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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 302 (1983), S. 147-148 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Queen honey bees mate with a number of different drones before they lay their first eggs11. The sperm, to some extent, mix in the spermatheca and the hive contains several distinct patrilineal worker groups of full sisters while the workers are matrilineal half sisters across groups12'13. In ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-8248
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Stethorus nigripes Kapur (=S. loxtoni Britton & Lee) a été importé d'Australie en 1978 et lâché en Californie en 1978–1980. Par des essais en cage en laboratoire et dans la nature on a évalué les aspects de la biologie deS. nigripes susceptibles d'intervenir dans l'établissement de ce prédateur. Ces études ont montré que la plupart des femelles ne se reproduisent plus en find d'automne. L'arrêt de reproduction des femelles ne paraît pas être une véritable diapause mais peut être du au froid subi par les nymphes. La survie des 2 sexes pendant l'hiver est faible s'ils n'ont pas à leur disposition d'abondantes proies; l'eau et le miel seuls ne conviennent pas. Les adultes et les larves deS. nigripes n'ont pas pu s'alimenter aux dépens des œufs dePanonychus ulmi (Koch) ou deP. citri (McGregor) et ont évité tous les stades deBryobia rubrioculus (Scheuten) dans les essais en laboratoire; ce n'est donc pas un prédateur “généraliste” des tétranyques.S. nigripes est sensible aux pesticides utilisés pour la lutte contre les principaux ravageurs de l'amandier, y compris au pyréthrinoide, la perméthrine (la concentration léthale 50 est de 0,48 g pour 100 l d'eau). On a arrêté les lâchers pour l'établissement de ce prédateur après 3 ans, du fait de la sensibilité deS. nigripes aux pesticides et de ses exigences en proies pendant l'hiver qui semblent suffisantes pour présumer d'un échec. Même s'il s'installe, ces facteurs empêcherontS. nigripes de devenir un prédateur efficace des tétranyques dans les vergers californiens d'amandiers traités par des pesticides.
    Notes: Abstract Stethorus nigripes Kapur (=S. loxtoni Britton & Lee) was imported from Australia in 1978 and released in California during 1978–1980. Laboratory and field cage studies evaluated aspects ofS. nigripes' biology considered likely to affect establishment. Our tests indicated that most ♀♀ became nonreproductive during late fall. The females' reproductive arrest seems not to be a true diapause, but may be due to chill experienced by pupae. Survival over winter of both sexes was low if they were not provided abundant prey; honey or water alone were inadequate.S. nigripes adults and larvae could not feed onPanonychus ulmi (Koch) orP. citri (McGregor) eggs and avoided all stadia ofBryobia rubrioculus (Scheuten) in laboratory tests, so it is not a “generalist” predator of spider mites.S. nigripes also is susceptible to pesticides used to control key insect pests in almonds, including the pyrethroid, permethrin (LC 50 value=0.48 g A.I./100 liter water). Releases to establish this predator were discontinued after 3 years, asS. nigripes' sensitivity to pesticides and its requirement for prey during winter seem sufficient to account for its failure to establish. Even if established, these factors might preventS. nigripes from becoming an effective spider mite predator in pesticide-treated almond orchards in California.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The work reported here is motivated by questions relating to the perception of olfactory cues in the discrimination of nestmates and kin in the honeybeeApis mellifera. Two sets of experiments are discussed. The first deals with the perception of individual compounds in mixtures made up from various pairs of volatile (citral, geraniol, linalool, and limonene) and nonvolatile (un- and dodecanoic acids) compounds. The second deals with the ability of worker honeybees to discriminate between mixtures made up from the same two compounds (un- and dodecanoic acids; tri- and pentacosane) combined in different proportions. All experiments employ differential conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex as an assay of the ability of workers to discriminate between two odors. Results show that workers can relate mixtures to their component parts, and that workers can discriminate between mixtures of two very similar compounds as long as the proportions are relatively dissimilar.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Differential conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex in honeybees is used to assess whether worker honeybees can be trained to discriminate between volatile odors emanating from different kin groups consisting of 2 or 20 workers. These odor source group workers are all reared and maintained under identical environmental conditions. They are the progeny of a queen that has been instrumentally inseminated so that eclosing adult workers can be sorted into colormorph full sister patrilines (workers are half sisters across patrilines). We demonstrate that workers are able to discriminate between the odors from groups of 20 individuals only if the groups represent individuals from different patrilines. However, discrimination occurs between groups of 2 individuals even if groups do not represent different patrilines. A number of environmental control experiments are also conducted. From our results we infer that there is heritable variation in the production of volatile odors by worker honeybees at a level that can be detected by the workers.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Differential conditioning ; Proboscis extension reflex ; Learning
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Here we present results obtained from 7 different series of experiments, all employing odor conditioning of proboscis extension in worker honeybees and each designed to address a particular question involving olfactory perception. The questions relate to: temporal complexity of odor cues; effects of concentration, suppression, and/or potentiation in mixture perception; acquisition and extinction rates, as well as levels of generalization associated with aliphatic compounds that have the same functional groups or same alkyl radical length; and the effects of continuous exposure to odorants in the first several days of adult life on various learning and discrimination tasks involving olfactory perception. From the data obtained in these experiments we were able to conclude the following: First, worker honeybees have a limited ability to perceive complex temporal odor-quality patterns in olfactory stimuli — they learn to associate the quality of only the last part of the stimulus with a sucrose reward. Second, we confirm that citral is qualitatively different in several perceptual contexts involving odor learning and conditioning and our results help elucidate the nature of these differences as they relate to learning, discrimination, mixture perception, and continuous exposure to particular odorants. Third, we appear to have uncovered some important perceptual differences between functional groups attached to the first as opposed to the second carbon atom of alkyl radicals. Finally, we failed to uncover any significant effects relating to continuous exposure to odorants during the first several days of a worker's adult life, despite evidence that considerable sensory development takes place during this period. Thus ontogenetic changes to the peripheral system due to environmental effects appear to leave basic perceptual systems unaltered.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Chemosensory cues ; olfaction ; kin recognition ; honeybees ; Apis mellifera ; Hymenoptera ; Apidae ; differential conditioning ; proboscis extension reflex ; learning
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Differential training of honeybee workers using the proboscis extension reflex is applied to the problem of evaluating compounds that may potentially provide cues for kin recognition in the honeybeeApis mellifera. These cues were obtained by contaminating glass rods and steel needles with different materials found in the hive. In particular it is shown that workers discriminate between: cuticular waxes from different adult workers; eggs from the same and different hives; similar aged larvae within the same hive; and needles contaminated with the Nasonov gland secretions of different adult workers. It appears that some of these differences are due to phenotypic variation among individuals that cannot be directly attributed to environmental factors.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1983-03-01
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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