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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-9228
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract A mechanism for the generation of strong energy fluctuations in a chain of harmonically and anharmonically coupled atoms in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium has been investigated by a molecular dynamics method. Energy fluctuations multiply exceeding the mean value were localized in a group of three to five atoms with lifetime on the order of an atomic vibrational period. They arise as a consequence of collisions of density waves propagating along the chain. A collision of waves of the same density sign leads to a fluctuation of the potential energy, while for differing signs a fluctuation in the kinetic energy occurs. In particular, collision of dilitatin waves leads to thermal breaking of the chain. The energy concentration at the moment of collision is 30% greater in a harmonic chain than in an anharmonic one.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-05-31
    Description: The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) has been collecting data over the oceans since November 2006. Over 80 cruises were completed through early 2010 with deployments continuing. Measurement areas included various parts of the Atlantic Ocean, the Northern and Southern Pacific Ocean, the South Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, the Arctic Ocean and inland seas. MAN deploys Microtops hand-held sunphotometers and utilizes a calibration procedure and data processing traceable to AERONET. Data collection included areas that previously had no aerosol optical depth (AOD) coverage at all, particularly vast areas of the Southern Ocean. The MAN data archive provides a valuable resource for aerosol studies in maritime environments. In the current paper we present results of AOD measurements over the oceans, and make a comparison with satellite AOD retrievals and model simulations.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Long-term monitoring of aerosol optical properties at a boreal forest AERONET site in interior Alaska was performed from 1994 through 2008 (excluding winter). Large interannual variability was observed, with some years showing near background aerosol optical depth (AOD) levels (〈0.1 at 500 nm) while 2004 and 2005 had August monthly means similar in magnitude to peak months at major tropical biomass burning regions. Single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0); 440 nm) at the boreal forest site ranged from approximately 0.91 to 0.99 with an average of approximately 0.96 for observations in 2004 and 2005. This suggests a significant amount of smoldering combustion of woody fuels and peat/soil layers that would result in relatively low black carbon mass fractions for smoke particles. The fine mode particle volume median radius during the heavy burning years was quite large, averaging approximately 0.17 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 0.1 and increasing to approximately 0.25 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 3.0. This large particle size for biomass burning aerosols results in a greater relative scattering component of extinction and, therefore, also contributes to higher omega (sub 0). Additionally, monitoring at an Arctic Ocean coastal site (Barrow, Alaska) suggested transport of smoke to the Arctic in summer resulting in individual events with much higher AOD than that occurring during typical spring Arctic haze. However, the springtime mean AOD(500 nm) is higher during late March through late May (approximately 0.150) than during summer months (approximately 0.085) at Barrow partly due to very few days with low background AOD levels in spring compared with many days with clean background conditions in summer.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: The World Ocean produces a large amount of natural aerosols that have all impact on the Earth's albedo and climate. Sea-salt is the major contributor to aerosol optical depth over the oceans. [Mahowald et al. 2006; Chin et al. 2002; Satheesh et al. 1999; Winter and Chylek, 1997] and therefore affects the radiative balance over the ocean through the direct [Haywood et al. 1999] and indirect aerosol effect [O'Dowd et al. 1999]. Aerosols over the oceans (produced marine and advected from land sources) are important for various atmospheric processes [Lewis and Schwartz, 2004] and remote sensing studies [Gordon, 1997].
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: To be published in Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: The paper presents the current status of the Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN), which has been developed as a component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). MAN deploys Microtops handheld Sun photometers and utilizes the calibration procedure and data processing (Version 2) traceable to AERONET. A web site dedicated to the MAN activity is described. A brief historical perspective is given to aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements over the oceans. A short summary of the existing data, collected on board ships of opportunity during the NASA Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project is presented. Globally averaged oceanic aerosol optical depth (derived from island-based AERONET measurements) at 500 nm is similar to 0.11 and Angstrom parameter (computed within spectral range 440-870 nm) is calculated to be similar to 0.6. First results from the cruises contributing to the Maritime Aerosol Network are shown. MAN ship-based aerosol optical depth compares well to simultaneous island and near-coastal AERONET site AOD.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: A weather resistant automatic scanning Sun photometer system is assessed and demonstrated as practical for measurements of aerosol concentrations and properties at remote sites. Interfaced with a transmitter using the Geostationary Data Collection System (GDCS), the data are processed in near real time. The processing allows a time dependence of the aerosols and water vapor and an ongoing assessment of the health and calibration of the instruments. The system's automatic data acquisition, transmission, and processing offer immediate application to atmospheric monitoring and modeling on a regional to global scale and validation of satellite retrievals. It is estimated that under normal circumstances the retrieved aerosol optical thickness has a network wide accuracy of +/- 0.02 from 340 nm to 1020 nm, water vapor +/- 0.2 cm and size distribution from 0.1 to 3 micrometers.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: CNES, Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing; p 75-83
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Satellite platforms have provided a methodology for regional and global remote sensing of aerosols. New systems will significantly improve that capability during the EOS era; however, the voluminous 20 year record of satellite data has produced only regional snapshots of aerosol loading and have not yielded a data base of the optical properties of those aerosols which are fundamental to our understanding of their influence on climate change. The prospect of fully understanding the properties of the aerosols with respect to climate change is small without validation and augmentation by ancillary ground based observations. Sun photometry was demonstrated to be an effective tool for ground based measurements of aerosol optical properties from fire emissions. Newer technology has expanded routine sun photometer measurements to spectral observations of solar aureole and almucantar allowing retrievals of size distribution, scattering phase function, and refractive index. A series of such observations were made in Brazil's Amazon basin from a network of six simultaneously recording instruments deployed in Sep. 1992. The instruments were located in areas removed from local aerosol sources such that sites are representative of regional aerosol conditions. The overall network was designed to cover the counter clockwise tropospheric circulation of the Amazon Basin. Spectral measurements of sun, aureole and sky data for retrieval of aerosol optical thickness, particle size distribution, and scattering phase function as well as measurements of precipitable water were made during noncloudy conditions.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: INPE, The 7th Brazilian Remote Sensing Symposium, Volume 3; p 54-55
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-08-09
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 114 (2009): D06204, doi:10.1029/2008JD011257.
    Description: The paper presents the current status of the Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN), which has been developed as a component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). MAN deploys Microtops handheld Sun photometers and utilizes the calibration procedure and data processing (Version 2) traceable to AERONET. A web site dedicated to the MAN activity is described. A brief historical perspective is given to aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements over the oceans. A short summary of the existing data, collected on board ships of opportunity during the NASA Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project is presented. Globally averaged oceanic aerosol optical depth (derived from island-based AERONET measurements) at 500 nm is ∼0.11 and Angstrom parameter (computed within spectral range 440–870 nm) is calculated to be ∼0.6. First results from the cruises contributing to the Maritime Aerosol Network are shown. MAN ship-based aerosol optical depth compares well to simultaneous island and near-coastal AERONET site AOD.
    Description: The work of Tymon Zielinski was supported by Polish national grant AERONET59.
    Keywords: Aerosol optical depth ; Maritime aerosol ; Network
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-05-11
    Description: Analysis of sun photometer measured and satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) data has shown that major aerosol pollution events with very high fine mode AOD (〉1.0 in mid-visible) in the China/Korea/Japan region are often observed to be associated with significant cloud cover. This makes remote sensing of these events difficult even for high temporal resolution sun photometer measurements. Possible physical mechanisms for these events that have high AOD include a combination of aerosol humidification, cloud processing, and meteorological co-variation with atmospheric stability and convergence. The new development of Aerosol Robotic network (AERONET) Version 3 Level 2 AOD with improved cloud screening algorithms now allow for unprecedented ability to monitor these extreme fine mode pollution events. Further, the Spectral Deconvolution Algorithm (SDA) applied to Level 1 data (L1; no cloud screening) provides an even more comprehensive assessment of fine mode AOD than L2 in current and previous data versions. Studying the 2012 winter-summer period, comparisons of AERONET L1 SDA daily average fine mode AOD data showed that Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite remote sensing of AOD often did not retrieve and/or identify some of the highest fine mode AOD events in this region. Also, compared to models that include data assimilation of satellite retrieved AOD, the L1 SDA fine mode AOD was significantly higher in magnitude, particularly for the highest AOD events that were often associated with significant cloudiness.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN57373 , Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (ISSN 2169-897X) (e-ISSN 2169-8996); 123; 10; 5560-5587
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: An analysis of the time series of MODIS-based and AERONET aerosol records over Beijing reveals two distinct periods, before and after 2007. The MODIS data from both the Terra and Aqua satellites were processed with the new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. A comparison of MAIAC and AERONET AOT shows that whereas MAIAC consistently underestimated peak AOT values by 10-20% in the prior period, the bias mostly disappears after mid-2007. Independent analysis of the AERONET dataset reveals little or no change in the effective radii of the fine and coarse fractions and of the Angstrom exponent. At the same time, it shows an increasing trend in the single scattering albedo, by approx.0.02 in 9 years. As MAIAC was using the same aerosol model for the entire 2000-2010 period, the decrease in AOT bias after 2007 can be explained only by a corresponding decrease of aerosol absorption caused by a reduction in local black carbon emissions. The observed changes correlate in time with the Chinese government's broad measures to improve air quality in Beijing during preparations for the Summer Olympics of 2008.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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