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  • 1
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/33
    In: CRREL Report, 84-33
    Description / Table of Contents: A small-scale experimental study was conducted to characterize the magnitude and nature of ice forces during continuous crushing of ice against a rigid, vertical, cylindrical structure. The diameter of the structure was varied from 50 to 500 mm, the relative velocity from 10 to 210 mm/s, and the ice thickness from 50 to 80 mm. The ice tended to fail repetitively, with the frequency of failure termed the characteristic frequency. The characteristic frequency varied linearly with velocity and to a small extent with structure diameter. The size of the damage zone was 10 to 50% of the ice thickness, with an average value of 30%. The maximum and mean normalized ice forces were strongly dependent on the aspect ratio (structure diameter/ice thickness). The forces increased significantly with decreasing aspect ratio, but were constant for large aspect ratios. The maximum normalized forces appeared to be independent of strain rate. The effect of velocity on the normalized ice forces depended on structure diameter. The mean effective pressure or specific energy of ice crushing depended on both aspect ratio and ice-structure relative velocity. The energy required to crush the ice for the one failure cycle was obtained from the ice force records for each test, and was compared to the energy calculated from an idealized sawtooth shape for the force record, the maximum force, velocity and characteristic frequency data. Originator - supplied keywords included: Cold regions, Cold regions construction, Cylindrical test structures, Ice, Ice crushing, Ice forces, and Test facilities.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: vi, 47 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-33
    Language: English
    Note: Contents Abstract Preface Nomenclature Introduction Test objectives Experimental setup and procedures Facilities Test fixture Data acquisiton system Ice sheets Measurement of ice properties Daily test summary Experimental results and discussion Observations Ice force records Frequency of ice force variations Discussion Maximum crushing forces Mean effective pressure or specific energy of ice in crushing Failure energy of ice Ratio of maximum force to mean force Summary and conclusions Literature cited Appendix A: Data for continuous crushing tests
    Location: AWI Archive
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-83/25
    In: CRREL Report, 83-25
    Description / Table of Contents: Ice action on two cylindrical and conical structures, located side by side, was investigated in a small-scale experimental study to determine the interference on the ice forces generated during ice-structure interaction. The proximity of the two structures changes the mode of ice failure, the magnitude and direction of ice forces on the individual structure, and the dominant frequency of ice force variations. Interference effects were determined by comparing the experimental results of tests at different structure spacings.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 42 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-25
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Nomenclature Introduction Experimental setup and procedure Results and discussion Cylindrical structures Conical structures Conclusions Literature cited Appendix A: Relationship between flexural strength and in-situ unconfined compressive strength Appendix B: Test data
    Location: AWI Archive
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  • 3
    Call number: ZSP-201-83/32
    In: CRREL Report, 83-32
    Description / Table of Contents: Ice forces on a bridge pier in the Ottauquechee River, in Quechee, Vermont, were measured by installing fourpanels-each capable of measuring forces in the normal and tangential direction - on both sides of a vertical V-shaped pier nose. The measured forces are presented for a short period during an ice run. After the ice run, the thickness and sizes of the ice floes were measured and the compressive strength of the ice was determined in the laboratory from the ice samples collected along the river banks. The water level measurements made at several locations along theriver are also presented for the period of the ice run.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: ii, 8 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-32
    Language: English
    Location: AWI Archive
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1991-01-01
    Description: The data from a small-scale experimental study on ice-structure interaction are used to compute the energy exchanges that take place during creep deformation and intermittent and continuous crushing of ice. The energy supplied by the carriage is partly stored in the structural spring, partly converted to kinetic energy, partly dissipated in deforming and extruding the ice and partly dissipated as heat in the damping mechanisms of the structure. Except for the heat dissipation, all other forms of energy were computed from the experimental data, and the heat dissipation was computed from the energy balance using the first law of thermodynamics. Plots of all forms of energy are shown in graphical form, in which their relative magnitudes, times of occurrence and interplay can be seen. The main result of this study is the thesis that intermittent crushing or ice-induced vibration takes place whenever there is an imbalance between the rates of work done by the carriage and the indentor and that there are no vibrations when these rates of work are equal.
    Print ISSN: 0260-3055
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5644
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1991-01-01
    Description: The data from a small-scale experimental study on ice-structure interaction are used to compute the energy exchanges that take place during creep deformation and intermittent and continuous crushing of ice. The energy supplied by the carriage is partly stored in the structural spring, partly converted to kinetic energy, partly dissipated in deforming and extruding the ice and partly dissipated as heat in the damping mechanisms of the structure. Except for the heat dissipation, all other forms of energy were computed from the experimental data, and the heat dissipation was computed from the energy balance using the first law of thermodynamics. Plots of all forms of energy are shown in graphical form, in which their relative magnitudes, times of occurrence and interplay can be seen. The main result of this study is the thesis that intermittent crushing or ice-induced vibration takes place whenever there is an imbalance between the rates of work done by the carriage and the indentor and that there are no vibrations when these rates of work are equal.
    Print ISSN: 0260-3055
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5644
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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