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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] To confirm the functional role of HiNF-M, we have introduced a series of specific mutations within the H4 promoter site II, a protein-DNA interaction site established by in vivo genomic footprinting7. Several protein factors interact with site II (ref. 3), including HiNF-M, HiNF-P and HiNF-D, a ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4978
    Keywords: histone H4 ; cell cycle ; interferon regulatory factor ; homeodomain protein ; transcription
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Maximal transcription of a prototypical cell cycle controlled histone H4 gene requires a proliferation-specific in vivo genomic protein/DNA interaction element, Site II. Three sequence-specific transcription factors interact with overlapping recognition motifs within Site II: interferon regulatory factor IRF-2 (HiNF-M), the putative H4 subtype-specific protein H4TF-2 (HiNF-P), and HiNF-D which represents a complex of the homeodomain protein CDP/cut, CDC2, cyclin A and pRB. However, natural sequence variation in the Site II sequences of different human H4 genes abolishes binding of specific trans-acting factors; the functional consequences of these variations have not been investigated. To address the precise contribution of H4 promoter factors to the level of H4 gene transcription, we performed a systematic mutational analysis of Site II transcriptional motifs. These mutants were tested for ability to bind each of the Site II cognate proteins, and subsequently evaluated for ability to confer H4 transcriptional activity using chimeric H4 promoter/CAT fusion constructs in different cell types. We also analyzed the effect of over-expressing IRF-2 on CAT reporter gene expression driven by mutant H4 promoters and assessed H4 transcriptional control in cells nullizygous for IRF-1 and IRF-2. Our results show that the recognition sequence for IRF-2 (HiNF-M) is the dominant component of Site II and modulates H4 gene transcription levels by 3 fold. However, the overlapping recognition sequences for IRF-2 (HiNF-M), H4TF-2 (HiNF-P) and CDP/cut (HiNF-D) together modulate H4 gene transcription levels by at least an order of magnitude. Thus, maximal activation of H4 gene transcription during the cell cycle in vivo requires the integrated activities of multiple transcription factors at Site II. We postulate that the composite organization of Site II supports responsiveness to multiple signalling pathways modulating the activities of H4 gene transcription factors during the cell cycle. Variations in Site II sequences among different H4 genes may accomodate differential regulation of H4 gene expression in cells and tissues with unique phenotypic properties.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: gene expression ; development ; tissue-specific expression ; cell cycle-dependent genes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract 4F1, 2A9 and 2F1 represent three of a number of cDNA sequences which have been identified because their cognate RNAs markedly increase when quiescent cells in culture are stimulated with serum. Studies using a variety of cell culture systems have shown that the expression of these genes is modulated by various growth factors and mitogens and thus such genes are considered to be ‘growth-associated.’ Thus far, little information has been obtained with these in vitro systems about the function of these genes. In an attempt to begin to elucidate the role of these genes (if any) in the physiology of the normal cell, we have analyzed the levels of 4F1, 2A9 and 2F1 transcripts in a variety of differentiated organs and tissues of adult and fetal rats. Our results show that each of these growth-associated genes exhibits its own unique pattern of expression, unrelated to the proliferative activity of the tissue. These data suggest that these genes most likely do have specific functions in normal tissue in addition to their role in the induction of DNA synthesis in quiescent cells in culture.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 49 (1992), S. 410-416 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: alpha-1 antitrypsin messenger RNA ; alveolar macrophages ; monocytes ; LPS stimulation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Alpha-1 antitrypsin messenger RNA (A1AT mRNA) was determined in alveolar macrophages and in peripheral blood monocytes of healthy individuals using a sensitive RNase protection assay. Determinations were made of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated and unstimulated cells. We found that the amount of A1AT mRNA increased 7.3 and 14 times after 4 h of incubation with LPS for monocytes and macrophages, respectively (relative to total RNA). The increase was 12.3 and 14.8 times, respectively, when expressed as increase per cell. In both cell types there was wide interindividual variation in LPS response: 2-36 and 5-12 times for monocytes and macrophages, respectively.The possible significance of A1AT production of monocytes and macrophages may be the local control of granulocytic proteases such as elastase and cathepsin G.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: cell cycle ; immediate-early competence genes ; antisense ; mitotic selection ; Swiss 3T3 cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun have been shown in numerous model systems to be induced within minutes of growth factor stimulation, during the G0/G1 transition. In this report we use the mitotic shake-off procedure to generate a population of highly synchronized Swiss 3T3 cells. We show that both of these immediate-early, competence genes are also induced during the M/G1 transition, immediately after completion of mitosis. While c-fos mRNA levels drop to undetectable levels within 2 hr after division, c-jun mRNA levels are maintained at a basal level which is ∼ 30% maximum throughout the remainder of G1. In order to access the functional significance of these patterns of c-fos and c-jun expression, antisense oligodeoxynucleotides specific to c-fos or c-jun were added to either actively growing Swiss 3T3 cells or mitotically synchronized cells, and their ability to inhibit DNA synthesis and cell division determined. Our results show that treatment of Swiss 3T3 cells with either c-fos or c-jun antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, while actively growing, during mitosis, or in early G1, results in a reduction in ability to enter S and subsequently divide. This was also true if Swiss 3T3 cells were treated during mid-G1 with c-jun antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. These results demonstrate that the regulation of G1 progression following mitosis is dependent upon the expression and function of the immediate-early, competence proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: apoptosis ; growth suppression ; retinoic acid receptors ; ovarian cancer ; AHPN ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We have used conformationally restricted retinoids to investigate the role of individual RAR subtypes and RXR in mediating the growth response of ovarian tumor cells to retinoids. Our results show that treatment of all-trans-RA-sensitive CAOV-3 cells with retinoids that bind and activate a single RAR or RXR led to a partial inhibition of growth. Treatment of all-trans-RA- resistant SKOV-3 cells did not alter growth. Maximum inhibition of growth, comparable to that observed following treatment with natural retinoids such as all-trans-RA and 9-cis-RA, was obtained only following treatment with a combination of an RAR-selective compound and an RXR-selective one. These results suggest that activation of both RAR and RXR classes is required in order to obtain maximum inhibition of ovarian tumor cell growth by retinoids. In addition, one compound, AHPN, was found to inhibit both RA-sensitive CAOV-3 and RA-resistant SKOV-3 cells. Further study of the effects of this retinoid showed that AHPN acts through an apoptotic pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that retinoids may serve as effective anti-proliferative agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 68:378-388, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: WI-38 cells ; protein tyrosine kinases ; IGF-1 receptor ; growth factors ; EGF ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We have used the WI-38 cell long-term quiescent model system to study the regulation of cell cycle progression at the molecular level. By modulating the length of time that WI-38 cells are density arrested, it is possible to proportionately alter the length of the prereplicative or G-1 phase which the cell traverses after growth factor stimulation in preparation for entry into DNA synthesis. Stimulation of long-and short-term density arrested WI-38 cells with different growth factors or higher concentrations of individual growth factors does not alter the time required by long-term cells to enter S after stimulation. However, the time during the prereplicative period for which these growth factors are needed is different. Long-term quiescent WI-38 cells require EGF to traverse the G-0/G-1 border but do not need and apparently cannot respond to IGF-1 during the first 10 h after EGF stimulation, the length of the prolongation of the prereplicative phase. This suggests that EGF stimulation of long-term quiescent WI-38 cells initiates a series of molecular events which make these cells “competent” to respond to the “progression” growth factor, IGF-1. In light of the well-established role of protein tyrosine kinases in signal transduction, we set out to identify, clone, and analyze the expression of receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases which potentially could play a role during the prolongation of the prereplicative phase in making the long-term quiescent WI-38 cells competent to respond to IGF-1. We obtained 49 clones representing 11 different receptor and non-receptor type protein tyrosine kinases. Analysis of expression of these clones revealed a variety of different patterns of expression. However, the most striking pattern was exhibited by IGF-1 receptor. Our results suggest that induction of IGF-1 receptor mRNA by EGF may be an important event in the establishment of competence by EGF in long-term density arrested WI-38 cells. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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