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  • 1
    Keywords: environmental research ; environmental degradation ; research policy and organisation ; environment policy and protection of the environment ; adaptation to climate change ; arid zone ; atlas ; degradation of the environment ; demography ; desertification ; environmental policy ; environmental protection ; environmental research ; erosion ; natural disaster ; research report ; soil pollution ; soil protection ; soil science ; sustainable agriculture
    Description / Table of Contents: The third edition of the World Atlas of Desertification (WAD3) takes a fresh look at land degradation – a phenomenon triggered by human land use that is likely to threaten our ability to make productive use of the Earth while still maintaining the critical global environmental goods and services in the future. Human activity is a main driver of global environmental changes. Where issues that signal global change coincide, they may lead to land transformations that can cause degradation of the land resource. Global telecoupled and dynamic human consumption patterns precipitate interaction of these issues and their impact at the local level. Accommodating this complexity, WAD3 offers an information framework from which to identify the nature of potential problems and pursue solutions that conform to local conditions. The two decades since publication of WAD2 saw a tremendous growth in our understanding of coupled-human and natural systems, and an overwhelming increase in global environmental datasets and analytical tools. Building on these advances, WAD3 portrays the dynamic human footprint on Earth and its consequences for the land resources. WAD3 identifies areas of concern where multiple lines of evidence converge that suggest potential problems so that they might be confirmed and suggest actions to reverse, arrest, or adapt to them.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (248 Seiten) , Illustrationen, Diagramme, Karten
    Edition: 3rd edition
    ISBN: 9789279753497
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-10-07
    Description: In this paper we provide an overview of new knowledge on oxygen depletion (hypoxia) and related phenomena in aquatic systems resulting from the EU-FP7 project HYPOX (“In situ monitoring of oxygen depletion in hypoxic ecosystems of coastal and open seas, and landlocked water bodies”, www.hypox.net). In view of the anticipated oxygen loss in aquatic systems due to eutrophication and climate change, HYPOX was set up to improve capacities to monitor hypoxia as well as to understand its causes and consequences. Temporal dynamics and spatial patterns of hypoxia were analyzed in field studies in various aquatic environments, including the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, Scottish and Scandinavian fjords, Ionian Sea lagoons and embayments, and Swiss lakes. Examples of episodic and rapid (hours) occurrences of hypoxia, as well as seasonal changes in bottom-water oxygenation in stratified systems, are discussed. Geologically driven hypoxia caused by gas seepage is demonstrated. Using novel technologies, temporal and spatial patterns of watercolumn oxygenation, from basin-scale seasonal patterns to meter-scale sub-micromolar oxygen distributions, were resolved. Existing multidecadal monitoring data were used to demonstrate the imprint of climate change and eutrophication on long-term oxygen distributions. Organic and inorganic proxies were used to extend investigations on past oxygen conditions to centennial and even longer timescales that cannot be resolved by monitoring. The effects of hypoxia on faunal communities and biogeochemical processes were also addressed in the project. An investigation of benthic fauna is presented as an example of hypoxia-devastated benthic communities that slowly recover upon a reduction in eutrophication in a system where naturally occurring hypoxia overlaps with anthropogenic hypoxia. Biogeochemical investigations reveal that oxygen intrusions have a strong effect on the microbially mediated redox cycling of elements. Observations and modeling studies of the sediments demonstrate the effect of seasonally changing oxygen conditions on benthic mineralization pathways and fluxes. Data quality and access are crucial in hypoxia research. Technical issues are therefore also addressed, including the availability of suitable sensor technology to resolve the gradual changes in bottom-water oxygen in marine systems that can be expected as a result of climate change. Using cabled observatories as examples, we show how the benefit of continuous oxygen monitoring can be maximized by adopting proper quality control. Finally, we discuss strategies for state-of-the-art data archiving and dissemination in compliance with global standards, and how ocean observations can contribute to global earth observation attempts.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-02-01
    Description: Innovative robotic technologies are a key to study ocean processes in space and time. The work carried out during the ROBEX-Demonstration Mission on RV Polarstern will test the capability of new and innovative technologies, developed during the HGF Alliance ROBEX, in deep-sea environments. Investigations will include Arctic benthic and pelagic ecosystems strongly influenced by climate change, such as marine arctic sediments hosting gas hydrates and arctic deep-sea benthic communities. Different robotic platforms, including 3 types of crawler, glider, AUV, UAVs and senor systems (like Lab-on-a- Chip and multi-O2-profiler) are described and mission scenarios presented. The use of these new underwater technologies will improve our capabilities to improve our knowledge on the effects of climate change on the Arctic ecosystem and ocean observation.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-16
    Description: The upwelling area off North-West Africa is characterized by high export production, high nitrate and low oxygen concentration in bottom waters. The underlying sediment consists of sands that cover most of the continental shelf. Due to their permeability sands allow for fast advective pore water transport and can exhibit high rates of nitrogen (N) loss via denitrification as reported for anthropogenically eutrophied regions. However, N loss from sands underlying naturally eutrophied waters is not well studied, and in particular, N loss from the North-West African shelf is poorly constrained. During two research cruises in April/May 2010/2011, sediment was sampled along the North-West African shelf and volumetric denitrification rates were measured in sediment layers down to 8 cm depth using slurry incubations with 15N-labeled nitrate. Areal N loss was calculated by integrating volumetric rates down to the nitrate penetration depth derived from pore water profiles. Areal N loss was neither correlated with water depth nor with bottom water concentrations of nitrate and oxygen but was strongly dependent on sediment grain size and permeability. The derived empirical relation between benthic N loss and grains size suggests that pore water advection is an important regulating parameter for benthic denitrification in sands and further allowed extrapolating rates to an area of 53,000 km2 using detailed sediment maps. Denitrification from this region amounts to 995 kt yr−1 (average 3.6 mmol m−2 d−1) which is 4 times higher than previous estimates based on diffusive pore water transport. Sandy sediments cover 50–60% of the continental shelf and thus may contribute significantly to the global benthic N loss.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
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    In:  [Invited talk] In: UNSPECIFIED, 14.02, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    In:  [Poster] In: 97th Annual Meeting of the Geologische Vereinigung (GV) - The Oceans in the Earth System, International Conference 2007, 01.-05.10, Bremen .
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
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    Inter Research
    In:  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 337 . pp. 27-37.
    Publication Date: 2018-06-01
    Description: The effect of methane seepage from sediments harbouring shallow gas hydrates on standing stocks and the distribution pattern of meiobenthic organisms, in particular Nematoda and Rotifera, was studied at about 800 m water depth at Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia subduction zone, off Oregon. The presence of shallow gas hydrates, buried only a few 10s of centimetres below the sediment surface, was indicated by extensive bacterial mats of chemosynthetic Beggiatoa sp. and clam fields of the bivalve mollusk Calyptogena spp. Mean abundances of meiobenthic organisms integrated over the upper 10 cm of the sediment were highest (1294 ind. 10 cm–2) at clam fields, closely followed by control sediments least affected by gas hydrates (1199 ind. 10 cm–2) and lowest in sediments covered with bacterial mats (762 ind. 10 cm–2). Average meiobenthic biomass was highest at the clam field site (262.2 µg C 10 cm–2), 210.4 µg C 10 cm–2 at the control site and very low in sediments covered with bacterial mats (61.4 µg C 10 cm–2). The dominant taxa of meiobenthic organisms at the investigated sites were nematodes and, unexpectedly, Rotifera that are almost unknown from the deep marine habitat. In terms of abundance, rotifera dominated the meiobenthic community in gas-hydrate-influenced sediments, while control sediments and deeper basins adjoined to Hydrate Ridge were dominated by nematodes. Nematodes were concentrated in the sediment surface at all sites, whereas rotifers were almost evenly distributed at all depths, with a slight preference for deeper sediment horizons. The horizontal as well as vertical distribution of nematodes and rotifers is likely to be determined by competition or predation, and by the high adaptive capability of rotifers to highly sulphidic and anoxic conditions. Estimates of meiobenthic carbon turnover in relation to the bulk organic carbon supply indicate that, in contrast to other meiobenthic communities in cold seep environments, the meiobenthos in the studied gas-hydrate-containing sediments do not benefit from the excess availability of organic carbon via the chemoautotrophic food web. This may be because, for most meiobenthic organisms (other than rotifers), tolerance mechanisms are overwhelmed by the deleterious environmental conditions of reduced oxygen availability and extremely high sulphide fluxes.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 10
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    In:  [Talk] In: Seminar Series, 18.05, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland .
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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