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  • 1
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Washington, DC : United States Gov. Print. Off.
    Associated volumes
    Call number: SR 90.0001(1274-P)
    In: U.S. Geological Survey bulletin
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: III, P-19 S.
    Series Statement: U.S. Geological Survey bulletin 1274-P
    Language: English
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Ocean dynamics 28 (1975), S. 145-167 
    ISSN: 1616-7228
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Während des Auftriebs-Experiments JOINT-I vor Nordwest-Afrika von Februar–Mai 1974 wurden Strom- und Windmessungen entlang 21°40′N durchgeführt. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt die mittleren Stromverhältnisse sowie die Wind- und Stromschwankungen für Zeiträume länger als ein Tag während des Experiments. Die Strömung auf dem Schelf wird hauptsächlich vom örtlichen Wind erzeugt und ist zusätzlich durch den südwärts fließenden „coastal jet” um 10 ... 20 cm s−1 verstärkt. Seewärts vom Schelfrand setzt ein Gegenstrom nach Norden, entgegen der vorherrschenden Windrichtung. Dieser Gegenstrom ist vermutlich ein typischer Bestandteil der regionalen Strömung im Frühjahr. Die Variabilität der Strömung auf dem Schelf und über dem Kontinentalabhang wird im wesentlichen durch die Wechselbeziehungen der windbedingten Strömung (Auftriebssystem) und des Gegenstroms bestimmt. Entsprechend den örtlichen Windverhältnissen kann das Auftriebssystem auf das Schelfgebiet beschränkt sein oder sich ca. 100 km (doppelte Schelfbreite) von der Küste seewärts ausdehnen. Die stärksten Auftriebsgeschwindigkeiten von 0 (10−2 cm s−1) treten am oberen Kontinentalabhang zwischen dem Schelfrand (100 m) und der Obergrenze des nordwärts setzenden Unterstroms (150 m) auf. Das aufsteigende Tiefenwasser wird von der auflandigen Strömung in der Kompensations-Schicht, unterhalb der Ekman-Schicht, absorbiert und erreicht erst über dem Schelf und dicht an der Küste die Oberfläche. Der Unterstrom konzentriert sich in der Tiefenschicht zwischen 200 und 300 m. Er fließt mit einer mittleren Geschwindigkeit von 10 cm s−1 nach Norden und hat einen horizontalen Durchmesser von 30 km. Schwankungen der Oberflächenströmung beeinflussen den Unterstrom. Die Bodenreibung des Unterstroms verursacht eine ablandige Stromkomponente (≈5 cm s−1). Hierdurch ändert sich in der vermutlich nur 20 ... 40 m mächtigen Reibungsschicht über dem Boden das Vorzeichen der Vertikalgeschwindigkeit am Kontinentalabhang. Die Schwankungen der örtlichen Passate haben eine typische Periode von einer Woche oder länger. Innerhalb dieser Zeiträume ist der Wind relativ stabil und weht mit einer Geschwindigkeit von 11 m s−1 (wind stress τ=2,4 dyn cm−2) nach 2100. Strom- und Windschwankungen sind über dem Schelf eng gekoppelt. Die Strömung paßt sich den Windänderungen innerhalb eines Tages an. Ein bis drei Tage nach dem Einsetzen starker Passate stellt sich auf dem Schelf näherungsweise ein Gleichgewicht zwischen der ablandigen und auflandigen Stromkomponente ein. Je stärker der Wind das lokale Stromfeld beherrscht, desto wahrscheinlicher ist die Tendenz zu einer zwei-dimensionalen Zirkulation.
    Abstract: Résumé De février à mai 1974, une série de mesures de remontée d'eau à la côte (JOINT-I) a été effectuée au large de l'Afrique du Nord-Ouest. Une rangée de courantomètres et de bouées météorologiques a été mouillée le long du parallèle 21°40′N. Les types de courants moyens et les fluctuations sur des périodes supérieures à un jour sont étudiés dans cet article. Sur le plateau continental, le courant est essentiellement dû au vent et est accru par l'afflux d'eau vers le Sud d'environ 10 à 20 cm s−1. Au large, un contre-courant se déplace vers le Nord, à l'opposé des vents. Ce contre-courant peut être un trait caractéristique des courants régionaux au printemps. La variabilité des courants sur le plateau et le talus continentaux est principalement déterminée par la rivalité entre le courant dû au vent et le contre-courant luimême. Le système de remontée d'eau peut se limiter au plateau continental ou s'étendre jusqu'à 100 km au large (deux fois de largeur du plateau) selon la force des vents locaux. Les mouvements ascendants les plus intenses (de l'ordre de 10−2 cm s−1) se produisent sur la partie supérieure du talus continental dans la couche comprise entre le rebord du plateau (à 100 m) et la limite supérieure du courant profond se dirigeant vers le pôle (à environ 150 m). Les masses d'eau s'élevant au-dessus du talus continental sont captées par le courant de subsurface venant du large dans la couche de compensation et remontent dans la couche de surface sur le plateau continental et près de la côte. Le courant profond est situé à des profondeurs de 200 à 300 m. L'écoulement est large de 30 km et se déplace à une vitesse moyenne de 10 cm s−1 vers le Nord, s'appuyant sur le talus continental. Les fluctuations du régime du courant dans la couche supérieure peuvent influencer le courant profond de façon appréciable. La friction du courant profond produit une composante au large (≈5 cm s−1) très près du fond. Ceci implique que la vitesse verticale change de signe dans une couche de friction du fond le long du talus continental qui n'a probablement pas plus de 20 à 40 m d'épaisseur. Les fluctuations moyennes des alizés ont une période typique d'environ une semaine ou plus. Durant ces périodes, les alizés soufflent uniformément dans le 2100 avec une vitesse de 11 m s−1 (wind stress τ=2,4 dyn cm−2). La même échelle de temps est observée dans les courants sur le plateau continental, qui sont bien en corrélation avec les vents locaux. Le courant sur le plateau continental répond dans l'espace d'une journée aux fluctuations du vent. Une fois que les vents forts se sont établis, un équilibre du transport zonal (au large — à la côte) tend à s'instituer après un à trois jours. On présume que plus les vents locaux dominent le champ du courant, plus la probabilité d'une remontée d'eau bi-dimensionnelle est grande.
    Notes: Summary From February to May 1974 a coastal upwelling experiment (JOINT-I) was conducted off Northwest Africa. An array of current meters and meteorological buoys were moored along 21°40′N. In this paper the mean current patterns and the fluctuations on time-scales longer than one day are discussed. On the shelf the flow is essentially wind-driven and additionally enhanced by the southward jet of about 10...20 cm s−1. Offshore a counterflow moves northward opposite to the winds. This countercurrent may be a characteristic feature of the regional currents in spring. The variability of the currents over the shelf and the slope is mainly determined by the competition between the wind-driven flow and the countercurrent. The upwelling system may be confined to the shelf or extend as far as 100 km (twice the shelf width) offshore depending on the strength of the local winds. Most intense ascending motions of 0 (10−2 cm s−1) occur at the shelf break within the layer between the edge (at 100 m) and the upper boundary of the poleward undercurrent (at about 150 m). The water masses rising up the slope become trapped by the subsurface onshore flow within the compensation layer and upwell into the surface layer on the shelf and close to the coast. The undercurrent is centered at depths between 200 m and 300 m. The flow is 30 km broad and moves with a mean speed of 10 cm s−1 northward, leaning upon the slope. Fluctuations of the current regime within the upper layer may appreciably bias the undercurrent. Friction of the undercurrent produces an offshore component (≈5 cm s−1 very near the bottom. This implies the vertical velocity to change its sign within a frictional bottom layer along the slope which is probably not thicker than 20 to 40 m. The mean fluctuations of the trade winds have a typical period of about a week or longer. During these periods the trades blow consistently towards 210° with a speed of 11 m s−1 (wind stress τ=2.4 dyn cm−2). The same time-scale is observed in the currents on the shelf, which are well correlated with the local winds. The flow on the shelf responds within a day to wind fluctuations. Once strong trades have set up, a balance of the zonal (offshore-onshore) transport tends to adjust after 1 to 3 days. It is assumed that the more the local winds dominate the current field, the higher is the probability of a two-dimensional upwelling.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words Sensory nerves ; Cicatrix ; Granulation tissue ; Rat (Sprague Dawley)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Contraction of skin excision wounds is affected by age and the presence of peripheral nerves. The present study examined relationships between peripheral innervation, wound contractile cells, and rate of wound closure to determine whether these are altered during development. Full-thickness 4-mm-diameter circular flaps were excised from the interscapular skin of rats on postnatal day (PND) 5, PND 12, or PND 60. Wounds of PND 5 and PND 12 rats contracted 45% between post-wound days (WD) 3 and 5 and more slowly thereafter, with a scar 9–14% of the original wound size by WD 21. In contrast, PND 60 wounds contracted only 22% between WD 3 and 5, and the residual scar at WD 21 was 40% of the original wound size. In younger rats, α-smooth muscle actin-immunoreactive myofibroblasts first appeared on WD 2 and attained maximum density at WD 5. Innervation, as assessed by protein gene product 9.5 immunoreactivity, appeared by WD 3 and increased rapidly through WD 7 in younger rats. In PND 60 wounds, myofibroblasts did not appear until WD 5 and did not attain a maximum until day 10. Nerve ingrowth was not significant until WD 10 and was depressed relative to younger rats throughout the healing phase. Wound nerves were predominantly immunoreactive to calcitonin gene-related peptide, and synaptophysin-immunostaining revealed close associations between varicosities and myofibroblasts. These findings suggest that wound myofibroblasts may be a target of peripheral nerves, and delayed wound closure in mature rats is associated with deficiencies in both myofibroblasts and innervation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0043-7719
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is the primary wood preservative used in the United States. CCA products are used for decking, fencing, retaining walls, docks, poles, and highway sign posts. Since CCA became popular in the early 1970's, it is estimated that over 140 million cubic meters of these products are in service. Although the EPA allows disposal of spent CCA products in landfills, increasingly they are looking at the possibility of restricting its disposal. One method for potential re-use of CCA treated wood fiber would be to remove the treatment chemicals and process the fiber into energy or consumer products. The objectives of this research were to determine which method(s) can improve the removal of copper, chromium, and arsenate from spent CCA-treated lumber. The best material, in this research, for leaching chemicals from treated wood with organic acids, were particles (compared to chips and steam exploded wood). Without the functions of organic acids, the best method to remove chemicals proved to be steam explosion and further extraction by water. Citric acid was the most effective acid used in the removal of treatment chemicals of the three acids evaluated: acetic, citric, and sulfuric. The time effect on the extraction process indicated that most of the treatment chemicals were removed within the first seven days of treatment. This study also indicates that steam explosion does not increase the extractability of the chemical components. Other methods need to be examined which may lead to better removal of the chemicals or more effective methods to recycle spent CCA products.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract A study of the frequency dependence of the ultrasonic attenuation and the ductile to brittle transition temperature as a function of microstructure has been carried out for a very low carbon (0.02 wt%) steel. The ultrasonic attenuation was found to be anomalously high when compared to normal low carbon (0.2 wt%) steels and could not be interpreted in terms of simple scattering models. This is thought to be due partly to large hysteresis losses (dislocation and magnetic domain-wall damping) and partly to large grain-size distributions. An empirical correlation between the ductile to brittle transition temperature and an ultrasonic attenutation parameter has been found for this particular steel.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract We have analysed experimental data on the tensile strength of carbon fibres and bundles of parallel carbon fibres. These data are used to assess whether theoretical relations between the strengths of fibres and different kinds of bundles are consistent with experiment. The analysis confirms the presence of a hybrid effect, and also that the classical Weibull relations between strength and length are not apparently satisfied for bundles. It is suggested that the latter observation might be an effect of the random variation of fibre diameter, and some consequences of this are examined.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract A constructive and elementary proof of the duality theorem of linear programming is presented. The proof utilizes the new concept of an embedded core program, which is a program generated from a linear program with finite optimum by successively removing constraints until no remaining constraints can be deleted without changing the optimal solution.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Experimental results are presented for the lifetime in creep rupture of single graphite fibres. The fibres were extracted from unsized, Hercules IM6 tows and were tested at a gauge length of 5 cm under standard ambient conditions (21°C, 50% r.h.). The results were analysed using a theoretical model which embodies Weibull distributions for both strength and lifetime, and a power-law relationship for lifetime against stress level. Using maximum likelihood techniques, the Weibull shape parameter values for strength and lifetime were found to be about 4.6 and 0.015, respectively, and the power-law exponent was about 300, but could be as low as 250. As expected, this exponent was close in value to the ratio of the respective Weibull shape parameter values. Using the Kaplan-Meier estimator for censored data, the goodness of fit of the model to the data was found to be excellent.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of materials science 2 (1983), S. 385-387 
    ISSN: 1573-4811
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Quantitative serological techniques were used to estimate the genotype relationships of six oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars to a seventh. Reciprocal comparisons were made in which leaf, pollen, whole grain, and scutellum antigens were used. The reciprocal comparisons did not estimate genotypic relationships in the same order, but produced reciprocal results, i.e., when one method estimated lower relationships the other estimated higher, often above 100%. The reciprocal results were attributed to antigens common to each cultivar and these antigens masked and confounded the qualitative differences needed to estimate genotypic relationships. The different responses of common and qualitative antigens in the reciprocal comparisons made possible an analysis method that removed much of the masking effect of common antigen differences. In these tests, whole grain and embryo mean serological relationships agree well with best genetic estimates of genotypic relationships.
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