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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 315 (1985), S. 245-248 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] When axoplasmic vesicles are added to flagellar microtubules in the presence of ATP, the vesicles move along the axonemal microtubules in either direction on a single axoneme. Figure la-c shows a vesicle (arrowhead) that has moved to the end of the axoneme and has remained attached on reaching the ...
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Biochemistry 15 (1976), S. 4497-4505 
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: tubulin ; assembly ; mitotic apparatus ; bimane ; fluorescence microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fluorescent derivatives of cellular proteins that retain their native characteristics have become useful probes to investigate the dynamics of specific cytoskeletal proteins. In the experiments reported here, a previously characterized fluorescent derivative of tubulin, bimane-tubulin [Wadsworth and Sloboda, 1982a], was used to investigate microtubule assembly in vitro. The results demonstrate that bimanetubulin was competent to assemble onto a variety of organizing centers in vitro, including microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) present in homogenates of sea urchin eggs, isolated mitotic apparatuses (MAs), and lysed mitotic cells. When homogenates of fertilized sea urchin eggs containing MTOCs were incubated with bimane-tubulin at 37°C, discrete areas of linear fluorescence were observed. Only diffuse fluorescence was observed when calcium or colchicine was added to the homogenate or if the temperature was maintained at 0°C. Negative-stain electron microscopy of the fluorescent arrays revealed morphologically normal microtubules radiating from electron dense regions. When mitotic spindles, isolated in glycerol containing buffers and therefore cold stable, were incubated with bimane-tubulin, linear fluorescence was observed emanating from the spindle poles but not from the region occupied by the kinetochores. MAs incubated with bimane-labeled bovine serum albumin or bimane-labeled microtubule-associated proteins showed only diffuse fluorescence. However, when mitotic cells which were hypotonically lysed in the absence of detergents or microtubule stabilizing solvents, were perfused with bimane-tubulin intense fluorescence was observed in the asters and throughout the spindle. Two experiments suggested that the fluorescence observed in the results outlined above was due to the assembly of normal microtubules from the fluorescent subunits. First, the observed fluorescence was sensitive to cold temperataure, which is known to disassemble microtubules. Second, when the isolated, fluorescent MAs were examined by thin section electron microscopy, microtubules of normal diameter were seen. No aggregated material appeared associated with the walls of the microtubules, which might have been expected if the fluorescent protein was nonspecifically adsorbed to the microtubules. The results of these experiments demonstrate that isolated, stabilized MAs support the growth of new microtubules from the spindle poles while labile spindles, present in lysed cells, incorporate fluorescent tubulin throughout the spindle and asters. The significance of these results for hypotheses concerning microtubule assembly and disassembly during mitosis is discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: mitosis ; phosphorylation ; protein phosphatase ; okadaic acid ; mitotic apparatus ; sea urchin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A protein component of isolated mitotic apparatus having a relative molecular mass of 62,000 (p62) is a substrate of a calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase, and the phosphorylation of p62 in vitro correlates directly with microtubule disassembly. In vivo experiments have determined the phosphorylation of p62 increases after fertilization; maximum incorporation of phosphate occurs during late metaphase/early anaphase and decreases thereafter. Because the level of p62 is constant throughout the cell cycle [Johnston and Sloboda, 1992: J. Cell Biol. 119:843-54] the decrease in phosphorylation of p62 observed after anaphase onset is most likely due to the action of a phosphatase. By examination of the relative amount of phosphorylated p62 which remained radiolabeled as a function of time using a standard in vitro phosphorylation assay, the activity of a phosphoprotein phosphatase capable of dephosphorylating p62 in the isolated mitotic apparatus was observed. To characterize the p62 phosphatase, okadaic acid and calyculin A were used to inhibit the dephosphorylation of p62 in vitro. It was found that specific concentrations of okadaic acid (50-500 nM) and of calyculin A (10-100 nM) were effective at inhibiting the dephosphorylation of p62 in vitro. Lower concentrations of either inhibitor had a negligible effect on dephosphorylation of p62. These data indicate the presence of phosphoprotein phosphatase type 1 activity associated with mitotic apparatus isolated from sea urchin embryos using the procedures described here. The implications of these findings relative to our understanding of the regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis are discussed. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: mitosis ; mitotic apparatus ; sea urchin ; immunofluorescence ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A protein component of 62-kDa (p62) in the mitotic apparatus of the sea urchin embryo has been shown to be important for the proper progression of mitosis [Dinsmore and Sloboda, 1989: Cell 57:127-134]. To study the subcellular distribution of p62 during the cell cycle of sea urchin embryos, indirect immunofluorescence microscopy was used coupled to a modified detergent extraction procedure. The improved fluorescent images obtained by this procedure provide new information concerning the subcellular localization of p62 during the cell cycle that could not be obtained with previous conventional staining procedures [Johnston and Sloboda, 1992: J. Cell Biol. 119:843-854]. Using affinity purified antibodies to p62, we observed a cell cycle-dependent localization of p62 to the chromosomes/chromatin. Prior to nuclear envelope breakdown of the first or second cell cycle, p62 localizes to chromatin in the nucleus. During mitosis, p62 associates with the region of the spindle occupied by the microtubules of the mitotic apparatus. As anaphase proceeds, but before the nuclear envelope reforms, p62 becomes progressively associated with the chromosomes. Thus, p62 is incorporated into the forming interphase nucleus due to its association with chromosomes during late anaphase, rather than by active translocation into the newly formed daughter nuclei through the nuclear pores. The protein is not unique to marine embryos, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence of Y-1 cells, a mouse adrenal tumor cell line In these cells, the localization of p62 is similar to the localization of the protein in echinoderm embryos, suggesting its possible function in mitotic progression in mammalian somatic cells as well. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: tubulin ; Drosophila ; β-ecdysterne ; differentiating ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Drosophila Kc cells exposed to physiological doses of the moulting hormone, β-ecdysone, elongate, become motile, and subsequently aggregate. This pattern of morphogenesis was found to require the assembly of a microtubular cytoskeleton. Tubulin content was significantly increased in hormone-treated cells when compared to controls, as measured by a 3H-colchicine-binding assay. However, determinations of rates of tubulin synthesis and breakdown revealed no difference between control and hormone-treated cells for either parameter. When tubulin content was assayed by methods that do not depend on colchicine-binding activity, no difference between hormone-treated and control cells was observed. These results are discussed in terms of a model in which β-ecdysone affects the distribution of tubulin in “assembly-active” and “assembly-inactive” pools.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: marginal band ; spectrin ; vimentin ; surface-associated cytoskeleton ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Platinum-carbon (Pt-C) replicas of freeze-dried erythrocyte cytoskeletons of the toad, Bufo marinus, were prepared using a modified Balzers 300 system. Examination in stereo of replicas of the microtubule-containing marginal band revealed filaments projecting from the microtubule walls to form links between adjacent microtubules. These cross-bridging proteins may bundle the microtubules into the configuration of the marginal band (MB) and may also serve to stabilize the structure. The MB appears to have linkages to components of the surface-associated cytoskeleton (SAC). The SAC forms a continuous matrix that spreads across the upper and lower surfaces of the cell adjacent to the plasma membrane and extends around the outer perimeter of the MB. Thus, the SAC encapsulates the MB and the central nucleus. After lysis, the elements of the cytoskeleton remain in a configuration similar to that found in the whole cell. Spectrin (fodrin) and actin were identified by immunofluorescence in the region of the SAC. When labeled with antibodies specific for vimentin and synemin, a network of intermediate filaments can be detected in the region between the nucleus and the MB. These vimentin filaments are also enclosed within the SAC and appear in Pt-C replicas to emerge from the area of the nuclear envelope. As the filaments extend toward the periphery of the cell, they form attachments to the SAC. Attachments of intermediate filaments to both the nucleus and the SAC thus appear to anchor the nucleus in its central position within the cytoskeleton.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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