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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: School reform in the Soviet Union is now being carried out in accordance with programmatic directives of the June 1983 plenary session of the CPSU Central Committee. The draft reform was under study and discussion for several months by various groups within the Soviet Union with the participation of about 120 million people. Following the discussion of the draft reform, the basic guidelines for reform were approved by the plenary session of the CPSU Central Committee on April 10, 1984, and by the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet on April 12, 1984. The essence of the reform is to improve the quality of instruction (including an added year of compulsory education-from 10 to 11) and to teach young people a profession in addition to the required volume of knowledge and work skills.
    Keywords: SOCIAL SCIENCES (GENERAL)
    Type: AIAA PAPER 85-3082
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The aerodynamic characteristics of some lifting-body concepts are examined with a view to the applicability of such concepts to the design of missiles. A considerable amount of research has been done in past years with vehicle concepts suitable for manned atmospheric-entry and atmospheric flight. Some of the concepts appear to offer some novel design approaches for missiles for a variety of missions and flight profiles, including long-range orbital/reentry with transatmospheric operation for strategic penetration, low altitude penetration, and battlefield tactical. The concepts considered include right triangular pyramidal configurations, a lenticular configuration, and various 75-degree triangular planform configurations with variations in body camber and control systems. The aerodynamic features are emphasized but some observations are also made relative to other factors such as heat transfer, structures, carriage, observability, propulsion, and volumetric efficiency.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: AIAA PAPER 85-0497
    Format: text
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  • 3
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Some basic trends in fighter aircraft are traced from the post World War II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined in terms of performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include such items as power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. In some cases, the characteristics of U.S.S.R. aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and indicate some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2503
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The aerodynamic characteristics of some lifting reentry concepts are examined with a view to the applicability of such concepts to the design of possible transatmospheric vehicles (TAV). A considerable amount of research has been done in past years with vehicle concepts suitable for manned atmospheric-entry, atmospheric flight, and landing. Some of the features of these concepts that permit flight in or out of the atmosphere with maneuver capability should be useful in the mission requirements of TAV's. The concepts illustrated include some hypersonic-body shapes with and without variable geometry surfaces, and a blunt lifting-body configuration. The merits of these concepts relative to the aerodynamic behavior of a TAV are discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2146
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  • 5
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A comprehensive development history of missile airframe aerodynamics is presented, encompassing ground-, ground vehicle-, ship-, and air-launched categories of all ranges short of strategic. Emphasis is placed on the swift acceleration of missile configuration aerodynamics by German researchers in the course of the Second World War and by U.S. research establishments thereafter, often on the foundations laid by German workers. Examples are given of foundational airframe design criteria established by systematic researches undertaken in the 1950s, regarding L/D ratios, normal force and pitching moment characteristics, minimum drag forebodies and afterbodies, and canard and delta winged configuration aerodynamics.
    Keywords: GENERAL
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The World War 2 time period ushered in a new era in aeronautical research and development. The air conflict during the war highlighted the need of aircraft with agility, high speed, long range, large payload capability, and in addition, introduced a new concept in air warfare through the use of guided missiles. Following the war, the influx of foreign technology, primarily German, led to rapid advances in jet propulsion and speed, and a host of new problem areas associated with high-speed flight designs were revealed. The resolution of these problems led to a rash of new design concepts and many of the lessons learned, in principle, are still effective today. In addition to the technical lessons learned related to aircraft development programs, it might also be noted that some lessons involving the political and philosophical nature of aircraft development programs are worth attention.
    Keywords: AERONAUTICS (GENERAL)
    Type: NAS 1.15:86258 , NASA-TM-86258
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Soviet Union recognizes that the foundation of their system depends upon complete dedication of the people to the state through thorough psychological training as well as through military training, and through specialized education in the broad fields of engineering, natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and education. An outline of the U.S.S.R. educational system indicates the extent of academic training, coupled with on-the-job and military training, that can produce a highly skilled, dedicated, and matured person. Observations on the coupling of political, economic, and psychological training along with the technical training are made, along with some mention of positive and negative aspects of the training.
    Keywords: GENERAL
    Type: NAS 1.15:86252 , NASA-TM-86252
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A survey of some trends in aircraft design was made in an effort to determine the relation between research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT and E) and aircraft mission capability, requirements, and objectives. Driving forces in the history of aircraft include the quest for speed which involved design concepts incorporating jet propulsion systems and low drag features. The study of high speed design concepts promoted new experimental and analytical research techniques. These research techniques, in turn, have lead to concepts offering new performance potential. Design trends were directed toward increased speed, efficiency, productivity, and safety. Generally speaking, the research and development effort has been evolutionary in nature and, with the exception of the transition to supersonic flight, little has occurred since the origin of flight that has drastically changed the basic design fundamentals of aircraft. However, this does not preclude the possibility of dramatic changes in the future since the products of research are frequently unpredictable. Advances should be expected and sought in improved aerodynamics (reduced drag, enhanced lift, flow field exploitation); propulsion (improved engine cycles, multimode engines, alternate fuels, alternate power sources); structures (new materials, manufacturing techniques); all with a view toward increased efficiency and utility.
    Keywords: AERONAUTICS (GENERAL)
    Type: NASA-TM-84665 , NAS 1.15:84665
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Extensive school reform measures were initiated in the U.S.S.R. in 1984. The essence of the reform is to improve the quality of instruction, improve the content of education, strengthen the Marxist-Leninist world view, and ensure that all secondary school graduates master an occupation.
    Keywords: GENERAL
    Type: NASA-TM-87693 , NAS 1.15:87693
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Past studies of reentry vehicles tested to high angles of attack (up to 90 deg) in the Mach number range from 2 to 4.8 are reviewed. Two basic planforms are considered: highly-swept deltas and circular. The delta concepts include variations in cross section (and thus volume) and in camber distribution. The effectiveness of various types of aerodynamic control devices is also included. The purpose of the paper is to examine the characteristics of the vehicles with a view toward the potential usefulness of such concepts in a flight regime that would include reentry from space into the atmosphere followed by a transition to sustained atmospheric flight.
    Keywords: LAUNCH VEHICLES AND SPACE VEHICLES
    Type: NAS 1.15:87645 , NASA-TM-87645
    Format: application/pdf
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