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  • 1
    Description / Table of Contents: This special issue of Pure and Applied Geophysics is the second of two volumes containing an augmented collection of papers originating from the Evison Symposium on Seismogenesis and Earthquake Forecasting held in Wellington, New Zealand, in February 2008. The volumes honor Frank Evison's interest in earthquake generation and forecasting. This volume includes descriptions of earthquake forecasting test centers through the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) program and the first results from the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Model (RELM) experiment in California. Other papers discuss methods of testing predictions, in particular by the use of error diagrams. There is discussion of prediction methodologies using seismicity, including an application of the statistical technique of Hidden Markov Models to identify changes in seismicity and a new technique for identifying precursory quiescence. Several papers employ other data besides seismicity, such as geologically determined faults, calculations of stress changes via Coulomb stress modeling, tomographically determined velocity structure, groundwater, crustal deformation, and comparisons of real earthquakes to synthetic seismicity determined from hypothesized earthquake physics. One paper focuses on the prediction of human casualties in the event that a large earthquake occurs anywhere on the globe. The volume will be useful to students and professional researchers who are interested in the earthquake preparation process and in converting that understanding into forecasts of earthquake occurrence.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (274 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783034604994
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Description / Table of Contents: This special issue of Pure and Applied Geophysics is one of two volumes containing an augmented collection of papers originating from the Evison Symposium on Seismogenesis and Earthquake Forecasting held in Wellington, New Zealand, in February 2008. The volumes honor Frank Evison's interest in earthquake generation and forecasting. A biography of Frank Evison and a list of his publications is included, as well as review papers and new research papers in the field. The volume includes papers related to Frank's most abiding interest of precursory earthquake swarms. The research contributions cover a range of current forecasting methods such as the Epidemic-Type Aftershock model, the Every Earthquake a precursor According to Scale model, Pattern Informatics, Reverse Tracing of Precursors, stochastic models of elastic rebound, and methods for handling multiple precursors. The methods considered employ a variety of statistical approaches to using previous seismicity to forecast future earthquakes, including regional and global earthquake likelihood models and alarm-type forecasts. The forecast time-frames of interest range from the short time-frame associated with clustering of aftershocks to the long time-frame associated with recurrence of major earthquakes. A recurring theme is the assessment of forecasting performance, whether by likelihood scores, skill scores, error diagrams, or relative operating characteristic tests. The volume will be useful to students and professional researchers who are interested in the earthquake preparation process and in converting that understanding into forecasts of earthquake occurrence.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (250 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783034604970
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 26 (1981), S. 395-409 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A process has been developed by which very high-modulus semicrystalline polymer films can be extruded continuously from a melt. This is accomplished by controlled cooling of the melt in a two-stage flow channel. A temperature gradient along the flow channel quenches the melt prior to an area reduction in which the polymer undergoes solid-state orientation. Analysis of high-density polyethylene tapes extruded by this process shows that they have properties similar to samples hydrostatically extruded at 120°C. Infrared analysis was used to determine both the degree of crystallinity and degree of orientation in these tapes as well as previously prepared hydrostatically extruded samples.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0142-2421
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy has been applied to the study of sodium dodecanoate (laurate) adsorption, from aqueous solution, upon an aluminium oxide surface. Al—Al2O3—Pb tunnel junctions, whose oxides have been exposed to aqueous solutions of sodium dodecanoate are found to exhibit a maximum in resistance with increasing solution concentration. Spectral quality is dependent upon solution concentration, and optimum spectra are only obtained when junction resistance is near this maximum. The resistance maximum and decline in spectral quality with increasing solution concentration, are explained in terms of surfactant aggregation at a critical concentration. An optimum IET spectrum of sodium dodecanoate is presented and compared with the bulk infra-red and Raman spectra of aluminium dodecanoate. A chemisorption mechanism is proposed. Other surfactants have also been investigated. These were sodium octadecanoate (stearate), sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium hexadecyl sulphate. Problems specific to the application of inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy to these surfactants are reported.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 26 (1986), S. 1254-1263 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Solid state rolling of semicrystalline polymers represents a high speed process for producing oriented, high modulus films, tapes, and sheets. The important process variables include roll temperature, thickness of initial sheet, roll speed, take-up tension, roll diameter, and initial morphological state of the polymer. Roll temperature controls both the extent of maximum deformation and the rate of rolling. A minimum temperature exists for each polymer below which the orientation process is sharply limited. This condition is similar to the limitation present in the hydrostatic extrusion process, in which the alpha crystallization temperature limits the orientation process. Roll speeds as high as 20 m/min have been realized. It is apparent that film thickness and thickness reduction ratio have a strong effect on the ultimate rolling rate. The process, as currently practiced, is adiabatic, and therefore, heat transfer limited. The take-up tension influences the extant of orientation in the amorphous phse of of the polymer. This in turn affects its thermal and chemical stability. The effect of roll diameter is to limit the extent of thickness reduction by causing roll-film slippage when the roll dianmeter to thickness reduction ratio is below some as yet undetermined value. The initial morphological state of the polymer affects the amount of crystalline deformation possible, the surface texture of the rolled film, and the tear resistant of the oriented film.
    Additional Material: 17 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 22 (1982), S. 27-33 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Solid state rolling of semi-crystalline polymers is shown to be an effective method of producing high strength, high modulus tape at acceptable production rates. High density polyethylene tape was produced having a tensile strength exceeding 300 MPa and a tensile modulus of 8.7 GPa at production rates exceeding 8 m/min. A significant factor in producing highly oriented tape by the rolling process is roll temperature. Increasing the roll temperature from 25°C to 125°C not only increases the maximum extent of orientation achievable, but increases the mechanical properties at a given degree of thickness reduction. Internal frictional heat development limited the maximum thickness reduction ratio of polypropylene to 6.6:1. This reduction was reached by rolling at 150°C. The resultant tape had a tensile modulus of 5.1 GPa and a tensile strength of 300 MPa.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 18 (1978), S. 908-916 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Hydrostatic extrusion of high density polyethylene at an extrusion ratio of 15:1 was investigated in the temperature range between 100 and 134°C. A thin-walled tube was extruded having a tensile strength of 370 MPa and a tensile modulus of 10 GPa. The extrusion rate was limited by severe extrudate distortion which occurs at a limiting shear stress under stick-slip conditions. Even during steady extrusion wall slip was evident. At a constant extrusion speed, the extrusion pressure was found to be very sensitive to the extrusion temperature. An increase from 120 to 125°C reduced the extrusion pressure by half. Various thermal pretreatments of the starting billets were found to have little effect on the extrusion behavior and physical properties of the extrudate.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 290 (1981), S. 492-495 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The Carboniferous Limestone of Anglesey can be closely correlated with that of the North Wales mainland1, so that in Viséan times the two areas probably had the same geographical relationship as today with continuity of sedimentation between them. There is no reason to suppose that the ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 293 (1981), S. 762-762 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] NUTT AND SMITH REPLY-Whilst we consulted gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly maps of the relevant areas to make sure that they did not contradict the transcurrent fault hypothesis, lack of space prevented us from discussing these aspects. We therefore thank Kohnstamm and Mann for raising the matter in ...
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