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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 37 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Complex aluminium phosphate-sulphate minerals of the hinsdalite group have been identified as early diagenetic precipitates in Late Permian sandstones of the Northern Calcareous Alps, western Austria. According to their chemical composition they can be regarded as solid solutions between woodhouseite, svanbergite, crandallite and goyazite. The model proposed for their origin involves the dissolution of detrital apatite in a low-pH environment and subsequent precipitation of aluminium phosphate-sulphate minerals, which clearly pre-date syntaxial quartz cementation of the sediment. Their occurrence probably has been overlooked in other sandstones showing diagenetic apatite dissolution. The recognition of such minerals could provide a significant insight into early phosphate diagenesis.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Thick dolomite-cemented horizons (dolocretes) occur within a fluvial sandstone-mudstone sequence of Late Triassic age in the western part of the Paris Basin, France. Two types of dolomites can be distinguished: (a) nodular dolomitic beds less than a few metres thick, which formed within mottled overbank siltstones and mudstones; and (b) massive dolomite up to 16 m thick, which occurs in coarse grained channel sandstones and conglomerates.The majority of the dolomite consists of a finely crystalline groundmass of dolomicrospar and, less commonly, dolomicrite. Glaebules, irregular spar-filled cracks, spheroidal dolomite, silicification and vuggy porosity are locally abundant in the massive dolomite. In contrast, biologically induced micromorphological features such as rhizocretions and alveolar-septal fabrics were observed in the thin, nodular dolomite beds.The dolomite is near stoichiometric, well ordered and non-ferroan. 18O values range from −7·7 to −0·4%o PDB and 18O values range from −5·1 to + 1·8%0 PDB and no obvious difference in the stable isotopic composition between both types of dolomites was observed. Sr isotope ratios range from 0·7101 to 0·7126 and are invariably higher than the contemporary Triassic sea water.A vadose—pedogenic origin for the thin dolocrete layers is indicated by the occurrence of rhizocretions and other biological structures. Several features, however, argue against a pedogenic origin for the massive carbonates, most notably the absence of biologically induced structures, the occurrence in coarse grained channel (and not overbank) deposits, and the great thickness. These units are thus interpreted as groundwater in origin. Phreatic calcretes of Quaternary age, widespread in inland Australia, are regarded as a modern analogue for the Triassic Paris Basin dolocretes.Petrographic observations argue in favour of primary (proto)dolomite precipitation, although early diagenetic replacement of calcite by (proto)dolomite cannot be ruled out. Strontium and carbon isotope data of early diagenetic dolocrete cements and oxygen isotope data of early diagenetic silica indicate an entirely non-marine, continental origin for the groundwaters. The poorly ordered and non-stoichiometric protodolomite probably underwent stabilization upon further burial resulting in a near-stoichiometric, well ordered dolomite that clearly lacks evidence for pervasive recrystallization.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Dark grey, bituminous dolostones interbedded with marine-derived anhydrite horizons occur in the Triassic Reichenhall Formation of western Austria. Fossils are rare and indicate a hostile, hypersaline depositional environment. The dolomites are finely crystalline, fairly stoichiometric, well ordered and non-ferroan. Closely spaced samples (94 in total) of individual dolomite units have been analysed for their carbon and oxygen isotopic composition. The data indicate surprisingly low δ18O values (-5.7 to -2.1%0 PDB), whereas the δ13C values are comparable to the contemporary Triassic seawater (+0.2 to +2.6%0 PDB). Sedimentological evidence, including (i) lack of any evidence for extensive dissolution, (ii) distinct oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of individual dolomite units, (iii) covariance of carbon and oxygen isotopes within some dolomite layers and (iv) inclusions of celestite in dolomite, indicates a nearly closed system after early diagenesis. Combining this information with water-rock interaction calculations suggests that the lightest oxygen isotope compositions are the result of freshwater influx into the basin during very early dolomite formation. A secondary factor may be dolomite recrystallization at elevated temperatures during burial.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Euhedral, post-depositional albite from the Eastern and Western Alps, the western Carpathians and some Greek islands was examined petrographically and geochemically to gain insights into the nature of feldspar reactions in carbonate rocks. This study focuses on coarsely crystalline, homogeneously nucleated albite in order to avoid problems related to the presence of inseparable detrital material in fine-grained albite varieties. All albite samples show a very restricted compositional variability and are typically ≥ 99 mol% Ab component. Unit-cell parameters determined by Rietveld analysis are slightly more variable than previously accepted, but confirm high Al–Si ordering characteristic of low albite. The oxygen isotopic composition of albite ranges from + 19·4‰ to + 28·3‰ VSMOW. There is no direct relationship between the δ18O value and the inferred temperature of albite formation, nor is there one with stoichiometry. The coarse crystal size (up to several millimetres in diameter), petrographic evidence showing albite cross-cutting stylolites, greater abundance of albite in carbonate rocks subject to high-grade diagenetic or weak metamorphic overprinting and available fluid inclusion data suggest that albite precipitation is favoured at higher temperatures in carbonates than in sandstones. Pore fluids were invariably brines, as suggested by the inferred high positive δ18Ofluid values, the common association of albite-bearing carbonates and evaporites and reports of saline fluid inclusions in albite. The presence of authigenic albite may thus be a useful tracer of palaeobrine–carbonate reactions, particularly in deep-burial and incipient metamorphic settings.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Thin layers of chert occur within a fluvio-lacustrine succession sandwiched between acidic volcanic rocks of the Lower Permian Bolzano Volcanic Complex in northern Italy. These cherts are interpreted as analogues to Magadi-type abiogenic chert known from modern volcanic lake settings. Soft-sediment deformation features, shrinkage cracks, and well-preserved palynomorphs document very early diagenetic silica precipitation, volume loss by dehydration, and consolidation prior to mechanical compaction of the sediment. Transformation to quartz and concomitant (re)crystallization resulted in a variety of silica textures, dominated by microflamboyant quartz. The oxygen isotopic composition of chert samples ranges from +25·4 to +29·0‰ and is negatively correlated with crystal size and ordering.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The Upper Permian Gröden Formation of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria) is composed of alluvial fan and playa lake sediments that were deposited in intramontane basins. A conspicuous feature of these redbeds is the abundance of magnesite in the form of nodules and discrete layers in mudstones as well as intergranular cement in sandstones. Sedimentological observations indicate that the bulk of these carbonates formed during early diagenesis and were probably syndepositional. Petrographically, most magnesites consist of micrite or, less commonly, microspar. An early non-ferroan magnesite is post-dated by later stage ferroan magnesites. Nodules consisting of recrystallized, sparry magnesite were observed only at one location. The general absence of relics of a non-magnesite precursor mineral and the occurrence of shrinkage features suggest that the fine grained magnesites formed by transformation of a hydrated magnesium carbonate mineral, e.g. hydromagnesite. Carbon, oxygen, sulphur and strontium isotope ratios in conjunction with sedimentological criteria support a model of (hydro)magnesite precipitation in an inland playa lake system, which was fed by run-off from the surrounding hinterland. The scarcity of evaporites and the dominance of magnesite over calcite and dolomite suggest that the playa lake brines were low in sulphate and had high Mg/Ca ratios. The source for the high magnesium concentrations is thought to be the weathering of Devonian dolostones and associated massive magnesite deposits in the catchment area.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Thin black dolomites occur within the evaporitic Alpine Haselgebirge Formation (Late Permian) of the central and eastern Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. They have been compared with the southalpine Bellerophon Formation byTollmann (1964). Samples obtained from the gypsum-anhydrite deposit of Wienern am Grundlsee, Styria, are mostly unfossiliferous mudstones (dolomicrite and dolomicrospar) devoid of sedimentary structures. Only few samples contain a low-diversity ostracode fauna. Electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction analysis indicate well-ordered and near-stoichiometric dolomite (49.9±0.2 mol% CaCO3). The oxygen isotopic composition varies between −3.0 and −5.7‰ PDB. The δ13C ratios fall into two distinct groups: −0.9 to +1.9‰, and −3.5 to −6.8‰ PDB. The carbon isotope data of the first group indicate a predominantly marine origin of the carbonates. The significantly depleted δ13C ratios of the second group are probably due to freshwater influx into the basin and/or sulfate reduction. Sulfur and strontium isotope data from intercalated anhydrite and gypsum preclude an entirely non-marine origin of the brines. The light δ18O ratios are probably due to early diagenetic sulfate reduction and/or dolomite recrystallization during moderate burial. A detailed interpretation of the depositional environment is rendered impossible because of the pervasive alpine tectonics. However, northalpine ‘Bellerophon’ carbonates appear to be restricted to areas of major anhydrite deposition, and are absent in the halitedominated facies.
    Abstract: Résumé En Autriche, dans les secteurs central et oriental des Alpes calcaires du nord, existent des dolomies bitumineuses de faible puissance en relation avec la formation évaporitique alpine de l'Haselgebirge (Permien supérieur).Tollmann (1964) les a comparées à la formation sud-alpine de Bellérophon. Des échantillons provenant des gisements de gypse et d'anhydrite de Wienern sur le Grundlsee (Styrie) montrent des mudstones (dolomicrites à dolomicrosparites) dépourvus de fossiles et de structures sédimentaires. Seuls quelques échantillons contiennent une faune à ostracodes peu diversifiée. Les examens à la microsonde et aux rayons X montrent une dolomite bien ordonnée et quasi-stoechiométrique (49,9±0,2% moléculaire de CaCo3). La composition isotopique de l'oxygène varie entre −3,0 et −5,7‰ PDB. Les rapports δ13C se répartissent en deux groupes: −0,9 à +1,9‰ et −3,5 à −6,8‰ PDB. Ces données indiquent pour le premier groupe une origine surtout marine des carbonates. Les valeurs moins élevées des rapports du second groupe sont dues probablement à l'arrivée d'eau douce dans le bassin et/ou à une réduction des sulfates. Les valeurs isotopiques du soufre et du strontium, mesurées sur les gypses et anhydrites associés aux dolomies, excluent une origine entièrement continentale pour les saumures. Les faibles rapports δ18O sont dûs probablement à une réduction diagénétique précoce des sulfates et/ou à la recristallisation de la dolomite pendant l'enfouissement. Une interprétation détaillée des conditions de dépôt est rendue impossible par l'ampleur de la déformation tectonique alpine. Il semble toutefois que des carbonates nord-alpins de type «Bellérophon» soient liés aux aires de forte sédimentation d'anhydrite et soient absents dans les faciès à halite dominante.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Im zentralen und östlichen Abschnitt der Nördlichen Kalkalpen Österreichs treten geringmächtige, bituminöse Dolomite im Verband der salinaren Alpinen Haselgebirge Formation (Oberperm) auf. Sie wurden vonTollmann (1964) mit der südalpinen Bellerophon Formation verglichen. Bei den untersuchten Proben von der Gips- und Anhydritlagerstätte Wienern am Grundlsee (Steiermark) handelt es sich fast durchwegs um fossilleere Mikrite und Mikrosparite, die keinerlei Sedimentstrukturen aufweisen. Nur sehr wenige Proben führen Ostrakoden. Nach Mikrosonden-Analysen und röntgendiffraktometrischen Untersuchungen bestehen diese mikrokristallinen Dolomite aus fast stöchiometrischen, gut geordneten Dolomit (49.9±0.2 Mol% CaCO3). Die Sauerstoffisotopenwerte schwanken von −3.0 bis −5.7‰ PDB und die δ13C Verhältnisse fallen in zwei Gruppen: −0.9 bis +1.9‰, und −3.5 bis −6.8‰ PDB. Die Werte der ersten Gruppe indizieren eine im wesentlichen marine Bildung der Karbonate. Die deutlich leichteren δ13C-Werte der zweiten Gruppe können durch Süßwassereinfluß während der Sedimentation und/oder durch Sulfatreduktion erklärt werden. Schwefel- und Strontium-Isotopenwerte, gemessen an Anhydriten und Gipsen im Verband mit den Dolomiten, schließen eine rein nicht-marine Herkunft der Salzlösungen aus. Die negativen δ18O-Verhältnisse der Dolomite sind wahrscheinlich auf diagenetische Prozesse (Sulfatreduktion und/oder Umkristallisation) zurückzuführen. Die enorme alpidische Deformation dieser Evaporitserien gestattet es nicht, das ursprüngliche Ablagerungsmilieu der Karbonate zu rekonstruieren. Die nordalpinen „Bellerophon” Karbonate scheinen jedoch an Ablagerungsbereiche mit mächtiger Anhydritbildung gebunden zu sein, und fehlen primär in der Halit-dominierten Fazies.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: We present the first speleothem-derived central North Africa rainfall record for the last glacial period. The record reveals three main wet periods at 65-61 ka, 52.5-50.5 ka and 37.5-33 ka that lead obliquity maxima and precession minima. We find additional minor wet episodes that are synchronous with Greenland interstadials. Our results demonstrate that sub-tropical hydrology is forced by both orbital cyclicity and North Atlantic moisture sources. The record shows that after the end of a Saharan wet phase around 70 ka ago, North Africa continued to intermittently receive substantially more rainfall than today, resulting in favourable environmental conditions for modern human expansion. The encounter and subsequent mixture of Neanderthals and modern humans – which, on genetic evidence, is considered to have occurred between 60 and 50 ka – occurred synchronously with the wet phase between 52.5 and 50.5 ka. Based on genetic evidence the dispersal of modern humans into Eurasia started less than 55 ka ago. This may have been initiated by dry conditions that prevailed in North Africa after 50.5 ka. The timing of a migration reversal of modern humans from Eurasia into North Africa is suggested to be coincident with the wet period between 37.5 and 33 ka.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-27
    Description: The North Atlantic Oscillation is the dominant atmospheric pressure mode in the North Atlantic region and affects winter temperature and precipitation in the Mediterranean, northwest Europe, Greenland, and Asia1. The index1 that describes the sea-level pressure difference between Iceland and the Azores is correlated with a dipole precipitation pattern over northwest Europe and northwest Africa. How the North Atlantic Oscillation will develop as the Greenland ice sheet melts is unclear2. A potential past analogue is the early Holocene, during which melting ice sheets around the North Atlantic3, 4 freshened surface waters, affecting the strength of the meridional overturning circulation5. Here we present a Holocene rainfall record from northwest Africa based on speleothem δ18O and compare it against a speleothem-based rainfall record from Europe6. The two records are positively correlated during the early Holocene, followed by a shift to an anti-correlation, similar to the modern record, during the mid-Holocene. On the basis of our simulations with an Earth system model, we suggest the shift to the anti-correlation reflects a large-scale atmospheric and oceanic reorganization in response to the demise of the Laurentide ice sheet and a strong reduction of meltwater flux to the North Atlantic, pointing to a potential sensitivity of the North Atlantic Oscillation to the melting of ice sheets.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The North Atlantic Oscillation is the dominant atmospheric pressure mode in the North Atlantic region and affects winter temperature and precipitation in the Mediterranean, northwest Europe, Greenland, and Asia1. The index that describes the sea-level pressure difference between Iceland and the Azores is correlated with a dipole precipitation pattern over northwest Europe and northwest Africa. How the North Atlantic Oscillation will develop as the Greenland ice sheet melts is unclear. A potential past analogue is the early Holocene, during which melting ice sheets around the North Atlantic, freshened surface waters, affecting the strength of the meridional overturning circulation. Here we present a Holocene rainfall record from northwest Africa based on speleothem δ18O and compare it against a speleothem-based rainfall record from Europe. The two records are positively correlated during the early Holocene, followed by a shift to an anti-correlation, similar to the modern record, during the mid-Holocene. On the basis of our simulations with an Earth system model, we suggest the shift to the anti-correlation reflects a large-scale atmospheric and oceanic reorganization in response to the demise of the Laurentide ice sheet and a strong reduction of meltwater flux to the North Atlantic, pointing to a potential sensitivity of the North Atlantic Oscillation to the melting of ice sheets.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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