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  • 1
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-12-23
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 45 (2015): 966–987, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-14-0110.1.
    Description: A key remaining challenge in oceanography is the understanding and parameterization of small-scale mixing. Evidence suggests that topographic features play a significant role in enhancing mixing in the Southern Ocean. This study uses 914 high-resolution hydrographic profiles from novel EM-APEX profiling floats to investigate turbulent mixing north of the Kerguelen Plateau, a major topographic feature in the Southern Ocean. A shear–strain finescale parameterization is applied to estimate diapycnal diffusivity in the upper 1600 m of the ocean. The indirect estimates of mixing match direct microstructure profiler observations made simultaneously. It is found that mixing intensities have strong spatial and temporal variability, ranging from O(10−6) to O(10−3) m2 s−1. This study identifies topographic roughness, current speed, and wind speed as the main factors controlling mixing intensity. Additionally, the authors find strong regional variability in mixing dynamics and enhanced mixing in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current frontal region. This enhanced mixing is attributed to dissipating internal waves generated by the interaction of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the topography of the Kerguelen Plateau. Extending the mixing observations from the Kerguelen region to the entire Southern Ocean, this study infers a large water mass transformation rate of 17 Sverdrups (Sv; 1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) across the boundary of Antarctic Intermediate Water and Upper Circumpolar Deep Water in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. This work suggests that the contribution of mixing to the Southern Ocean overturning circulation budget is particularly significant in fronts.
    Description: AM was supported by the joint CSIRO–University of Tasmania Quantitative Marine Science (QMS) program and the 2009 CSIRO Wealth from Ocean Flagship Collaborative Fund. BMS was supported by the Australian Climate Change Science Program, jointly funded by the Department of the Environment and CSIRO. KLPs salary support was provided by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution bridge support funds.
    Description: 2015-10-01
    Keywords: Geographic location/entity ; Southern Ocean ; Circulation/ Dynamics ; Diapycnal mixing ; Fronts ; Ocean circulation ; Topographic effects ; Atm/Ocean Structure/ Phenomena ; Mixing
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 46 (2016): 417-437, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-15-0055.1.
    Description: In the stratified ocean, turbulent mixing is primarily attributed to the breaking of internal waves. As such, internal waves provide a link between large-scale forcing and small-scale mixing. The internal wave field north of the Kerguelen Plateau is characterized using 914 high-resolution hydrographic profiles from novel Electromagnetic Autonomous Profiling Explorer (EM-APEX) floats. Altogether, 46 coherent features are identified in the EM-APEX velocity profiles and interpreted in terms of internal wave kinematics. The large number of internal waves analyzed provides a quantitative framework for characterizing spatial variations in the internal wave field and for resolving generation versus propagation dynamics. Internal waves observed near the Kerguelen Plateau have a mean vertical wavelength of 200 m, a mean horizontal wavelength of 15 km, a mean period of 16 h, and a mean horizontal group velocity of 3 cm s−1. The internal wave characteristics are dependent on regional dynamics, suggesting that different generation mechanisms of internal waves dominate in different dynamical zones. The wave fields in the Subantarctic/Subtropical Front and the Polar Front Zone are influenced by the local small-scale topography and flow strength. The eddy-wave field is influenced by the large-scale flow structure, while the internal wave field in the Subantarctic Zone is controlled by atmospheric forcing. More importantly, the local generation of internal waves not only drives large-scale dissipation in the frontal region but also downstream from the plateau. Some internal waves in the frontal region are advected away from the plateau, contributing to mixing and stratification budgets elsewhere.
    Description: A.M. was supported by the joint CSIRO-University of Tasmania Quantitative Marine Science (QMS) program and the 2009 CSIRO Wealth from Ocean Flagship Collaborative Fund. K.L.P.’s salary support was provided by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution bridge support funds. B.M.S. was supported by the Australian Climate Change Science Program.
    Description: 2016-06-07
    Keywords: Geographic location/entity ; Southern Ocean ; Circulation/ Dynamics ; Internal waves ; Mixing ; Wave properties ; Observational techniques and algorithms ; In situ oceanic observations ; Profilers, oceanic
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-08-20
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 124(3), (2019): 1778-1794, doi:10.1029/2018JC014775.
    Description: Abyssal ocean warming contributed substantially to anthropogenic ocean heat uptake and global sea level rise between 1990 and 2010. In the 2010s, several hydrographic sections crossing the South Pacific Ocean were occupied for a third or fourth time since the 1990s, allowing for an assessment of the decadal variability in the local abyssal ocean properties among the 1990s, 2000s, and 2010s. These observations from three decades reveal steady to accelerated bottom water warming since the 1990s. Strong abyssal (z 〉 4,000 m) warming of 3.5 (±1.4) m°C/year (m°C = 10−3 °C) is observed in the Ross Sea, directly downstream from bottom water formation sites, with warming rates of 2.5 (±0.4) m°C/year to the east in the Amundsen‐Bellingshausen Basin and 1.3 (±0.2) m°C/year to the north in the Southwest Pacific Basin, all associated with a bottom‐intensified descent of the deepest isotherms. Warming is consistently found across all sections and their occupations within each basin, demonstrating that the abyssal warming is monotonic, basin‐wide, and multidecadal. In addition, bottom water freshening was strongest in the Ross Sea, with smaller amplitude in the Amundsen‐Bellingshausen Basin in the 2000s, but is discernible in portions of the Southwest Pacific Basin by the 2010s. These results indicate that bottom water freshening, stemming from strong freshening of Ross Shelf Waters, is being advected along deep isopycnals and mixed into deep basins, albeit on longer timescales than the dynamically driven, wave‐propagated warming signal. We quantify the contribution of the warming to local sea level and heat budgets.
    Description: S. G. P. was supported by a U.S. GO‐SHIP postdoctoral fellowship through NSF grant OCE‐1437015, which also supported L. D. T. and S. M. and collection of U.S. GO‐SHIP data since 2014 on P06, S4P, P16, and P18. G. C. J. is supported by the Global Ocean Monitoring and Observation Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Department of Commerce and NOAA Research. B. M. S and S. E. W. were supported by the Australian Government Department of the Environment and CSIRO through the Australian Climate Change Science Programme and by the National Environmental Science Program. We are grateful for the hard work of the science parties, officers, and crew of all the research cruises on which these CTD data were collected. We also thank the two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments that improve the manuscript. This is PMEL contribution 4870. All CTD data sets used in this analysis are publicly available at the website (https://cchdo.ucsd.edu).
    Description: 2019-08-20
    Keywords: abyssal warming ; Pacific deep circulation ; deep steric sea level ; deep warming variability ; Antarctic Bottom Water
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-11-22
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 111 (2006): C02006, doi:10.1029/2005JC003011.
    Description: Net northward transport below γn 〉 28.1 kgm−3 (≈3200 m) into the Perth Basin of between 4.4 and 5.8 Sv is estimated from a year-long current meter mooring array between the Broken and Naturaliste Plateaus. Northward transport of between 2.0 and 2.5 Sv of Antarctic Bottom Water (γn 〉28.2 kgm−3), that must upwell within the southern region of the Perth Basin, results in an area-averaged diapycnal velocity and diffusivity of w*=2.5− 3.1× 10−6 ms−1 and κ = 13−15×10−4 m2s−1, respectively. Diffusivity estimates for the Perth Basin are several times larger than area averaged mixing estimates for the abyssal subtropical South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. However, the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy required to maintain the abyssal mixing in the Perth basin, ε=O(10−9 Wkg−1), is similar to that required in the South Atlantic Ocean. The area-averaged diffusivity in the Perth Basin does not require unreasonable energy dissipation rates as this ocean basin is only weakly stratified. The abyssal diffuvisity of the Perth Basin results from intense mixing at the basin boundary and in the basin interior over rough topography. The complex bathymetry and low abyssal stratification suggests that the Indian Ocean, for a given energy dissipation, may support a larger meridional overturning circulation than other subtropical basins.
    Description: BMS was supported by funds from the Ocean and Climate Change Institute at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and The James S. Cole and Cecily C. Selby Endowed Fund and The Penzance Endowed Fund in support of Assistant Scientists. The mooring array was funded by Australia’s CSIRO Marine Research.
    Keywords: Water masses ; Deep recirculation and transport ; Turbulence ; Diffusion ; Indian Ocean
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 117 (2012): C03040, doi:10.1029/2011JC007798.
    Description: Two hydrographic surveys and a one-dimensional mixed layer model are used to assess the role of air-sea fluxes in forming deep Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) mixed layers in the southeast Pacific Ocean. Forty-two SAMW mixed layers deeper than 400 m were observed north of the Subantarctic Front during the 2005 winter cruise, with the deepest mixed layers reaching 550 m. The densest, coldest, and freshest mixed layers were found in the cruise's eastern sections near 77°W. The deep SAMW mixed layers were observed concurrently with surface ocean heat loss of approximately −200 W m−2. The heat, momentum, and precipitation flux fields of five flux products are used to force a one-dimensional KPP mixed layer model initialized with profiles from the 2006 summer cruise. The simulated winter mixed layers generated by all of the forcing products resemble Argo observations of SAMW; this agreement also validates the flux products. Mixing driven by buoyancy loss and wind forcing is strong enough to deepen the SAMW layers. Wind-driven mixing is central to SAMW formation, as model runs forced with buoyancy forcing alone produce shallow mixed layers. Air-sea fluxes indirectly influence winter SAMW properties by controlling how deeply the profiles mix. The stratification and heat content of the initial profiles determine the properties of the SAMW and the likelihood of deep mixing. Summer profiles from just upstream of Drake Passage have less heat stored between 100 and 600 m than upstream profiles, and so, with sufficiently strong winter forcing, form a cold, dense variety of SAMW.
    Description: NSF Ocean Sciences grant OCE-0327544 supported LDT, TKC, and JH and funded the two research cruises. BMS’s contribution to this work was undertaken as part of the Australian Climate Change Science Program, funded jointly by the Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency and CSIRO. The QuikSCAT wind mapping method [Kelly et al., 1999], used to create the Kelly flux product, was sponsored by NASA’s Ocean Vector Winds Science. NCEP Reanalysis data were provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD. WHOI’s OAFlux project is funded by the NOAA Climate Observations and Monitoring (COM) program.
    Description: 2012-09-29
    Keywords: ACC ; Subantarctic Mode Water ; Mixed layers ; Mode water
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 119 (2014): 1383–1419, doi:10.1002/2013JC008979.
    Description: This article (1) reviews and clarifies the basic physics underpinning finescale parameterizations of turbulent dissipation due to internal wave breaking and (2) provides advice on the implementation of the parameterizations in a way that is most consistent with the underlying physics, with due consideration given to common instrumental issues. Potential biases in the parameterization results are discussed in light of both (1) and (2), and illustrated with examples in the literature. The value of finescale parameterizations for studies of the large-scale ocean circulation in the presence of common biases is assessed. We conclude that the parameterizations can contribute significantly to the resolution of large-scale circulation problems associated with plausible ranges in the rates of turbulent dissipation and diapycnal mixing spanning an order of magnitude or more.
    Description: K.L.P.’s salary support for this analysis was provided by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution bridge support funds and NSF grant OCE- 0926848. A.C.N.G. was supported by a NERC Advanced Research Fellowship (NE/C517633/1), T.N.H. by a National Oceanography Centre, Southampton PhD studentship, B.M.S. by the Australian Climate Change Science Program and CSIRO Wealth from Ocean National Research Flagship, and S.W. by Australian Research Council grants DE120102927 and CE110001028.
    Description: 2014-08-25
    Keywords: Mixing parameterizations
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-08-09
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2015. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Annual Review of Marine Science 8 (2016): 185-215, doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-052915-100829.
    Description: The ocean, a central component of Earth’s climate system, is changing. Given the global scope of these changes, highly accurate measurements of physical and biogeochemical properties need to be conducted over the full water column, spanning the ocean basins from coast to coast, and repeated every decade at a minimum, with a ship-based observing system. Since the late 1970s, when the Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS) conducted the first global survey of this kind, the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and now the Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP) have collected these “reference standard” data that allow quantification of ocean heat and carbon uptake, and variations in salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and acidity on basin scales. The evolving GO-SHIP measurement suite also provides new global information about dissolved organic carbon, a large bioactive reservoir of carbon.
    Description: Climate Observations Division of the U.S. NOAA Climate Program Office and NOAA Research; Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean (JISAO) under NOAA Cooperative Agreement NA10OAR4320148; U.S. National Science Foundation [OCE- 0223869; OCE-0752970; OCE-0825163; OCE-1434000; OCE 0752972; OCE-0752980; OCE-1232962; OCE-1155983; OCE-1436748]; U.S. CLIVAR Project Office; Global Environment and Marine Department, Japan Meteorological Agency; Australian Climate Change Science Program (Australian Department of Environment and CSIRO); U.K. Natural Environment Research Council; European Union’s FP7 grant agreement 264879 (CarboChange); Horizon 2020 grant agreement No 633211; ETH Zurich Switzerland.
    Keywords: Anthropogenic climate change ; Ocean temperature change ; Salinity change ; Ocean carbon cycle ; Ocean oxygen and nutrients ; Ocean chlorofluorocarbons ; Ocean circulation change ; Ocean mixing
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-08
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Carter, B. R., Feely, R. A., Wanninkhof, R., Kouketsu, S., Sonnerup, R. E., Pardo, P. C., Sabine, C. L., Johnson, G. C., Sloyan, B. M., Murata, A., Mecking, S., Tilbrook, B., Speer, K., Talley, L. D., Millero, F. J., Wijffels, S. E., Macdonald, A. M., Gruber, N., & Bullister, J. L. Pacific anthropogenic carbon between 1991 and 2017. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 33(5), (2019):597-617, doi:10.1029/2018GB006154.
    Description: We estimate anthropogenic carbon (Canth) accumulation rates in the Pacific Ocean between 1991 and 2017 from 14 hydrographic sections that have been occupied two to four times over the past few decades, with most sections having been recently measured as part of the Global Ocean Ship‐based Hydrographic Investigations Program. The rate of change of Canth is estimated using a new method that combines the extended multiple linear regression method with improvements to address the challenges of analyzing multiple occupations of sections spaced irregularly in time. The Canth accumulation rate over the top 1,500 m of the Pacific increased from 8.8 (±1.1, 1σ) Pg of carbon per decade between 1995 and 2005 to 11.7 (±1.1) PgC per decade between 2005 and 2015. For the entire Pacific, about half of this decadal increase in the accumulation rate is attributable to the increase in atmospheric CO2, while in the South Pacific subtropical gyre this fraction is closer to one fifth. This suggests a substantial enhancement of the accumulation of Canth in the South Pacific by circulation variability and implies that a meaningful portion of the reinvigoration of the global CO2 sink that occurred between ~2000 and ~2010 could be driven by enhanced ocean Canth uptake and advection into this gyre. Our assessment suggests that the accuracy of Canth accumulation rate reconstructions along survey lines is limited by the accuracy of the full suite of hydrographic data and that a continuation of repeated surveys is a critical component of future carbon cycle monitoring.
    Description: The data we use can be accessed at CCHDO website (https://cchdo.ucsd.edu/) and GLODAP website (https://www.glodap.info/). This research would not be possible without the hard work of the scientists and crew aboard the many repeated hydrographic cruises coordinated by GO‐SHIP, which is funded by NSF OCE and NOAA OAR. We thank funding agencies and program managers as follows: U.S., Australian, Japanese national science funding agencies that support data collection, data QA/QC, and data centers. Contributions from B. R. C., R. A. F., and R. W. are supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Ocean Monitoring and Observing Program (Data Management and Synthesis Grant: N8R3CEA‐PDM managed by Kathy Tedesco and David Legler). G. C. J. is supported by the Climate Observation Division, Climate Program Office, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Department of Commerce and NOAA Research (fund reference 100007298), grant (N8R1SE3‐PGC). B. M. S was supported by the Australian Government Department of the Environment and CSIRO through the Australian Climate Change Science Programme and by the National Environmental Science Program. N. G. acknowledges support by ETH Zurich. This is JISAO contribution 2018‐0149 and PMEL contribution 4786. We fondly remember John Bullister as a treasured friend, valued colleague, and dedicated mentor, and we thank him for sharing his days with us. He is and will be dearly missed.
    Keywords: anthropogenic carbon ; Pacific ; decadal variability ; eMLR ; ocean acidification ; repeat hydrography
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-09
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Sprintall, J., Gordon, A. L., Wijffels, S. E., Feng, M., Hu, S., Koch-Larrouy, A., Phillips, H., Nugroho, D., Napitu, A., Pujiana, K., Susanto, R. D., Sloyan, B., Yuan, D., Riama, N. F., Siswanto, S., Kuswardani, A., Arifin, Z., Wahyudi, A. J., Zhou, H., Nagai, T., Ansong, J. K., Bourdalle-Badie, R., Chanuts, J., Lyard, F., Arbic, B. K., Ramdhani, A., & Setiawan, A. Detecting change in the Indonesian Seas. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, (2019):257, doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00257.
    Description: The Indonesian seas play a fundamental role in the coupled ocean and climate system with the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) providing the only tropical pathway connecting the global oceans. Pacific warm pool waters passing through the Indonesian seas are cooled and freshened by strong air-sea fluxes and mixing from internal tides to form a unique water mass that can be tracked across the Indian Ocean basin and beyond. The Indonesian seas lie at the climatological center of the atmospheric deep convection associated with the ascending branch of the Walker Circulation. Regional SST variations cause changes in the surface winds that can shift the center of atmospheric deep convection, subsequently altering the precipitation and ocean circulation patterns within the entire Indo-Pacific region. Recent multi-decadal changes in the wind and buoyancy forcing over the tropical Indo-Pacific have directly affected the vertical profile, strength, and the heat and freshwater transports of the ITF. These changes influence the large-scale sea level, SST, precipitation and wind patterns. Observing long-term changes in mass, heat and freshwater within the Indonesian seas is central to understanding the variability and predictability of the global coupled climate system. Although substantial progress has been made over the past decade in measuring and modeling the physical and biogeochemical variability within the Indonesian seas, large uncertainties remain. A comprehensive strategy is needed for measuring the temporal and spatial scales of variability that govern the various water mass transport streams of the ITF, its connection with the circulation and heat and freshwater inventories and associated air-sea fluxes of the regional and global oceans. This white paper puts forward the design of an observational array using multi-platforms combined with high-resolution models aimed at increasing our quantitative understanding of water mass transformation rates and advection within the Indonesian seas and their impacts on the air-sea climate system. Introduction
    Description: JS acknowledges funding to support her effort by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number OCE-1736285 and NOAA’s Climate Program Office, Climate Variability and Predictability Program under Award Number NA17OAR4310257. SH was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 41776018) and the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, CAS (QYZDB-SSW-SYS023). HP acknowledges support from the Australian Government’s National Environmental Science Programme. HZ acknowledges support from National Science Foundation under Grant No. 41876009. RS was supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. OCE-07-25935; Office of Naval Research Grant No. N00014-08-01-0618 and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant No. 80NSSC18K0777. SW, MF, and BS were supported by Center for Southern Hemisphere Oceans Research (CSHOR), which is a joint initiative between the Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (QNLM), CSIRO, University of New South Wales and University of Tasmania.
    Keywords: Indonesian throughflow ; observing system ; intraseasonal ; ENSO ; transport variability ; planetary waves
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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