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  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Luminescence 28 (1983), S. 65-72 
    ISSN: 0022-2313
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-05-06
    Description: Sea-floor imagery, volcanic rock, massive sulfide, and hydrothermal plume samples (δ3He, pH, dissolved Fe and Mn, and particulate chemistry) have been collected from the Rumble II West volcano, southern Kermadec arc, New Zealand. Rumble II West is a caldera volcano with an ∼3-km-diameter summit depression bounded by ring faults with a resurgent central cone. Rocks recovered to date are predominantly mafic in composition (i.e., basalt to basaltic andesite) with volumetrically lesser intermediate rocks (i.e., andesite). On the basis of its size, geometry, volcanic products, and composition, Rumble II West can be classified as a mafic caldera volcano. Rumble II West has a weak hydrothermal plume signature characterized by a small but detectable δ3He anomaly (25%). Time-series light scattering data though, obtained from vertical casts and tow-yos, do show that hydrothermal activity has increased in intensity between 1999 and 2011. Massive sulfides recovered from the eastern caldera wall and eastern flank of the central cone are primarily comprised of barite and chalcopyrite, with lesser sphalerite, pyrite, and traces of galena. The weak hydrothermal plume signal indicates that the volcano is in a volcanic-hydrothermal quiescent stage compared to other volcanoes along the southern Kermadec arc, although the preponderance of barite with massive sulfide mineralization indicates higher temperature venting in the past. Of the volcanoes along the Kermadec-Tonga arc known to host massive sulfides (i.e., Clark, Rumble II West, Brothers, Monowai, Volcano 19, and Volcano 1), the majority (five out of six) are dominantly mafic in composition and all but one of these mafic volcanoes form moderate-size to large calderas. To date, mafic calderas have been largely ignored as hosts to sea-floor massive sulfide deposits. That 75% of the presently known massive sulfide-bearing calderas along the arc are mafic in composition (the dacitic Brothers volcano is the exception) has important implications for sea-floor massive sulfide mineral exploration in the modern oceans and ancient rock record on land.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2109
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Between 1989 and 1992, small-scale grow-out trials of cultured Tridacna gigas (L.) were established at 40 coastal villages in Solomon Islands. The juvenile giant clams were delivered to village participants at a mean size of 34.6 mm shell length (SL) and a mean age of 380 days. The clams were grown in cages of wire mesh placed on trestles in shallow, subtidal, coral reef habitats. After a mean grow-out period of 297 days, the clams were a mean size of 77.6 mm SL, a suitable size for sale to the aquarium market. Mean growth rate was 4.1 mm month−1. In 32 of the 53 cages involved in the trials, all clams were removed completely from the cage every 3 months for cleaning. The mean survival rate of these clams was 54%. The clams in the remaining 21 cages were not removed for cleaning and their survival was significantly lower (22%). The growth rate of clams removed for cleaning (3.7 mm month−1) was, however, significantly lower than the growth rate of undisturbed clams (4.8 mm month−1). At current prices for juvenile T. gigas in the aquarium trade, farmers who regularly cleaned clams would have netted a minimum of US$180 for a cage initially stocked with 390 clams. Fanners who did not clean their clams would have netted only US$40 per cage due to poorer survival.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1871-4528
    Keywords: α-chaconine ; α-solanine ; potato
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary A new, efficient and economic method employing Medium Pressure Liquid Chromatography (MPLC) for the isolation of the two majorSolanum tuberosum L. glycoalkaloids (α-solanine and α-chaconine) is described. Potato peelings are homogenised with 5% acetic acid, the glycoalkaloids purified by filtration through an XAD-2 column and then by precipitation from the aqueous solution. The resulting glycoalkaloid fraction was purified by MPLC using a Silica Gel column and a CHCl3:MeOH:2% NH4OH mixture (70∶30∶5) as mobile phase to yield pure α-chaconine and a-solanine. This methodology can be used to obtain glycoalkaloids for enthomology and toxicological research where large amounts of these compounds are required.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-03-30
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 123(11), (2018): 9376-9406. doi: 10.1029/2018JB015985.
    Description: Improved constraints on the mechanical behavior of magma chambers is essential for understanding volcanic processes; however, the role of crystal mush on the mechanical evolution of magma chambers has not yet been systematically studied. Existing magma chamber models typically consider magma chambers to be isolated melt bodies surrounded by elastic crust. In this study, we develop a physical model to account for the presence and properties of crystal mush in magma chambers and investigate its impact on the mechanical processes during and after injection of new magma. Our model assumes the magma chamber to be a spherical body consisting of a liquid core of fluid magma within a shell of crystal mush that behaves primarily as a poroelastic material. We investigate the characteristics of time‐dependent evolution in the magma chamber, both during and after the injection, and find that quantities such as overpressure and tensile stress continue to evolve after the injection has stopped, a feature that is absent in elastic (mushless) models. The time scales relevant to the postinjection evolution vary from hours to thousands of years, depending on the micromechanical properties of the mush, the viscosity of magma, and chamber size. We compare our poroelastic results to the behavior of a magma chamber with an effectively viscoelastic shell and find that only the poroelastic model displays a time scale dependence on the size of the chamber for any fixed mush volume fraction. This study demonstrates that crystal mush can significantly influence the mechanical behaviors of crustal magmatic reservoirs.
    Description: We thank James Rice, Tushar Mittal, Chris Huber and Helge Gonnerman for useful discussions in the early stages of this work. S. Adam Soule was supported by National Science Foundation Grant OCE‐1333492. Meghan Jones was supported by the U.S. Department of Defense through the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program. The numerical codes used for computing the results in the work can be found at https://github.com/YangVol/MushyChamber.
    Description: 2019-03-30
    Keywords: magma chamber ; crystal mush ; poroelasticity
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-29
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Mitchell, S. J., Houghton, B. F., Carey, R. J., Manga, M., Fauria, K. E., Jones, M. R., Soule, S. A., Conway, C. E., Wei, Z., & Giachetti, T. Submarine giant pumice: A window into the shallow conduit dynamics of a recent silicic eruption. Bulletin of Volcanology, 81(7), (2019): 42, doi:10.1007/s00445-019-1298-5.
    Description: Meter-scale vesicular blocks, termed “giant pumice,” are characteristic primary products of many subaqueous silicic eruptions. The size of giant pumices allows us to describe meter-scale variations in textures and geochemistry with implications for shearing processes, ascent dynamics, and thermal histories within submarine conduits prior to eruption. The submarine eruption of Havre volcano, Kermadec Arc, in 2012, produced at least 0.1 km3 of rhyolitic giant pumice from a single 900-m-deep vent, with blocks up to 10 m in size transported to at least 6 km from source. We sampled and analyzed 29 giant pumices from the 2012 Havre eruption. Geochemical analyses of whole rock and matrix glass show no evidence for geochemical heterogeneities in parental magma; any textural variations can be attributed to crystallization of phenocrysts and microlites, and degassing. Extensive growth of microlites occurred near conduit walls where magma was then mingled with ascending microlite-poor, low viscosity rhyolite. Meter- to micron-scale textural analyses of giant pumices identify diversity throughout an individual block and between the exteriors of individual blocks. We identify evidence for post-disruption vesicle growth during pumice ascent in the water column above the submarine vent. A 2D cumulative strain model with a flared, shallow conduit may explain observed vesicularity contrasts (elongate tube vesicles vs spherical vesicles). Low vesicle number densities in these pumices from this high-intensity silicic eruption demonstrate the effect of hydrostatic pressure above a deep submarine vent in suppressing rapid late-stage bubble nucleation and inhibiting explosive fragmentation in the shallow conduit.
    Description: This study was funded primarily through an NSF Ocean grant: OCE-1357443 (SJM, BFH and RJC). MM is supported by NSF EAR 1447559. The μXRT analysis was performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab Advanced Light Source beamline 8.3.2 and the large CT scan by SAS at the University of Texas Austin micro-CT facility. Capillary flow porometry and He-pycnometry were assisted by TG and MRJ at the University of Oregon. Microprobe analysis was conducted at the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa. CEC was supported by post-doctoral research fellowship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS16788). We would like to thank Kenichiro Tani, Takashi Sano, and Eric Hellebrand for their assistance with geochemical data acquisition, JoAnn Sinton and Wagner Petrographic for thin section preparation, Zachary Langdalen for binary processing of BSE images, Warren M. McKenzie for measuring clast densities, and Dula Parkinson for guidance with the μXRT imaging. We further acknowledge the full scientific team, crew and Jason ROV team (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute) aboard the R/V Roger Revelle (Scripps Institute of Oceanography) during the MESH expedition in 2015, without whom, this study would not have been possible. Finally, we thank Andrew Harris, Katharine Cashman, Lucia Gurioli and an anonymous reviewer for their insightful and helpful reviews of the manuscript.
    Keywords: Giant pumice ; Submarine volcanism ; Banding ; Tube pumice ; Bubble deformation ; Conduit dynamics
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-10-17
    Description: The Guaymas Basin spreading center, at 2000 m depth in the Gulf of California, is overlain by a thick sedimentary cover. Across the basin, localized temperature anomalies, with active methane venting and seep fauna exist in response to magma emplacement into sediments. These sites evolve over thousands of years as magma freezes into doleritic sills and the system cools. Although several cool sites resembling cold seeps have been characterized, the hydrothermally active stage of an off-axis site was lacking good examples. Here, we present a multidisciplinary characterization of Ringvent, an ~1 km wide circular mound where hydrothermal activity persists ~28 km northwest of the spreading center. Ringvent provides a new type of intermediate-stage hydrothermal system where off-axis hydrothermal activity has attenuated since its formation, but remains evident in thermal anomalies, hydrothermal biota coexisting with seep fauna, and porewater biogeochemical signatures indicative of hydrothermal circulation. Due to their broad potential distribution, small size and limited life span, such sites are hard to find and characterize, but they provide critical missing links to understand the complex evolution of hydrothermal systems.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-12-04
    Description: Mafic lava flows are common; for this reason, they have long been a focus of volcanological studies. However, field studies of both older and active flows have been hampered by difficulties in field access; active flows are hot, whereas older flows have rough and jagged surfaces that are difficult to traverse. As a result, morphometric studies of lava flows have generally lagged behind theoretical studies of flow behavior. The advent of laser scanning (LS) (i.e., lidar, light detection and ranging) technologies, both airborne mapping (ALSM) and terrestrial (TLS), is promoting detailed studies of lava flows by generating data suitable for production of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). These data are revolutionizing both the visual and quantitative analysis of lava flows. First and foremost, this technology allows accurate mapping of flow boundaries, particularly in vegetated areas where bare earth imaging dramatically improves mapping capabilities. Detailed imaging of flow surfaces permits mapping and measurement of flow components, such as channels, surface folds, cracks, blocks, and surface roughness. Differencing of preeruptive and posteruptive DEMs allows analysis of flow thickness variations, which can be related to the dynamics of lava emplacement. Multitemporal imaging of active flows provides information not only on the rates and locations of individual flow lobes, but also measurement of pulsed lava transport. Together these new measurement capabilities can be used to test proposed models of channel formation, lava tube formation, rates of flow advance, and flow conditions within lava channels; they also provide new ways to assess the hazard and risk posed by lava flow inundation. Early published studies illustrate the potential of applying lidar to volcanic terrain; it is clear, however, that the availability of high-resolution digital topography is poised to revolutionize the study of mafic lava flows.
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-040X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2004-01-01
    Description: The surface morphologies (pāhoehoe and ‘a‘ā) of three short-duration, high effusion rate Kīlauean lava flows record important information about basaltic lava flow emplacement. Variations in the distributions of surface morphology with distance from the vent indicate the cumulative effects of both intrinsic (i.e. composition, temperature, crystallinity) and extrinsic (i.e. topography, effusion rate, flow velocity) parameters of emplacement. Detailed surface mapping with aerial photos and radar imagery reveal that all three flows exhibit a flow facies evolution common to Hawaiian ‘a‘ā flows of (1) pāhoehoe sheet flows, (2) ‘a‘ā-filled channels within pāhoehoe sheets, and (3) channelized ‘a‘ā. The resulting surface morphology distribution is similar among flows, although differences in the length scale of the distribution exist. We characterize the surface morphology distribution by the distance from the vent to the onset of the surface morphology transition (0.5–4 km) and the length of the transition from onset to completion (1.5–7 km). The parameters that affect surface morphology changes are investigated by comparison of two recent flows (July and December 1974). There is no correlation between the location of the surface morphology transition and local changes in slope; instead, ‘a‘ā formation initiates when flows reach a critical groundmass crystallinity of ϕ~0.18. This critical crystallinity, composed primarily of plagioclase and pyroxene microlites, does not appear to be affected by the presence or absence of olivine phenocrsyts. This crystallinity also correlates with theoretical and experimental predictions for the onset of a yield strength and supports the idea that crystal-crystal interactions are controlled primarily by the content of prismatic crystals (e.g. plagioclase). The dependence of the morphologic transition on post-eruptive crystallization requires that the down-flow location of the surface morphology transition is determined by both eruption temperature and effusion rate, with hotter, faster flows traveling greater distances before crystallizing enough to form ‘a‘ā. The length of the transition zone is proportional to the rate of flow cooling, which is dramatically influenced by topographic confinement. A comparison of the surface morphology distributions of these flows to the 1823 Keaiwa flow, which has a similar composition, pre-eruptive topography, and eruption temperature suggests that it was emplaced at effusion and flow advance rates, 300 m3/s and 1–3 m/s, respectively, typical of observed Hawaiian eruptions and much lower than previous estimates from the run-up height of lava. Evaluation of independent methods to determine flow-front velocities indicates that run-up height estimates consistently exceed estimates from tree-mold measurements and observation of active flows of 〈2 m/s. Channel velocities of 1–3 m/s, inferred through analysis of ‘a‘ā clinker size as a function of distance from the vent, are higher than those inferred at the flow-front. ©2003 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0258-8900
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0819
    Topics: Geosciences
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