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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1114
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract A study was made of the wall pressure fluctuations in the reattachment region of a supersonic free shear layer. The free shear layer was formed by the separation of a Mach 2.9 turbulent boundary layer from a backward facing step. Reattachment occurred on a 20° ramp. By adjusting the position of the ramp, the base pressure at the step was set equal to the freestream pressure, and the free shear layer formed in the absence of any turning. An array of flush-mounted, miniature, high-frequency pressure transducers was used in the vicinity of the reattachment region to make multichannel measurements of the fluctuating wall pressure. Contrary to previous observations of this flow, the reattachment region was found to be highly unsteady, and the pressure fluctuations were found to be large. The overall behavior of the wall pressure loading is similar in scale and magnitude to the unsteadiness of the wall pressure field in compression ramp flows at the same Mach number. Rayleigh scattering was used to visualize the instantaneous shock structure in the streamwise and spanwise direction. Spanwise “wrinkles” on the order of half the boundary layer thickness were observed on the shock sheet.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1114
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The influences of concave streamline curvature and bulk compression on a turbulent boundary layer in a supersonic flow were studied. The effects of curvature and compression were identified by comparing two flows with identical pressure distributions but different amounts of curvature. The effect of the pressure rise was to increase the wall stress and amplify the Reynolds stresses. The influence of curvature complemented the destabilizing effect of the compression, and the larger the curvature the greater the increase in the wall friction and Reynolds stresses in the boundary layer.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: prostaglandin analogue ; renal function ; vasodilator ; L-644,122 ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary L-644,122 is a chemically stable vasodilator prostaglandin analogue. It is a selective renal vasodilator in dogs. The object of the present study was to determine whether it increases effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) in man. L-644,122 was administered intravenously to 4 healthy volunteers and by mouth to 4 mild hypertensives. It did not increase ERPF. Instead it acted as a non-specific vasodilator, lowering diastolic blood pressure and increasing heart rate. An unexpected increase in glomerular filtration rate (19% greater than placebo) after low dose intravenous L-644,122 merits further study.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Fungi identified as Sphaeropsis sapinea (or synonyms) have been reported from Larix. Lack of pathogenicity tests, confusion about the identity of isolates mentioned in previous literature, and existence of distinct populations (A and B morphotypes) of the pathogen indicated the need to evaluate the ability of S. sapinea to cause disease of larch. Elongating snoot tips of Larix decidua, Larix laricina, and known hosts of the pathogen, Pinus banksiana and Pinus resinosa, were inoculated with water-agar plugs colonized with an A or a B isolate, or sterile plugs (controls). Each of five replications included five seedlings for each treatment-species combination. After 6 weeks, no symptoms had developed on control seedlings, but two-way analyses of variance revealed significant effects of isolate morpnotype and host on both incidence and severity of disease (values of p ≤ 0.01). The A isolate killed almost all shoot tips, but the B isolate killed from no P. resinosa shoots to 56% of L. laricina shoots. The average length of shoot killed by the A isolate was also greater than that killed by the B isolate. Response to the B isolate again varied among species, with greater average lengths of shoot killed on the larches (compared with the pines). Both A and B morphotypes of 5. sapinea should be considered among the fungi encountered on L. decidua and L. laricina.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A fungus identified as Botryosphaeria stevensii (anamorph Diplodia mutila) causes a canker disease that results in dieback of Juniperus species in the United States. A fungus identified as Diplodia pinea f. sp. cupressi causes a similar disease of Cupressus species in Israel and elsewhere. Cultural characteristics, pycnidia, and conidia of isolates of these two pathogens were compared. The ability of each fungus to produce cankers on Cupressus sempervirens was tested. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker patterns also were analysed, using Sphaeropsis sapinea (syn. Diplodia pinea) isolates as an outgroup. Results indicate the fungus identified as D. pinea f. sp. cupressi from cypress in Israel is the same as, or at least highly similar to, the fungus identified as B. stevensii (or D. mutila) from juniper in the United States. Analysis of RAPD markers indicates relatively low similarity between these isolates and those of S. sapinea. Because these results are consistent with a previously published report describing substantial morphological and isozyme differences between isolates identified as D. pinea f. sp. cupressi and those of S. sapinea, use of the name D. pinea f. sp. cupressi should be abandoned. Inconsistencies between these isolates from juniper and cypress and published descriptions of B. stevensii and D. mutila, however, indicate the need for additional investigation into the relationship of these fungi.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Lucilia cuprina ; sheep blowfly ; insecticides ; aryl hydrazone ; oxidative phosphorylation ; mitochondrial uncoupling
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A new aryl hydrazone structure with high insecticidal activity against the Australian sheep blowfly,Lucilia cuprina, was shown to have a higher activity as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation in insect compared to mammalian mitochondrial preparations. This compound possesses the requirements of other uncouplers in its measured pKa and lipid solubility. However, when compared to a closely related structure with similar physicochemical properties, its insecticidal and insect mitochondrial uncoupling activities are greater and it exhibits decreased mammalian toxicity corresponding to this differential biochemical selectivity.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 200 (1963), S. 66-67 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We have irradiated aerated aqueous solutions of diethyl acetal with 50-kVp. X-rays. A brief description of the thermal hydrolysis of acetal will explain our choice of solute. Acetal is stable in solutions of pH. 7. It is extremely sensitive to hydrolysis catalysed by H3O+ but not by undissociated ...
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Mitochondrial DNA ; restriction site polymorphisms ; Apis mellifera ; Africanized honey bees
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary This study demonstrates polymorphisms in both the length and in the restriction enzyme cleavage sites of honeybee mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The levels of variation are typical of those found in other metazoan species. These polymorphisms are potentially useful for the identification of Africanized bees in the western hemisphere and for study of honeybee phylogenetics.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0633
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract –  Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forests of the eastern U.S. are in decline due to invasion by the exotic insect hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae). Aquatic biodiversity in hemlock ecosystems has not been documented; thus the true impact of the infestation cannot be assessed. We compared ichthyofaunal assemblages and trophic structure of streams draining hemlock and hardwood forests by sampling first- and second-order streams draining 14 paired hemlock and hardwood stands during base flows in July 1997 at the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Over 1400 fish of 15 species and 7 families were collected, but hemlock and hardwood streams individually harbored only one to four species. Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were two to three times as prevalent in hemlock than hardwood streams. Insectivorous fishes occurred in significantly higher proportion in streams of hardwood (0.90) than hemlock (0.46) stands, while piscivores occurred more often in hemlock (0.85) than hardwood (0.54) stands. Functional (trophic) diversity of fishes in hemlock and second-order streams was numerically greater than that of hardwood and first-order streams. Species composition also differed by stream order and terrain type. Biodiversity is threatened at several levels within hemlock ecosystems at risk to the hemlock woolly adelgid in eastern U.S. forests.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 57 (1986), S. 807-808 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The liquid-helium distribution system for the FSU superconducting linear accelerator has been installed and a preliminary evaluation of the system performance has been made. A heat leak of about 30 W was anticipated for the entire system. With two of the five cryostats in place, we estimate an overhead heat leak for the piping system of about 37 W.
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