendezvous with comet Tempel 2 in 1997. Critical to the understanding of comets will be measurements of the nucleus material to determine its elemental and isotopic composition, its mechanical properties, and its thermal state and properties. this paper describes a proposal for a Comet Nucleus Penetrator to accomplish these measurement goals. The Comet Nucleus Penetrator will implant instruments into the comet's nucleus beneath a probable volatile-depleted surface mantle into material more representative of the bulk composition of the nucleus.
    Keywords: ASTRONAUTICS (GENERAL)
    Type: IAF PAPER 86-297
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An engineering design study of a comet nucleus penetrator system for in situ determinations of comet composition is presented. The system is designed for participation in the Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby mission to comet Kopff in 1996. The instrumentation payload of the penetrator system will include a passive gamma-ray spectrometer; a high frequency response accelerometer for measurements of the impact deceleration profile of the system as it penetrates to the nucleus of the comet; and several thermocouples mounted along the length of the penetrator to measure temperature and temperature gradients. The mechanical, electrical and thermal interfaces between the penetrator and the Mariner Mark II spacecraft are described. A series of line drawings is provided which illustrates the proposed configuration of the system.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: AIAA PAPER 85-0463
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks at Gusev underwent aqueous alteration during the Late Noachian, approximately coeval with a wide variety of geomorphic indicators that indicate a wetter and likely warmer environment. Two-toned rocks, elevated ventifacts, and perched and undercut rocks indicate localized deflation of the Gusev plains and deposition of an equivalent amount of sediment into craters to form hollows, suggesting average erosion rates of approx.0.03 nm/yr. Erosion of Hesperian craters, modification of Late Amazonian craters, and the concentration of hematite concretions in the soils of Meridiani yield slightly higher average erosion rates of 1-10 nm/yr in the Amazonian. These erosion rates are 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the slowest continental denudation rates on Earth, indicating that liquid water was not an active erosional agent. Erosion rates for Meridiani just before deposition of the sulfate-rich sediments and other eroded Noachian areas are comparable with slow denudation rates on Earth that are dominated by liquid water. Available data suggest the climate change at the landing sites from wet and likely warm to dry and desiccating occurred sometime between the Late Noachian and the beginning of the Late Hesperian (3.7-3.5 Ga).
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: Journal Of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); Volume 111
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Home Plate is a layered plateau in Gusev crater on Mars. It is composed of clastic rocks of moderately altered alkali basalt composition, enriched in some highly volatile elements. A coarse-grained lower unit is overlain by a finer-grained upper unit. Textural observations indicate that the lower strata were emplaced in an explosive event, and geochemical considerations favor an explosive volcanic origin over an impact origin. The lower unit likely represents accumulation of pyroclastic materials, while the upper unit may represent eolian reworking of the same pyroclastic materials.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The cratered plains of Gusev traversed by Spirit are generally low-relief rocky plains dominated by impact and eolian processes. Ubiquitous shallow, soil-filled, circular depressions, called hollows, are modified impact craters. Rocks are dark, fine-grained basalts, and the upper 10 m of the cratered plains appears to be an impact-generated regolith developed over intact basalt flows. Systematic field observations across the cratered plains identified vesicular clasts and rare scoria similar to original lava flow tops, consistent with an upper inflated surface of lava flows with adjacent collapse depressions. Crater and hollow morphometry are consistent with most being secondaries. The size frequency distribution of rocks 〉0.1 m diameter generally follows exponential functions similar to other landing sites for total rock abundances of 5-35%. Systematic clast counts show that areas with higher rock abundance and more large rocks have higher thermal inertia. Plains with lower thermal inertia have fewer rocks and substantially more pebbles that are well sorted and evenly spaced, similar to a desert pavement or lag. Eolian bed forms (ripples and wind tails) have coarse surface lags, and many are dust covered and thus likely inactive. Deflation of the surface _5-25 cm likely exposed two-toned rocks and elevated ventifacts and transported fines into craters creating the hollows. This observed redistribution yields extremely slow average erosion rates of _0.03 nm/yr and argues for very little long-term net change of the surface and a dry and desiccating environment similar to today's since the Hesperian (or _3 Ga).
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; Volume 111
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and its Athena science payload have been used to investigate a landing site in Gusev crater. Gusev is hypothesized to be the site of a former lake, but no clear evidence for lacustrine sedimentation has been found to date. Instead, the dominant lithology is basalt, and the dominant geologic processes are impact events and eolian transport. Many rocks exhibit coatings and other characteristics that may be evidence for minor aqueous alteration. Any lacustrine sediments that may exist at this location within Gusev apparently have been buried by lavas that have undergone subsequent impact disruption.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Science (ISSN 0036-8075); Volume 305; 5685; 794-799
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Mossbauer spectra measured on Mars by the Spirit rover during the primary mission are characterized by two ferrous iron doublets (olivine and probably pyroxene) and a ferric iron doublet (tentatively associated to nanophase ferric iron oxide). Two sextets resulting from nonstoichiometric magnetite are also present, except for a coating on the rock Mazatzal, where a hematite-like sextet is present. Greater proportions of ferric-bearing phases are associated with undisturbed soils and rock surfaces as compared to fresh rock surfaces exposed by grinding. The ubiquitous presence of olivine in soil suggests that physical rather than chemical weathering processes currently dominate at Gusev crater.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Science (ISSN 0036-8075); Volume 305; 5685; 833-6
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...