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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Polar research 22 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1751-8369
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Notes: A one-dimensional (vertical) model is used to estimate the mass of ice-rafted sediment in turbid sea ice on the shallow Kara Sea shelf during autumn freeze-up. Sediment is entrained into the ice through aggregation with frazil ice crystals that are diffused downwards by wind-generated turbulence. Data from local meteorological stations are used to force the model, while water stratification and sediment concentrations from the area are used to initiate the model. Model results indicate a 0.2 m thick layer of slush ice created during 48 h with a mean wind of 6 m/s and an air temperature of −10°C. This ice contains ca. 20 mg/1 of sediment, or in total ca. 2% of the annual sediment discharge by nearby rivers. In shallow areas (〈20 m depth) the process is very effective with winds of ca. 12 m/s, and the process can incorporate many years of sediment discharge. In the deeper areas (〉20 m depth), the strong salinity stratification implies that winds above 18 m/s are needed for the process to be effective. For the rest of the winter months the same process may lead to additional sediment incorporated in a coastal polynya, but the freeze-up alone has the capacity to incorporate the total summer discharge of sediment into the surface ice. Calculated sediment concentrations in the surface ice cover are in the range 3 mg/1-19 g/1, in good agreement with available field data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
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    International Glaciological Society
    In:  Annals of Glaciology, 56 (69). pp. 295-306.
    Publication Date: 2016-04-26
    Description: The first stage of sea-ice formation is often grease ice, a mixture of sea water and frazil ice crystals. Over time, grease ice typically congeals first to pancake ice floes and then to a solid sea-ice cover. Grease ice is commonly not explicitly simulated in basin-scale sea-ice ocean models, though it affects oceanic heat loss and ice growth and is expected to play a greater role in a more seasonally icecovered Arctic Ocean. We present an approach to simulate the grease-ice layer with, as basic properties, the surface being at the freezing point, a frazil ice volume fraction of 25%, and a negligible change in the surface heat flux compared to open water. The latter governs grease-ice production, and a gradual transition to solid sea ice follows, with ∼50% of the grease ice solidifying within 24 hours. The new parameterization delays lead closing by solid ice formation, enhances oceanic heat loss in fall and winter, and produces a grease-ice layer that is variable in space and time. Results indicate a 10-30% increase in mean winter Arctic Ocean heat loss compared to a standard simulation, with instant lead closing leading to significantly enhanced ice growth.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-24
    Description: The Arctic icescape is rapidly transforming from a thicker multiyear ice cover to a thinner and largely seasonal first-year ice cover with significant consequences for Arctic primary production. One critical challenge is to understand how productivity will change within the next decades. Recent studies have reported extensive phytoplankton blooms beneath ponded sea ice during summer, indicating that satellite-based Arctic annual primary production estimates may be significantly underestimated. Here we present a unique time-series of a phytoplankton spring bloom observed beneath snow-covered Arctic pack ice. The bloom, dominated by the haptophyte algae Phaeocystis pouchetii, caused near depletion of the surface nitrate inventory and a decline in dissolved inorganic carbon by 16 ± 6 g C m−2. Ocean circulation characteristics in the area indicated that the bloom developed in situ despite the snow-covered sea ice. Leads in the dynamic ice cover provided added sunlight necessary to initiate and sustain the bloom. Phytoplankton blooms beneath snow-covered ice might become more common and widespread in the future Arctic Ocean with frequent lead formation due to thinner and more dynamic sea ice despite projected increases in high-Arctic snowfall. This could alter productivity, marine food webs and carbon sequestration in the Arctic Ocean.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-03-11
    Description: Variability and trends of Fram Strait sea ice area and volume exports are examined for the period of 1990–2010. Simulations from a high-resolution version of the MPIOM model (STORM project) reproduce area and volume export well when compared with NSIDC and ICESat satellite data and in-situ ice thickness observations. The fluxes derived from ice thickness and drift satellite products vary considerably, indicating a high uncertainty in these estimates which we mostly assign to the drift observations. The model captures the observed average seasonal cycles and interannual variability of ice export. The simulated mean annual sea ice area export is 860 × 103 km2 a− 1 (1990–2010), and the correlation with the NSIDC-based area fluxes is r = 0.67. The simulated mean annual volume export is 3.3 × 103 km3 a− 1 (1990–2010), close to the ICESat/ULS values, with a correlation of r = 0.58. The simulated monthly area export has a significant positive trend of + 10% per decade, explained by wind forcing. The major contribution to the robust trend in area export between June and September. Fram Strait ice volume export variability is mainly controlled by ice drift with a dominant role of the Transpolar Drift and, to a lesser extent thickness variability. The area export increase reflects increasing ice-drift speed, but is balanced with a reduced thickness over time when it comes to volume export, giving no significant trend in volume export. The spatial variability of ice drift indicates that the export influences a large area upstream in the Trans-Polar Drift stream, and that high volume export events lead to a thinner thickness there. The central Arctic is well connected drift-wise to the Fram Strait via the Transpolar Drift while for thickness, the region north of Greenland is dominated and controlled by the Fram Strait ice export.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-09-24
    Description: © The Author(s), 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Scientific Reports 7 (2017): 40850, doi:10.1038/srep40850.
    Description: The Arctic icescape is rapidly transforming from a thicker multiyear ice cover to a thinner and largely seasonal first-year ice cover with significant consequences for Arctic primary production. One critical challenge is to understand how productivity will change within the next decades. Recent studies have reported extensive phytoplankton blooms beneath ponded sea ice during summer, indicating that satellite-based Arctic annual primary production estimates may be significantly underestimated. Here we present a unique time-series of a phytoplankton spring bloom observed beneath snow-covered Arctic pack ice. The bloom, dominated by the haptophyte algae Phaeocystis pouchetii, caused near depletion of the surface nitrate inventory and a decline in dissolved inorganic carbon by 16 ± 6 g C m−2. Ocean circulation characteristics in the area indicated that the bloom developed in situ despite the snow-covered sea ice. Leads in the dynamic ice cover provided added sunlight necessary to initiate and sustain the bloom. Phytoplankton blooms beneath snow-covered ice might become more common and widespread in the future Arctic Ocean with frequent lead formation due to thinner and more dynamic sea ice despite projected increases in high-Arctic snowfall. This could alter productivity, marine food webs and carbon sequestration in the Arctic Ocean.
    Description: This study was supported by the Centre for Ice, Climate and Ecosystems (ICE) at the Norwegian Polar Institute, the Ministry of Climate and Environment, Norway, the Research Council of Norway (projects Boom or Bust no. 244646, STASIS no. 221961, CORESAT no. 222681, CIRFA no. 237906 and AMOS CeO no. 223254), and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norway (project ID Arctic), the ICE-ARC program of the European Union 7th Framework Program (grant number 603887), the Polish-Norwegian Research Program operated by the National Centre for Research and Development under the Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009–2014 in the frame of Project Contract Pol-Nor/197511/40/2013, CDOM-HEAT, and the Ocean Acidification Flagship program within the FRAM- High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment, Norway.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-22
    Description: Oceanographic observations from the Eurasian Basin north of Svalbard collected between January and June 2015 from the N-ICE2015 drifting expedition are presented. The unique winter observations are a key contribution to existing climatologies of the Arctic Ocean, and show a ∼100 m deep winter mixed layer likely due to high sea ice growth rates in local leads. Current observations for the upper ∼200 m show mostly a barotropic flow, enhanced over the shallow Yermak Plateau. The two branches of inflowing Atlantic Water are partly captured, confirming that the outer Yermak Branch follows the perimeter of the plateau, and the inner Svalbard Branch the coast. Atlantic Water observed to be warmer and shallower than in the climatology, is found directly below the mixed layer down to 800 m depth, and is warmest along the slope, while its properties inside the basin are quite homogeneous. From late May onwards, the drift was continually close to the ice edge and a thinner surface mixed layer and shallower Atlantic Water coincided with significant sea ice melt being observed.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Present global warming is amplified in the Arctic and accompanied by unprecedented sea ice decline. Located along the main pathway of Atlantic Water entering the Arctic, the Barents Sea is the site of coupled feedback processes that are important for creating variability in the entire Arctic air-ice-ocean system. As warm Atlantic Water flows through the Barents Sea, it loses heat to the Arctic atmosphere. Warm periods, like today, are associated with high northward heat transport, reduced Arctic sea ice cover, and high surface air temperatures. The cooling of the Atlantic inflow creates dense water sinking to great depths in the Arctic Basins, and ~60% of the Arctic Ocean carbon uptake is removed from the carbon-saturated surface this way. Recently, anomalously large ocean heat transport has reduced sea ice formation in the Barents Sea during winter. The missing Barents Sea winter ice makes up a large part of observed winter Arctic sea ice loss, and in 2050, the Barents Sea is projected to be largely ice free throughout the year, with 4°C summer warming in the formerly ice-covered areas. The heating of the Barents atmosphere plays an important role both in “Arctic amplification” and the Arctic heat budget. The heating also perturbs the large-scale circulation through expansion of the Siberian High northward, with a possible link to recent continental wintertime cooling. Large air-ice-ocean variability is evident in proxy records of past climate conditions, suggesting that the Barents Sea has had an important role in Northern Hemisphere climate for, at least, the last 2500 years.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-11-04
    Description: Multimodel Arctic Ocean “climate response function” experiments are analyzed in order to explore the effects of anomalous wind forcing over the Greenland Sea (GS) on poleward ocean heat transport, Atlantic Water (AW) pathways, and the extent of Arctic sea ice. Particular emphasis is placed on the sensitivity of the AW circulation to anomalously strong or weak GS winds in relation to natural variability, the latter manifested as part of the North Atlantic Oscillation. We find that anomalously strong (weak) GS wind forcing, comparable in strength to a strong positive (negative) North Atlantic Oscillation index, results in an intensification (weakening) of the poleward AW flow, extending from south of the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre, through the Nordic Seas, and all the way into the Canadian Basin. Reconstructions made utilizing the calculated climate response functions explain ∼50% of the simulated AW flow variance; this is the proportion of variability that can be explained by GS wind forcing. In the Barents and Kara Seas, there is a clear relationship between the wind‐driven anomalous AW inflow and the sea ice extent. Most of the anomalous AW heat is lost to the atmosphere, and loss of sea ice in the Barents Sea results in even more heat loss to the atmosphere, and thus effective ocean cooling. Release of passive tracers in a subset of the suite of models reveals differences in circulation patterns and shows that the flow of AW in the Arctic Ocean is highly dependent on the wind stress in the Nordic Seas.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-06-05
    Print ISSN: 0280-6495
    Electronic ISSN: 1600-0870
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2006-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Electronic ISSN: 2156-2202
    Topics: Geosciences
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