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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-01-26
    Description: The role of sea ice in the Earth climate system is still under debate, although it is known to influence albedo, ocean circulation, and atmosphere–ocean heat and gas exchange. Here we present a reconstruction of 1950 to 1998 AD sea ice in the Laptev Sea based on the Akademii Nauk ice core (Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic). The chemistry of halogens bromine (Br) and iodine (I) is strongly active and influenced by sea ice dynamics, in terms of physical, chemical and biological process. Bromine reacts on the sea ice surface in autocatalyzing "bromine explosion" events, causing an enrichment of the Br / Na ratio and hence a bromine excess (Brexc) in snow compared to that in seawater. Iodine is suggested to be emitted from algal communities growing under sea ice. The results suggest a connection between Brexc and spring sea ice area, as well as a connection between iodine concentration and summer sea ice area. The correlation coefficients obtained between Brexc and spring sea ice (r  =  0.44) as well as between iodine and summer sea ice (r  =  0.50) for the Laptev Sea suggest that these two halogens could become good candidates for extended reconstructions of past sea ice changes in the Arctic.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-09-15
    Description: The role of sea ice in the Earth climate system is still under debate, although it is known to influence albedo, ocean circulation, and atmosphere-ocean heat and gas exchange. Here we present a reconstruction of AD1950 to 1998 sea ice in the Laptev Sea based on the Akademii Nauk ice core (Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic). The halogens bromine (Br) and iodine (I) are strongly influenced by sea ice processes. Bromine reacts with the sea ice surface in auto-catalyzing “Bromine explosion” events causing an enrichment of the Br / Na ratio and the bromine excess (Brexc) in snow compared to that in seawater. Iodine is emitted from algal communities growing under sea ice. The results suggest a connection between Brexc and spring sea ice area, as well as a connection between iodine concentration and summer sea ice area. These two halogens are therefore good candidates for extended reconstructions of past sea ice changes in the Arctic.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-04-19
    Description: The Northern Hemisphere experienced dramatic changes during the last glacial, featuring vast ice sheets and abrupt climate events, while high northern latitudes during the last interglacial (Eemian) were warmer than today. Here we use high-resolution aerosol records from the Greenland NEEM ice core to reconstruct the environmental alterations in aerosol source regions accompanying these changes. Separating source and transport effects, we find strongly reduced terrestrial biogenic emissions during glacial times reflecting net loss of vegetated area in North America. Rapid climate changes during the glacial have little effect on terrestrial biogenic aerosol emissions. A strong increase in terrestrial dust emissions during the coldest intervals indicates higher aridity and dust storm activity in East Asian deserts. Glacial sea salt aerosol emissions in the North Atlantic region increase only moderately (50%), likely due to sea ice expansion. Lower aerosol concentrations in Eemian ice compared to the Holocene are mainly due to shortened atmospheric residence time, while emissions changed little.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We compute upper limits on the nanohertz-frequency isotropic stochastic gravitational wave background (GWB) using the 9 year data set from the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) collaboration. Well-tested Bayesian techniques are used to set upper limits on the dimensionless strain amplitude (at a frequency of 1 yr(exp -1) for a GWB from supermassive black hole binaries of A(sub gw) less than 1.5 x 10(exp -15). We also parameterize the GWB spectrum with a broken power-law model by placing priors on the strain amplitude derived from simulations of Sesana and McWilliams et al. Using Bayesian model selection we find that the data favor a broken power law to a pure power law with odds ratios of 2.2 and 22 to one for the Sesana and McWilliams prior models, respectively. Using the broken power-law analysis we construct posterior distributions on environmental factors that drive the binary to the GW-driven regime including the stellar mass density for stellar-scattering, mass accretion rate for circumbinary disk interaction, and orbital eccentricity for eccentric binaries, marking the first time that the shape of the GWB spectrum has been used to make astrophysical inferences. Returning to a power-law model, we place stringent limits on the energy density of relic GWs, OMEGA(sub gw) (f) h squared less than 4.2 x 10(exp -10). Our limit on the cosmic string GWB, OMEGA(sub gw) (f) h squared less than 2.2 x 10(exp -10), translates to a conservative limit on the cosmic string tension with G mu less than 3.3 x 10(exp -8), a factor of four better than the joint Planck and high-l cosmic microwave background data from other experiments.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN50841 , GSFC-E-DAA-TN48302 , The Astrophysical Journal (ISSN 0004-637X) (e-ISSN 1538-4357); 821; 1; 13
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Astrophysics; Astronomy
    Type: Caltech/JPL Association for Gravitational-Wave Research Seminar Series; 10 Dec. 2013; Pasadena, CA; United States
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  • 7
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Six years ago, the discovery of Rotating Radio Transients (RRATs) marked what appeared to be a new type of sparsely-emitting pulsar. Since 2006, more than 70 of these objects have been discovered in single-pulse searches of archival and new surveys. With a continual inflow of new information about the RRAT population in the form of new discoveries, multi-frequency follow ups, coherent timing solutions, and pulse rate statistics, a view is beginning to form of the place in the pulsar population RRATs hold. Here we review the properties of neutron stars discovered through single pulse searches. We first seek to clarify the definition of the term RRAT, emphasising that "the RRAT population" encompasses several phenomenologies. A large subset of RRATs appears to represent the tail of an extended distribution of pulsar nulling fractions and activity cycles; these objects present several key open questions remaining in this field.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: IAU XXVIII General Assembly/Special Session (Pulsars); 20-31 Aug. 2012; Beijing; China
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We present high-precision timing data over time spans of up to 11 years for 45 millisecond pulsars observed as part of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) project, aimed at detecting and characterizing low-frequency gravitational waves. The pulsars were observed with the Arecibo Observatory and/or the Green Bank Telescope at frequencies ranging from 327 MHz to 2.3 GHz. Most pulsars were observed with approximately monthly cadence, and six high-timing-precision pulsars were observed weekly. All were observed at widely separated frequencies at each observing epoch in order to fit for time-variable dispersion delays. We describe our methods for data processing, time-of-arrival (TOA) calculation, and the implementation of a new, automated method for removing outlier TOAs. We fit a timing model for each pulsar that includes spin, astrometric, and (for binary pulsars) orbital parameters; time-variable dispersion delays; and parameters that quantify pulse-profile evolution with frequency. The timing solutions provide three new parallax measurements, two new Shapiro delay measurements, and two new measurements of significant orbital-period variations. We fit models that characterize sources of noise for each pulsar. We find that 11 pulsars show significant red noise, with generally smaller spectral indices than typically measured for non-recycled pulsars, possibly suggesting a different origin. A companion paper uses these data to constrain the strength of the gravitational-wave background
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN57928 , The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (ISSN 0004-637X) (e-ISSN 1538-4357); 235; 2; 37
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We search for an isotropic stochastic gravitational-wave background (GWB) in the newly released 11 year data set from the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav). While we find no evidence for a GWB, we place constraints on a population of inspiraling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries, a network of decaying cosmic strings, and a primordial GWB. For the first time, we find that the GWB constraints are sensitive to the solar system ephemeris (SSE) model used and that SSE errors can mimic a GWB signal. We developed an approach that bridges systematic SSE differences, producing the first pulsar-timing array (PTA) constraints that are robust against SSE errors. We thus place a 95% upper limit on the GW-strain amplitude of A (sub GWB) 〈 1.45 10 (exp -15) at a frequency of f=1 yr(exp -1) for a fiducial f (exp -2/3) power-law spectrum and with interpulsar correlations modeled. This is a factor of approximately 2 improvement over the NANOGrav nine-year limit calculated using the same procedure. Previous PTA upper limits on the GWB (as well as their astrophysical and cosmological interpretations) will need revision in light of SSE systematic errors. We use our constraints to characterize the combined influence on the GWB of the stellar mass density in galactic cores, the eccentricity of SMBH binaries, and SMBH-galactic-bulge scaling relationships. We constrain the cosmic-string tension using recent simulations, yielding an SSE-marginalized 95% upper limit of G (sub mu) 〈 5.3 10(exp -11) - a factor of approximately 2 better than the published NANOGrav nine-year constraints. Our SSE-marginalized 95% upper limit on the energy density of a primordial GWB (for a radiation-dominated post-inflation universe) is omega (sub GWB)(f) h (exp 2) 〈 3.4 10 (exp -10).
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN59128 , Astrophysical Journal (ISSN 0004-637X) (e-ISSN 1538-4357); 859; 1; 47
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are on the verge of detecting low-frequency gravitational waves (GWs)from supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs). With continued observations of a large sampleof millisecond pulsars, PTAs will reach this major milestone within the next decade. Already,SMBHB candidates are being identied by electromagnetic surveys in ever-increasing numbers;upcoming surveys will enhance our ability to detect and verify candidates, and will be instrumentalin identifying the host galaxies of GW sources. Multi-messenger (GW and electromagnetic) obser-vations of SMBHBs will revolutionize our understanding of the co-evolution of SMBHs with theirhost galaxies, the dynamical interactions between binaries and their galactic environments, and thefundamental physics of accretion. Multi-messenger observations can also make SMBHBs `standardsirens' for cosmological distance measurements out to z ~ 0.5 LIGO has already ushered in break-through insights in our knowledge of black holes. The multi-messenger detection of SMBHBs withPTAs will be a breakthrough in the years 2020-2030 and beyond, and prepare us for LISA to helpcomplete our views of black hole demographics and evolution at higher redshifts.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN66951
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